Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 185
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    Protective face mask filter capable of inactivating SARS-CoV-2, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Authors: Miguel Martí; Alberto Tuñón-Molina; Finn Lillelund Aachmann; Yukiko Muramoto; Takeshi Noda; Kazuo Takayama; Ángel Serrano-Aroca; Francisco Alvarado-Ramy; Stephen Hwang; Mohamed Sahl; Jinan Suliman; Elias Tayar; Hasan Ali Kasem; Meynard J. A. Agsalog; Bassam K. Akkarathodiyil; Ayat A. Alkhalaf; Mohamed Morhaf M. H. Alakshar; Abdulsalam Ali A. H. Al-Qahtani; Monther H. A. Al-Shedifat; Anas Ansari; Ahmad Ali Ataalla; Sandeep Chougule; Abhilash K. K. V. Gopinathan; Feroz J. Poolakundan; Sanjay U. Ranbhise; Saed M. A. Saefan; Mohamed M. Thaivalappil; Abubacker S. Thoyalil; Inayath M. Umar; Zaina Al Kanaani; Abdullatif Al Khal; Einas Al Kuwari; Adeel A. Butt; Peter Coyle; Andrew Jeremijenko; Anvar Hassan Kaleeckal; Ali Nizar Latif; Riyazuddin Mohammad Shaik; Hanan F. Abdul Rahim; Hadi M. Yassine; Gheyath K. Nasrallah; Mohamed G. Al Kuwari; Odette Chaghoury; Hiam Chemaitelly; Laith J Abu-Raddad

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.24.396028 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: bioRxiv

    Face masks have globally been accepted to be an effective protective tool to prevent bacterial and viral transmission TRANS, especially against indoor aerosol transmission TRANS. However, commercial face masks contain filters that are made of materials that are not capable of inactivating neither SARS-CoV-2 nor multidrug-resistant bacteria. Therefore, symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS individuals can infect MESHD other people even if they wear them because some viable viral or bacterial loads can escape from the masks. Furthermore, viral or bacterial contact transmission TRANS can occur after touching the mask, which constitutes an increasing source of contaminated biological waste. Additionally, bacterial pathogens contribute to the SARS-CoV-2 mediated pneumonia disease MESHD pneumonia disease HP complex and their resistance to antibiotics in pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD treatment is increasing at an alarming rate. In this regard, herein, we report the development of a novel protective non-woven face mask filter fabricated with a biofunctional coating of benzalkonium chloride that is capable of inactivating SARS-CoV-2 in one minute of contact, and the life-threatening methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Nonetheless, despite the results obtained, further studies are needed to ensure the safety and correct use of this technology for the mass production and commercialization of this broad-spectrum antimicrobial face mask filter. Our novel protective non-woven face mask filter would be useful for many health care workers and researchers working in this urgent and challenging field.

    The Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative reveals significant reductions in invasive bacterial infections MESHD during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD

    Authors: Angela B Brueggemann; Melissa J Jansen van Rensburg; David Shaw; Noel D McCarthy; Keith A Jolley; Martin CJ Maiden; Mark PG van der Linden; Ali Jafarpour; Seyedeh elham Mortazavi; Fatemeh Ghodratpour; Hanieh Behravan; Mohammad Khazeni; Seyed Amir Momeni; Issa Jahanzad; Abdolvahab Moradi; Alijan Tabarraei; Sadegh Ali Azimi; Ebrahim Kord; Seyed Mohammad Hashemi-Shahri; Azarakhsh Azaran; Farid Yousefi; Zakiye Mokhames; Alireza Soleimani; Shokouh Ghafari; Masood Ziaee; Shahram Habibzadeh; Farhad Jeddi; Azar Hadadi; Alireza Abdollahi; Gholam Abbas Kaydani; Saber Soltani; Talat Mokhtari-Azad; Reza Najafipour; Reza Malekzadeh; Kimia Kahrizi; Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri; Hossein Najmabadi

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.18.20225029 Date: 2020-11-20 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundStreptococcus pneumoniae HP, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis MESHD are leading causes of invasive diseases MESHD including bacteraemic pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and meningitis HP meningitis MESHD, and of secondary infections post-viral respiratory disease MESHD. They are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets. We investigated rates of invasive disease MESHD due to these pathogens during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. MethodsLaboratories in 26 countries across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae HP, H influenzae and N meningitidis from 1 January 2018 to 31 May 2020. Weekly cases in 2020 vs 2018-2019 were compared. Streptococcus agalactiae data were collected from nine laboratories for comparison to a non-respiratory pathogen. The stringency of COVID-19 MESHD containment measures was quantified by the Oxford COVID-19 MESHD Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed by Google COVID-19 MESHD Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time series modelling quantified changes in rates of invasive disease in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed. FindingsAll countries experienced a significant, sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae HP, H influenzae and N meningitidis, but not S agalactiae, in early 2020, which coincided with the introduction of COVID-19 MESHD containment measures in each country. Similar impacts were observed across most countries despite differing stringency in COVID-19 MESHD control policies. There was no evidence of a specific effect due to enforced school closures. InterpretationThe introduction of COVID-19 MESHD containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission TRANS of these bacterial respiratory pathogens, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide.

    Effective Deep Learning Approaches for Predicting COVID-19 MESHD Outcomes from Chest Computed Tomography Volumes

    Authors: Anusua Trivedi; Anthony Ortiz; Jocelyn Desbiens; Caleb Robinson; Marian Blazes; Sunil Gupta; Rahul Dodhia; Pavan Bhatraju; W. Conrad Liles; Aaron Lee; Juan M Lavista Ferres; Jane Eddleston; Chris Brookes; Christopher Harrison; Weiqi Liu; Tianyi Liu; Jin-Wen Song; Liangliang Sun; Fan Yang; Xin Zhang; Bo Zhang; Ming Shi; Fanping Meng; Yanning Song; Yongpei Yu; Jiqiu Wen; Qi Li; Qing Mao; Markus Maeurer; Alimuddin Zumla; Chen Yao; Weifen Xie; Fu-Sheng Wang; Anthony Atala; Ali Ghodsizad; Joshua M Hare

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.15.20213462 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    The rapid evolution of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in an urgent need for effective clinical tools to reduce transmission TRANS and manage severe illness. Numerous teams are quickly developing artificial intelligence approaches to these problems, including using deep learning to predict COVID-19 MESHD diagnosis and prognosis from computed tomography (CT) imaging data. In this work, we assess the value of aggregated chest CT data for COVID-19 MESHD prognosis compared to clinical metadata alone. We develop a novel patient-level algorithm to aggregate the chest CT volume into a 2D representation that can be easily integrated with clinical metadata to distinguish Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia HP ( COVID-19 MESHD+) from other cases of viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and normal healthy chest CT volumes with state-of-the-art performance SERO. Furthermore, we present a multitask model for joint segmentation of different classes of pulmonary lesions MESHD present in COVID-19 MESHD infected lungs MESHD that can outperform individual segmentation models for each task. We directly compare this multitask segmentation approach to combining feature-agnostic volumetric CT classification feature maps with clinical metadata for predicting mortality. These approaches enable the automated extraction of clinically relevant features from chest CT volumes for risk stratification of COVID-19 MESHD+ patients.

    Mass Flow Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 for quantified COVID-19 MESHD Risk Analysis

    Authors: Gjalt Huppes; Ruben Huele

    id:2010.07826v1 Date: 2020-10-15 Source: arXiv

    How may exposure risks to SARS-CoV-2 be assessed quantitatively? The material metabolism approach of Industrial Ecology can be applied to the mass flows of these virions by their numbers, as a key step in the analysis of the current pandemic. Several transmission TRANS routes of SARS-2 from emission by a person to exposure of another person have been modelled and quantified. Start is a COVID-19 MESHD illness progression model specifying rising emissions by an infected person: the human virion factory. The first route covers closed spaces, with an emission, concentration, and decay model quantifying exposure. A next set of routes covers person-to-person contacts mostly in open spaces, modelling the spatial distribution of exhales towards inhalation. These models also cover incidental exposures, like coughs HP and sneezes HP, and exposure through objects. Routes through animal contacts, excrements, and food, have not been quantified. Potential exposures differ by six orders of magnitude. Closed rooms, even with reasonably (VR 2) to good (VR 5) ventilation, constitute the major exposure risks. Close person-to-person contacts of longer duration create two orders of magnitude lower exposure risks. Open spaces may create risks an order of magnitude lower again. Burst of larger droplets may cause a common cold but not viral pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD as the virions in such droplets cannot reach the alveoli. Fomites have not shown viable viruses in hospitals, let alone infections. Infection by animals might be possible, as by cats and ferrets kept as pets. These results indicate priority domains for individual and collective measures. The wide divergence in outcomes indicates robustness to most modelling and data improvements, hardly leading to major changes in relative exposure potentials. However, models and data can substantially be improved.

    Respiratory disease MESHD in cats associated with human-to-cat transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in the UK

    Authors: Margaret J Hosie; Ilaria Epifano; Vanessa Herder; Richard Orton; Andrew Stevenson; Natasha Johnson; Emma MacDonald; Dawn Dunbar; Michael McDonald; Fiona Howie; Bryn Tennant; Darcy Herrity; Ana C Filipe; Daniel G Streicker; Brian J Willett; Pablo R Murcia; Ruth F Jarrett; David L Robertson; William Weir; - COVID-19 Genomics UK Consortium; Raiees Andrabi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.23.309948 Date: 2020-09-23 Source: bioRxiv

    Two cats from different COVID-19 MESHD-infected households in the UK were found to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 from humans, demonstrated by immunofluorescence, in situ hybridisation, reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and viral genome sequencing. Lung tissue collected post-mortem from cat 1 displayed pathological and histological findings consistent with viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antigens and RNA. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in an oropharyngeal swab collected from cat 2 that presented with rhinitis HP rhinitis MESHD and conjunctivitis HP. High throughput sequencing of the virus from cat 2 revealed that the feline viral genome contained five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) compared to the nearest UK human SARS-CoV-2 sequence, and this human virus contained eight SNPs compared to the original Wuhan-Hu-1 reference. An analysis of the viral genome of cat 2 together with nine other feline-derived SARS-CoV-2 sequences from around the world revealed no shared cat-specific mutations. These findings indicate that human-to-cat transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 occurred during the COVID-19 MESHD pandemic in the UK, with the infected cats developing mild or severe respiratory disease MESHD. Given the versatility of the new coronavirus, it will be important to monitor for human-to-cat, cat-to-cat and cat-to-human transmission TRANS.

    COVID-19 MESHD: Epidemiology and Preventive Measures in Jiangsu Province, China

    Authors: Yi Chen; Jiashu Liu; Changrui Yang; Aihong Zhang; Zisheng Ai

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-80110/v1 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background To discuss the epidemiological features of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD( COVID-19 MESHD) and prevention measures in Jiangsu Province. Methods Information on all novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP confirmed cases TRANS in Jiangsu was collected from the official website of Jiangsu Commission of Health. All data are entered into Excel and Python3 for statistical analysis. Epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP confirmed cases TRANS from January 10, 2020 to March 18th in Jiangsu province were retrospectively analyzed. Meanwhile, the preventive measures of Jiangsu Commission of Health and the people's Government of Jiangsu Province were also analyzed. Results 631 COVID-19 MESHD cases were diagnosed in Jiangsu Province, covering 13 districts in Jiangsu. Before February 1, the confirmed cases TRANS were mainly imported cases, and after February 1, community transmission TRANS cases became main part of confirmed cases TRANS. There were more male TRANS patients than females TRANS, and most patients were in the group of 30-70 years old, 49 patients (7.8%) with mild symptom and 572 patients (90.6%) with common type accounted for the majority. The cumulative mortality rate was 0% and the cure rate was 100%. Reasonable treatment, timely and effective preventive measures were taken to effectively improve cure rate and to prevent the spread of the epidemic, all measures ensure the health and life safety of the people. Conclusion The preventive measures in Jiangsu Province were timely and effective, the epidemic situation in Jiangsu Province had been well controlled and cured.

    COVID-19 MESHD outbreak, social distancing and mass testing in Kenya - Insights from a mathematical model 

    Authors: Rachel Waema Mbogo; John W. Oddhiambo

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-77523/v1 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    As reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), the world is currently facing a devastating pandemic of a novel coronavirus ( COVID -19), which started as an outbreak of pneumonia HP neumonia MESHDof unknown cause in the Wuhan city of China in December 2019. Within days and weeks, the COVID -19 pandemic had spread to over 210 countries. By the end of April, COVID -19 had caused over three million confirmed cases TRANS of i nfections MESHDand 230,000 fatalities globally. The trend poses a huge threat to global public health. Understanding the early transmission TRANS dynamics of the i nfection MESHDand evaluating the effectiveness of control measures is crucial for assessing the potential for sustained transmission TRANS to occur in new areas.We employed a SEIHCRD delay differential mathematical transmission TRANS model with reported Kenyan data on cases of COVID -19 to estimate how transmission TRANS varies over time and which population to target for mass testing. The model is concise in structure, and successfully captures the course of the COVID -19 outbreak, and thus sheds light on understanding the trends of the outbreak and the vulnerable populations. The results from the model gives insights to the government on the population to target for mass testing. The government should target population in the informal settlement for mass testing. People with pre-existing medical and non-medical conditions should be identified and given special medical care.  With aggressive effective mass testing and adhering to the government directives and guidelines, we can get rid of COVID -19 epidemic.

    Further Evaluation of the Mother-to- Child TRANS Transmission TRANS Potential of SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD During Pregnancy: A Retrospective Study

    Authors: Xuechen Yu; Huijun Chen; Fan Luo; Juanjuan Guo; Yuan Qiao; Wei Zhang; Jiafu Li; Dongchi Zhao; Dan Xu; Qing Gong; Lingyun Yang; Pu Yang; Yuming Cao; Xue Wen; Wei Hou; Huixia Yang; Yuanzhen Zhang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-77490/v1 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background. This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD in perinatal period, and systematically assess the mother-to- child TRANS transmission TRANS potential of SARS-CoV-2Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 23 pregnant patients in late pregnancy. Clinical specimens, including maternal and neonatal throat swabs, vaginal secretions, placenta tissues, and breast milk MESHD, were collected for the nucleic acid test of the virus. Pregnancy outcomes and neonatal results were also analyzed.Results. Overall, 10 patients (43.5%) had no symptoms and were found by routine chest CT. Complications appeared after COVID-19 MESHD onset included PROM (17.4%) and fetal distress HP (4.3%). Typical signs of viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were recorded in chest CT of all patients. No patients developed severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP or died of COVID-19 MESHD. All of 25 neonates were born alive. No severe asphyxia or neonatal HP asphyxia or neonatal MESHD neonatal death MESHD was observed. Although three neonates were tested transiently suspected positive for SARS-CoV-2 after being transferred to neonatology department, no newborns developed COVID-19 MESHD. Out of various clinical specimens tested, only a rectal swab sample from one pregnant patient was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, while all the other specimens including first sample of newborn throat swabs were negative. Pathological examination found no obvious chorioamnionitis MESHD or clear virus inclusion body in placenta, and ACE2 (angiotension-converting enzyme 2) was expressed at a moderate level.Conclusions. As in the general population of COVID-19 MESHD, asymptomatic TRANS patients were present in pregnant women. There is no confirmatory evidence for mother-to- child TRANS transmission TRANS in COVID-19 MESHD patients with late pregnancy.

    COVID-19 MESHD outbreak, social distancing and mass testing in Kenya - Insights from a mathematical model 

    Authors: Rachel Waema Mbogo; John W. Odhiambo

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-77523/v2 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    As reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), the world is currently facing a devastating pandemic of a novel coronavirus ( COVID -19), which started as an outbreak of pneumonia HP neumonia MESHDof unknown cause in the Wuhan city of China in December 2019. Within days and weeks, the COVID -19 pandemic had spread to over 210 countries. By the end of April, COVID -19 had caused over three million confirmed cases TRANS of i nfections MESHDand 230,000 fatalities globally. The trend poses a huge threat to global public health. Understanding the early transmission TRANS dynamics of the i nfection MESHDand evaluating the effectiveness of control measures is crucial for assessing the potential for sustained transmission TRANS to occur in new areas.We employed a SEIHCRD delay differential mathematical transmission TRANS model with reported Kenyan data on cases of COVID -19 to estimate how transmission TRANS varies over time and which population to target for mass testing. The model is concise in structure, and successfully captures the course of the COVID -19 outbreak, and thus sheds light on understanding the trends of the outbreak and the vulnerable populations. The results from the model gives insights to the government on the population to target for mass testing. The government should target population in the informal settlement for mass testing. People with pre-existing medical and non-medical conditions should be identified and given special medical care.  With aggressive effective mass testing and adhering to the government directives and guidelines, we can get rid of COVID -19 epidemic.

    Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors and Predictive Value of COVID-19 MESHD Pneumonia HP: A Retrospective Study of 173 Patients in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Yang Zhang; Jun Xue; Mi Yan; Jing Chen; Hai Liu; Shao-Bo Wang; Jian-Xing Luo; Fang Yang; Jian-Yuan Tang; Xiao-Yu Hu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-76134/v1 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 MESHD is a globally emerging infectious disease MESHD. As the global epidemic continues to spread, the risk of COVID-19 MESHD transmission TRANS and diffusion in the world will also remain. Currently, several studies describing its clinical characteristics have focused on the initial outbreak, but rarely to the later stage. Here we described clinical characteristics, risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome in patients with COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD from Wuhan. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD admitted to Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 13 to March 8, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome and establish predictive models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the predictive value of above models.Results: 106 (61.3%) of the patients were female TRANS. The mean age TRANS of study populations was 62.0 years, of whom 73 (42.2%) had underlying comorbidities mainly including hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (24.9%). The most common symptoms on admission were fever MESHD fever HP (67.6%) and cough HP (60.1%), digestive symptoms (22.0%) was also very common. Older age TRANS (OR: 3.420; 95%Cl: 1.415-8.266; P=0.006), diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP (OR: 0.143; 95%Cl: 0.033-0.611; P=0.009) and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD (OR: 4.769; 95%Cl: 2.019-11.266; P=0.000) were associated with severe illness on admission; the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of predictive model were 0.860 (95%CI: 0.802-0.918; P=0.000). Older age TRANS (OR: 0.309; 95%Cl: 0.142-0.674; P=0.003), leucopenia (OR: 0.165; 95%Cl: 0.034-0.793; P=0.025), increased lactic dehydrogenase (OR: 0.257; 95%Cl: 0.100-0.659; P=0.005) and interleukins-6 levels (OR: 0.294; 95%Cl: 0.099-0.872; P=0.027) were associated with poor in-hospital outcome; AUC of predictive model were 0.752 (95%CI: 0.681-0.824; P=0.000).Conclusion: Older patients with diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD need early identification and timely intervention to prevent the progression to severe COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. However, older patients with leucopenia, increased lactic dehydrogenase and interleukins-6 levels are at a high risk for poor in-hospital outcome.Trial registration: ChiCTR2000029549

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