Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    The Spectrum of Cardiovascular Complications in COVID-19- A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Authors: Raja Shakeel Mushtaque; Rabia Mushtaque; Shahbano Baloch; Aadil Raza; Haseeb Bhatti; Zohaib Khan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0257.v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: Preprints.org

    A newly identified novel coronavirus named as severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD-related coronavirus2 (SARS‐CoV 2) has given rise to the global pandemic. SARS-CoV2 which causes coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), is a positive-stranded RNA virus with nucleocapsid. It binds to host angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2) receptor through surface glycoprotein (S protein). These ACE 2 receptors are attached to the cell membranes of many organs. Thus, COVID-19 does not only result in acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD but also affects multiple organ systems, requiring a multidisciplinary approach to manage this disease MESHD. COVID-19 can damage the myocardial cells and result in fulminant myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP, acute cardiac injury, cardiomyopathy MESHD cardiomyopathy HP, heart failure MESHD, cardiogenic shock MESHD cardiogenic shock HP, or arrhythmia HP. COVID-19 seeds harmful immune response through cytokine storm leading to indirect organ damage. In this literature review, the available data is comprehended regarding cardiovascular complications in COVID-19, and the correlation of biomarkers with the disease MESHD activity is discussed. This literature review also highlights the important treatment options and outcomes of the individual study.

    Characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to Swedish intensive care units for COVID-19 during the first 60 days of the 2020 pandemic: a registry-based, multicenter, observational study.

    Authors: Michelle S Chew; Patrik Blixt; Rasmus Ahman; Lars Engerstrom; Henrik Andersson; Ritva Kiiski Berggren; Anders Tegnell; Sarah McIntyre

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169599 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background The mortality of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 is unclear due to variable censoring and substantial proportions of undischarged patients at follow-up. Nationwide data have not been previously reported. We studied the outcomes of Swedish patients at 30 days after ICU admission. Methods We conducted a registry-based cohort study of all adult TRANS patients admitted to Swedish ICUs from 6 March-6 May, 2020 with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 disease MESHD and complete 30-day follow-up. Data including baseline characteristics, comorbidities, intensive care treatments, organ failures and outcomes were collected. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. A multivariable model was used to determine the independent association between potential predictor variables and the primary outcome. Results A total of 1563 patients were identified. Median ICU length of stay was 12 (5-21) days, and fifteen patients remained in ICU at the time of follow-up. Median age TRANS was 61 (52-69), median Simplified Acute Physiology Score III (SAPS III) was 53 (46-59), and 66.8% had at least one comorbidity. Median PaO2/FiO2 on admission was 97.5 (75.0-140.6) mmHg, 74.7% suffered from moderate to severe acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS). The 30-day all-cause mortality was 26.7%. The majority of deaths MESHD occurred during ICU admission. Age TRANS, male TRANS sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.5 [1.1-2.1]), SAPS III score (aOR 1.3 [1.2-1.4]), severe ARDS (aOR 3.1 [2.0-4.8], specific COVID-19 pharmacotherapy (aOR 1.4 [1.0-1.9]), and CRRT (aOR 2.2 [1.6-3.0]), were associated with increased mortality. With the exception of chronic lung disease HP lung disease MESHD, the presence of comorbidities was not independently associated with mortality. Conclusions Thirty-day mortality rate in COVID-19 patients admitted to Swedish intensive care units is generally lower than previously reported. Mortality appears to be driven by age TRANS, baseline disease MESHD severity, the degree of organ failure and ICU treatment, rather than preexisting comorbidities.

    Association of mental disorders with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe health outcomes: a nationwide cohort study

    Authors: Ha-Lim Jeon; Jun Soo Kwon; So-Hee Park; Ju-Young Shin

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20169201 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: No epidemiological data exists for the association between mental disorders and the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) severity. Aims: To evaluate the association between mental disorders and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe outcomes following COVID-19. Methods: We performed a cohort study using the Korean COVID-19 patient database based on the national health insurance data. Each patient with a mental or behavioral disorder (diagnosed during six months prior to the first SARS-CoV-2 test) was matched by age TRANS, sex, and Charlson comorbidity index with up to four patients without mental disorders. SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk and risk of death MESHD or severe events (intensive care unit admission, use of mechanical ventilation, and acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD) post- infection MESHD were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 230,565 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2, 33,653 (14.6%) had mental disorders, 928/33,653 (2.76%) tested positive, and 56/928 (6.03%) died. In multivariate analysis with the matched cohort, there was no association between mental disorders and SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.12); however, a higher risk was associated with schizophrenia HP-related disorders (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81). Among confirmed cases TRANS, mortality risk significantly increased in patients with mental disorders (OR, 1.84, 95% CI, 1.07-3.15). Conclusion: Mental disorders are likely contributing factors of mortality following COVID-19. Although the infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk did not increase in overall mental disorders, patients with schizophrenia HP-related disorders were more vulnerable to the infection MESHD.

    Alveolitis in severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP is driven by self-sustaining circuits between infected alveolar macrophages and T cells

    Authors: Rogan A Grant; Luisa Morales-Nebreda; Nikolay S Markov; Suchitra Swaminathan; Estefany R Guzman; Darryl A Abbott; Helen K Donnelly; Alvaro Donayre; Isaac A Goldberg; Zasu M Klug; Nicole Borkowski; Ziyan Lu; Hermon Kihshen; Yuliya Politanska; Lango Sichizya; Mengjia Kang; Ali Shilatifard; Chao Qi; A Christine Argento; Jacqueline M Kruser; Elizabeth S Malsin; Chiagozie O Pickens; Sean Smith; James M Walter; Anna E Pawlowski; Daniel Schneider; Prasanth Nannapaneni; Hiam Abdala-Valencia; Ankit Bharat; Cara J Gottardi; GR Scott Budinger; Alexander A Misharin; Benjamin David Singer; Richard G Wunderink; - The NU SCRIPT Study Investigators

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.238188 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: bioRxiv

    Some patients infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) develop severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and the acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS). Distinct clinical features in these patients have led to speculation that the immune response to virus in the SARS-CoV-2-infected alveolus differs from other types of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from 86 patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced respiratory failure HP and 252 patients with known or suspected pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP from other pathogens and subjected them to flow cytometry and bulk transcriptomic profiling. We performed single cell RNA-Seq in 5 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples collected from patients with severe COVID-19 within 48 hours of intubation. In the majority of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD at the onset of mechanical ventilation, the alveolar space is persistently enriched in alveolar macrophages and T cells without neutrophilia HP. Bulk and single cell transcriptomic profiling suggest SARS-CoV-2 infects alveolar macrophages that respond by recruiting T cells. These T cells release interferon-gamma to induce inflammatory cytokine release from alveolar macrophages and further promote T cell recruitment. Our results suggest SARS-CoV-2 causes a slowly unfolding, spatially-limited alveolitis in which alveolar macrophages harboring SARS-CoV-2 transcripts and T cells form a positive feedback loop that drives progressive alveolar inflammation MESHD.

    COVID19: An Opinion on Animal Infections MESHD and Role of Veterinarians in One Health Perspective

    Authors: SWAGATIKA PRIYADARSINI; ROHIT SINGH; ARUN SOMAGOND; PUJA MECH

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0069.v1 Date: 2020-08-03 Source: preprints.org

    Coronavirus disease MESHD is the current cause of global concern. The massive outbreak of COVID-19 has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare this as a pandemic situation. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 leading to acute respiratory distress HP and substantial mortality in humans. However, the first laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 in a pet dog in Hong Kong has shown the possibility of human-to-animal transmission TRANS (zooanthroponotic) of the virus. Thereafter, many animals including cat, tiger, lion and mink have also been reported to acquire the virus in several countries. In this situation the role of veterinarian assumes important in treating the animals, helping in food security, disease MESHD diagnosis, surveillance and boosting the economy of livestock stakeholders at the grassroot level. In the absence of any selective vaccine or drug against SARS-CoV-2, the world is anticipated to triumph over this pandemic with collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach linking human, animal and environmental health. This article gives an insight into the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in animals, including the factors behind the shuffling of the virus among variety of species and also emphasizes on the role of veterinarian in managing and safeguarding public health so as to pave the way for adopting one health approach in order to conserve biodiversity.

    Rationale for the Use of Radiation-Activated Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD

    Authors: Isabel Tovar Martín; Rosa Guerrero; Jesús Joaquín Lopez-Peñalver; José Expósito; José Mariano Ruiz de Almodóvar

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0035.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: preprints.org

    Previously we have shown that the combination of radiotherapy with human-umbilical-cord-derived mesenchymal stem-cell therapy significantly reduces the size of the xenotumours in mice, both in the directly irradiated tumour and in the distant non-irradiated tumour or in its metastasis. We have also shown that exosomes secreted from mesenchymal stem-cells pre-irradiated with 2 Gy are quantitatively, functionally and qualitatively different from the exosomes secreted from non-irradiated mesenchymal cells and also that proteins, exosomes and microvesicles secreted by mesenchymal cells suffer a dramatic change when cells are activated or non-activated, with the amount of protein present in the exosomes of the pre-irradiated cells being 1.5-fold times greater compared to those from non-irradiated cells. This finding correlates with a dramatic increase in the anti-tumour activity of the exosomes secreted by pre-irradiated mesenchymal-cells. After the proteomic analysis of the load of the exosomes released from both irradiated and non-irradiated cells, we conclude that annexin A1 is the most important and significant difference between the exosomes released by the cells in either status. Knowing the role of annexin A1 in the control of hypoxia MESHD and inflammation MESHD which is characteristic of acute- distress-respiratory HP syndrome MESHD, we have designed a hypothetical therapeutic strategy, based on the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells stimulated with radiation, to alleviate the symptoms of patients who, due to pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP caused by COVID-19, require the care of an intensive care unit for patients with life-threatening conditions. With this hypothesis, we would seek to improve the patients’ respiratory capacity and increase the expectations of their cure.

    Treatment of sepsis MESHD sepsis HP-related Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD with Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide

    Authors: Jihad G. Youssef; Sami Said; George Youssef; Matthew J. Javitt; Jonathan C Javitt

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52237/v1 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: To assess the clinical safety and possible effectiveness of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in the treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD (ARDS) related to sepsisMethods: Under FDA Investigational New Drug clearance, 8 patients with ARDS related to sepsis MESHD sepsis HP were treated with 50 pmole/kg/hr – 100 pmole/kg/hr of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide by intravenous infusion for 12 hours. All patients were on mechanical ventilation and full telemetery.Results: No drug-related serious adverse events were seen. Hypotension was seen in association with two infusions and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP in association with one, but did not necessitate cessation of therapy. Bigeminy was seen in association with one infusion without sequelae. Seven of eight patients demonstrated a successful course during intensive care and were successfully removed from mechanical ventilation and discharged from intensive care. The eighth patient succumbed to purulent secretions in the lungs. Of those who were discharged from the ICU, six demonstrated successful 30 day survival. The seventh died from a cerebral infract at day 30, deemed unrelated to treatment with VIP. Serum levels of Tumor Necrosis MESHD Factor α were obtained in 6 patients at baseline and 24 hours and were seen to decrease with treatment in five patients.Conclusions: Initial clinical results of treatment with VIP in patients with ARDS demonstrated a safety profile consistent with previous studies in normal volunteers. The successful clinical course seen in 7 of 8 patients in the setting of an expected 50% survival may suggest that VIP shows promise in the treatment of other infectious conditions that damage the pulmonary epithelium, particularly COVID-19.Registration: This clinical trial was registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov under NCT00004494. Trial was registered before the first patient was enrolled.

    Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for patients with severe COVID-19: a retrospective multi-center study

    Authors: Jiao Liu; Yizhu Chen; Ranran Li; Xuan Dong; Yizhong Li; Qianghong Xu; Huibin Feng; Sisi Huang; Jun Guo; Lidi Zhang; Xiaofei Ye; Wei Zhu; Hangxiang Du; Yong’an Liu; Tao Wang; Limin Chen; Zhenliang Wen; Jean-Louis Teboul; Dechang Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52428/v1 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is commonly used to treat severe COVID-19, although the clinical outcomes remain unclear. This study evaluated the effectiveness of IVIG treatment for severe COVID-19.Methods: This retrospective multi-center study evaluated 28-day mortality and time for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance in severe COVID-19 patients with or without IVIG treatment. Propensity score matching was used to control confounding factors. Logistic regression and competing risk analyses were performed.Results: The study included 850 patients (421 patients received IVIG). No significant differences in 28-day mortality or time for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance were observed (p=0.357 and p=0.123, respectively). High-dose of IVIG treatment (>10 g/day) (n=27) was associated with decreased 28-day mortality (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14–0.77; p=0.011). The IVIG group had prolonged median hospitalization, less shock MESHD shock HP, and higher incidences of acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD, myocardial injury. Furthermore, IVIG-treated patients were more likely to require non-invasive mechanical ventilation and less likely to require invasive mechanical ventilation.Conclusions: IVIG treatment for severe COVID-19 patients was not associated with significant improvements in 28-day mortality or time for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance. However, some improvements in 28-day survival were observed for high-dose IVIG treatment (>10 g/day).

    Mortality rate among critically ill patients with COVID-19 in a medical system with adequate hospital resources: a prospective observational study

    Authors: Christina Routsi; Eleni Magira; Stelios Kokkoris; Ilias Siembos; Charikleia Vrettou; Dimitris Zervakis; Eleni Ischaki; Sotiris Malahias; Ioanna Sigala; Andreas Asimakos; Theodora Daidou; Panagiotis Kaltsas; Evangelia Douka; Adamandia Sotiriou; Vassiliki Markaki; Prodromos Temberikidis; Apostolos Koroneos; Panagiotis Politis; Zafiria Mastora; Efrosini Dima; Theodoros Tsoutsouras; Ioannis Papahatzakis; Panagiota Gioni; Athina Strilakou; Aikaterini Maraguti; Eleftheria Mizi; Ageliki Kanavou; Aikaterini Sarri; Evdokia Gavrielatou; Spyros Mentzelopoulos; Ioannis Kalomenidis; Vassilios Papastamopoulos; Anastasia Kotanidou; Spyros G Zakynthinos

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52242/v1 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: For critically ill patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) who require intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mortality rates vary widely depending on many factors, among which hospital resources and clinical setting seem important. We sought to determine the outcome of critically ill patients admitted in the usual multidisciplinary ICUs of a big referral for COVID-19 tertiary-care hospital with adequate resources.Methods: We performed a prospective observational study of all adult TRANS patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to four COVID-designated ICUs at Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece, from March 11 to April 27, 2020.Results: Among 50 critically ill patients, ICU and hospital mortality for the entire cohort was 32% (16/50), whereas 66% (33/50) of patients were discharged alive from the ICU and 2% (1/50) were still treated in the ICU until June 16, 2020. ICU and hospital mortality for those who received invasive mechanical ventilation was 39% (16/41). Patients who eventually died had already increased risk of death MESHD on ICU admission, as suggested by the high values of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, the presence of current malignancy and occurrence of cardiac arrest HP in 44% (7/16) of patients, and the general need for circulatory support by noradrenaline. Median PaO2/FiO2 on ICU admission for the entire cohort was 121 mmHg [interquartile range (IQR), 86-171 mmHg] and most patients had moderate and severe acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS) according to the Berlin Definition. The primary cause of death MESHD of all patients was multi-organ failure, most commonly due to sepsis MESHD sepsis HP, whereas none died from refractory hypoxemia HP, neurologic dysfunction or withdrawal of life support. Hospital stay was long in patients who survived [median 24 days (IQR, 15-35 days)] and was frequently complicated by bacteremias MESHD bacteremias HP [36% (12/33)].Conclusion: Severely ill COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe ARDS may have equal or even lower mortality rates compared to ARDS due to other causes, when they are admitted in general ICUs with experienced and adequate staff without limitations in hospital resources, where established ARDS therapies are used. 

    Montelukast in Hospitalized Patients Diagnosed with COVID-19

    Authors: Ahsan Khan; Christian Misdary; Nikhil Yegya-Raman; Sinae Kim; Navaneeth Narayanan; Sheraz Siddiqui; Padmini Salgame; Jared Radbel; Frank De Groote; Carl Michel; Janice Mehnert; Caleb Hernandez; Thomas Braciale; Jyoti Malhotra; Michael A. Gentile; Salma K. Jabbour

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52430/v1 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Several therapeutic agents have been assessed for the treatment of COVID-19, but few approaches have been proven efficacious. Because leukotriene receptor antagonists such as montelukast have been shown to reduce both cytokine release and lung inflammation MESHD in preclinical models of viral influenza and acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD, we hypothesized that therapy with montelukast would reduce clinical deterioration MESHD as measured by the COVID-19 Ordinal Scale.Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of COVID-19 confirmed hospitalized patients treated with or without montelukast. We used “clinical deterioration” as the primary endpoint, a binary outcome defined as any increase in the Ordinal Scale value from Day 1 to Day 3 of hospital stay, as these data were uniformly available for all admitted patients before hospital discharge. Rates of clinical deterioration MESHD between the montelukast and non-montelukast groups were compared using the Fisher’s exact test. Univariate logistic regression was also used to assess the association between montelukast use and clinical deterioration MESHD.Results A total of 92 patients were analyzed, 30 received montelukast at the discretion of the treating physician and 62 patients who did not receive montelukast. Patients receiving montelukast experienced significantly fewer events of clinical deterioration MESHD compared to patients not receiving montelukast (10% vs 32%, p = 0.022). Sensitivity SERO analysis among those without asthma MESHD asthma HP showed a trend toward fewer clinical deterioration MESHD events in the montelukast group than non-montelukast groups (11% vs 33%, p = 0.077). Sensitivity SERO analysis among those who did not receive azithromycin showed fewer clinical deterioration MESHD events in the montelukast group vs. non-montelukast groups (8% vs 32%, p = 0.030).Conclusions Our findings suggest that montelukast associates with a reduction in clinical deterioration MESHD for COVID-19 confirmed patients as measured on the COVID-19 Ordinal Scale. Montelukast may have activity in COVID-19 infection MESHD, and future efforts should evaluate this potential therapy.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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