Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (17)

Syndrome (13)

Death (10)

Disease (9)

Fever (8)


Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Dissemination and co-circulation of SARS-CoV2 subclades exhibiting enhanced transmission TRANS associated with increased mortality in Western Europe and the United States

    Authors: Yuan Hu; Lee W Riley

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.13.20152959 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: medRxiv

    Mechanisms underlying the acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS)-like clinical manifestations leading to deaths MESHD in patients who develop COVID-19 remain uncharacterized. While multiple factors could influence these clinical outcomes, we explored if differences in transmissibility TRANS and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV2 variants could contribute to these terminal clinical consequences of COVID-19. We analyzed 34,412 SARS-CoV2 sequences deposited in the Global Initiative for Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) SARS-CoV2 sequence database to determine if regional differences in circulating strain variants correlated with increased mortality in Europe, the United States, and California. We found two subclades descending from the Wuhan HU-1 strain that rapidly became dominant in Western Europe and the United States. These variants contained nonsynonymous nucleotide mutations in the Orf1ab segment encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (C14408T), the spike protein gene (A23403G), and Orf1a (G25563T), which resulted in non-conservative amino acid substitutions P323L, D614G, and Q57H, respectively. In Western Europe, the A23403G-C14408T subclade dominated, while in the US, the A23403G-C14408T-G25563T mutant became the dominant strain in New York and parts of California. The high cumulative frequencies of both subclades showed inconsistent but significant association with high cumulative CFRs in some of the regions. When the frequencies of the subclades were analyzed by their 7-day moving averages across each epidemic, we found co-circulation of both subclades to temporally correlate with peak mortality periods. We postulate that in areas with high numbers of these co-circulating subclades, a person may get serially infected. The second infection MESHD may trigger a hyperinflammatory response similar to the antibody SERO-dependent enhancement (ADE) response, which could explain the ARDS-like manifestations observed in people with co-morbidity, who may not mount sufficient levels of neutralizing antibodies SERO against the first infection MESHD. Further studies are necessary but the implication of such a mechanism will need to be considered for all current COVID-19 vaccine designs.

    Placental SARS-CoV-2 in a patient with mild COVID-19 disease MESHD

    Authors: Albert L. Hsu; Minhui Guan; Eric Johannesen; Amanda J. Stephens; Nabila Khaleel; Nikki Kagan; Breanna C. Tuhlei; Xiu-Feng Wan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20149344 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The full impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy remains uncharacterized. Current literature suggests minimal maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality,1 and COVID-19 manifestations appear similar between pregnant and non-pregnant women.2 We present a case of placental SARS-CoV-2 virus in a woman with an uncomplicated pregnancy and mild COVID-19 disease MESHD. Methods: A pregnant woman was evaluated at University of Missouri Women and Childrens Hospital. Institutional review board approval was obtained; information was obtained from medical records. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect SARS-CoV-2. A gynecological pathologist examined the placenta and performed histolopathology. Sections were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded; slides were cut and subjected to hematoxylin-and-eosin or immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. IHC was performed with specific monoclonal antibodies SERO to detect SARS-CoV-2 antigen or to identify trophoblasts. Findings: A 29 year-old multigravida presented at 40-4/7 weeks for labor induction. With myalgias MESHD myalgias HP two days prior, she tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Her parents TRANS were in self-isolation for COVID-19 positivity; husband was asymptomatic TRANS and tested negative for COVID-19, but exposed to a workplace (meatpacking facility) outbreak. Prenatal course was uncomplicated, with no gestational hypertension MESHD hypertension HP. She was afebrile and asymptomatic TRANS with normal vital signs throughout hospitalization. Her myalgias MESHD myalgias HP improved prior to admission. A liveborn male TRANS infant was delivered vaginally. Newborn course was uneventful; he was appropriate for gestational age TRANS, physical was unremarkable, and he was discharged home at 36 hours. COVID-19 RT-PCR test was negative at 24 hours. At one-week follow-up, newborn was breastfeeding well, with no fevers MESHD fevers HP or respiratory distress HP. Overall placental histology is consistent with acute uterine hypoxia MESHD (subchorionic laminar necrosis MESHD) superimposed on chronic uterine hypoxia MESHD (extra-villous trophoblasts and focal chronic villitis). IHC using SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid-specific monoclonal antibody SERO demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 antigens throughout the placenta in chorionic villi endothelial cells, and rarely in CK7-expressing trophoblasts. Negative control placenta (November 2019 delivery) and ferret nasal turbinate tissues (not shown) were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Interpretation: In this report, SARS-CoV-2 was found in the placenta, but newborn was COVID-19 negative. Our case shows maternal vascular malperfusion, with no features of fetal vascular malperfusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of placental COVID-19 despite mild COVID-19 disease MESHD in pregnancy (with no symptoms of COVID-19 aside from myalgias MESHD myalgias HP); specifically, this patient had no fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, or shortness of breath, but only myalgias MESHD myalgias HP and sick contacts. Despite her having mild COVID-19 disease MESHD in pregnancy, we demonstrate placental vasculopathy and presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus across the placenta. Evidence of placental COVID-19 raises concern for possible placental vasculopathy (potentially leading to fetal growth restriction, pre-eclampsia MESHD eclampsia HP, and other pregnancy complications MESHD) as well as for potential vertical transmission TRANS -- especially for pregnant women who may be exposed to COVID-19 in early pregnancy. Further studies are urgently needed, to determine whether women with mild, pre-symptomatic, or asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 may have SARS-CoV-2 virus that can cross the placenta, cause fetal vascular malperfusion, and possibly affect the fetus. This raises important public health and public policy questions of whether future pregnancy guidance should include stricter pandemic precautions, such as screening for a wider array of COVID-19 symptoms, increased antenatal surveillance, and possibly routine COVID-19 testing on a regular basis throughout pregnancy.

    COVID-19: Role of the Inflammasome

    Authors: Claudio G. Gallo; Sirio Fiorino; Giovanni Posabella; Donato Antonacci; Antonio Tropeano; Emanuele Pausini; Carlotta Pausini; Tommaso Guarniero; Marco Zancanaro

    id:202007.0246/v1 Date: 2020-07-12 Source: Preprints.org

    Covid-19 disease MESHD is caused by SARS Cov-2 virus. Despite its high transmissibility TRANS, the CFR (Case Fatality Rate) of COVID-19 seems to be lower than the SARS (9,5%) and MERS (34,4%) ones93 , but higher than the influenza one (0-1%)94,95 . The disease is asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS or paucisymptomatic in most of the patients, although in few cases it can be characterized by serious complications. The main causes of hospitalization in intensive care are represented by ALI ( Acute Lung Injury MESHD), ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD), cardiovascular problems and coagulopathies (diffuse thrombosis MESHD, microthrombosis, embolisms MESHD, myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP, arrhytmias, heart failure MESHD, stroke MESHD stroke HP)96-98, acute nephropathy99,100 and encephalopathies101. The virus presence in the vascular wall can cause endotheliitis, which triggers the process of diffuse coagulation that can lead to a worsening of the systemic inflammation MESHD. The exaggerated inflammatory response seems to be connected with the development of ARDS, MOF ( Multiple Organ Failure MESHD) and coagulopathies102-107.

    On two cases of atypical respiratory distress HP in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo months before the COVID-19 pandemic was declared: Could SARS-Cov-2 have been already spreading? Case report

    Authors: Guy-Quesney MATESO; Marius BAGUMA; Pacifique MWENE-BATU; Ghislain MAHESHE BALEMBA; Fabrice NZABARA; Samuel MAKALI; Aline BEDHA; Bonheur FURAHA; Jimmy MINANI; Christian TSHONGO MUHINDO; Espoir BWENGE MALEMBAKA; Mannix Imani MASIMANGO; Tony Akilimali SHINDANO; Justin Cirhuza CIKOMOLA; Kanigula MUBAGWA

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39772/v1 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundPredictions have been made that Africa would be the most vulnerable continent to the novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Interestingly, the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD in Africa seems to have been delayed and initially slower than in many parts of the World. Here we report on two cases which make us suspect that COVID-19 might have been present in our region before the official declaration of the disease MESHD in December 2019.Case presentationThese two cases (one 55-year-old man and one 25-year-old woman) of acute respiratory distress HP secondary to atypical pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were seen in Bukavu, in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), between September and December 2019. One patient had returned from China and the other had close contacts TRANS with travellers from China in the 2 weeks prior to the onset of symptoms TRANS. In either case, the aetiology could not be accurately determined. However, the two cases presented a clinical picture (progressive dyspnoea, preceded by dry cough MESHD cough HP and fever MESHD fever HP) and laboratory changes (procalcitonin within the normal range, slight inflammation MESHD, and lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP) compatible with a viral infection MESHD. The chest X-Rays series of the first patient showed lesions (reticulations, ground glass, and nodules ≤ 6 mm) similar to those found in COVID-19. In addition, unlike the 25-year-old female TRANS patient who had no comorbidity, the 55-year-old male TRANS patient who had hypertension MESHD hypertension HP as comorbidity, developed a more severe acute respiratory distress HP which progressed to death MESHD.ConclusionThese cases bring to the attention a number of facts which make us suspect that the COVID-19 epidemic may have already been present in the region months before the official beginning of the pandemic.

    Prediction of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors from Several Medicinal Plant Compounds by Drug Repurposing and Molecular Docking Approach.

    Authors: Sayma Farabi; Nihar Ranjan Saha; Noushin Anika Khan; Md. Hasanuzzaman

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12440024.v1 Date: 2020-06-08 Source: ChemRxiv

    Coronaviruses are endemic in humans and infections MESHD normally mild, such as the common cold MESHD but cross-species transmission TRANS has produced some unusually virulent strains which now causing viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and in serious cases even acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD and death MESHD. SARS-CoV-2 is the most threatening issue which leads the world to an uncertainty alongside thousands of regular death MESHD scenes. For this virus, death MESHD toll is increasing in. An effective vaccine to cure this virus is not yet available, thus requires concerted efforts at various scales. The viral Main Protease controls Coronavirus replication and is a proven drug discovery target for SARS-CoV-2. Here, comprehensive computational approaches including drug repurposing and molecular docking were employed to predict the efficacy of medicinal plant-based bioactive compounds against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Molecular docking was performed using PyRx-autodock vina to analyze the inhibition probability. MPP (6LU7) was docked with 90 phytochemical compounds and docking was analysed by PyRx-autodock vina, Pymol version 1.7.4.5 Edu, and Biovia Discovery Studio 4.5. Furthermore, ADME analysis along with analysis of toxicity was also investigated to check the pharmacokinetics and drug-likeness properties of the antiviral phytochemicals. Remdesivir and lopinavir were used as standards for comparison. Our analyses revealed that the top ten (Azadirachtin, -12.5kcal/mol; Rutin, -9 kcal/mol; Theaflavin, -9 kcal/mol; Astragalin, -8.8 kcal/mol; Isoquercitrin, -8.7 kcal/mol; Hyperoside, -8.6 kcal/mol; Baicalin, -8.4 kcal/mol; Saponin, -8.3 kcal/mol; Sennoside A, -8.3 kcal/mol; Aloin, -8.2 kcal/mol, while Remdesivir and Lopinavir showed -8.2 and -7.9 kcal/mol) hits might serve as potential anti- SARS-CoV-2 lead molecules for further optimization and drug development process to combat COVID-19.

    Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD (ARDS) Caused by the Novel Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19): A Practical Comprehensive Literature Review

    Authors: Francisco Montenegro; Luis Unigarro; Gustavo Paredes; Tatiana Moya; Ana Romero; Liliana Torres; Juan Carlos López; Fernando Esteban Jara González; Gustavo Del Pozo; Andrés López-Cortés; Ana Maria Diaz; Jorge Eduardo vasconez; Domenica Cevallos-Robalino; Alex Lister; Esteban Ortiz-Prado

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0045.v1 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: Preprints.org

    Introduction: The exponential growth of the SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission TRANS during the first months of 2020 has placed substantial pressure on health systems worldwide. The complications derived from the novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) vary in due to comorbidities, sex and age TRANS, with more than 50% of the patients who require some level of intensive care developing acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS). Areas covered: Various complications caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD have been identified, the most lethal being the acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD, caused most likely by the presence of severe immune cell response and the concomitant alveolus inflammation MESHD. The authors carried out an extensive and comprehensive literature review on SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, the clinical, pathological and radiological presentation as well as the current treatment strategies. Expert Opinion Elevation of inflammatory biomarkers is a common trend among seriously ill patients. The information available strongly suggests that in COVID-19 patients, their altered immune response, including a massive cytokine storm, is responsible for the further damage evidenced among ARDS patients. The increasingly high number of scientific articles and evidence available can only suggest that the individualization of each case is the norm, not all patients with acute respiratory failure HP due to COVID-19 meet the Berlin definition and therefore ARDS should be considered as a heterogeneous disease MESHD, with a wide range in the expression of its severity and clinical manifestations.

    Neonatal COVID 19 Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP: Report of the First Case in a Preterm Neonate in Mayotte, an Overseas Department of France

    Authors: Soumeth Abasse; Leila Essabar; Tereza Costin; Voninavoko Mahistra; Mohamed Kaci; Axelle Braconnier; Roger Serhal; Louis Collet; Abdallah Fayssoil

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0482.v1 Date: 2020-05-31 Source: Preprints.org

    We report the first case of COVID 19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in a preterm neonate in Mayotte, an overseas department of France. The respiratory distress HP with typical thoracic imaging lesions appears at 14 days of life. This case-report emphasizes the need for a cautious and close up follow-up for asymptomatic TRANS neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 infection MESHD. Vertical transmission TRANS cannot be excluded in this case.

    On two cases of atypical respiratory distress HP in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo months before the COVID-19 pandemic was declared. Could SARS-Cov-2 have been already spreading? Case report

    Authors: Guy-Quesney MATESO; Marius BAGUMA; Pacifique MWENE-BATU; Ghislain MAHESHE BALEMBA; Fabrice NZABARA; Samuel MAKALI; Aline BEDHA; Bonheur FURAHA; Jimmy MINANI; Christian TSHONGO MUHINDO; Espoir BWENGE MALEMBAKA; Mannix Imani MASIMANGO; Tony Akilimali SHINDANO; Justin Cirhuza CIKOMOLA; Kanigula MUBAGWA

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-29541/v1 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Predictions have been made that Africa would be the most vulnerable continent to the novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Interestingly, the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD in Africa seems to be slower than in many parts of the World. Among possible hypotheses, some parts of Africa may have undergone a “silent” COVID-19 epidemic and acquired a herd immunity before the official declaration of the disease MESHD in December 2019.Case presentation: We report two cases (one 55-year-old man and one 25-year-old woman) of acute respiratory distress HP secondary to atypical pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in Bukavu, in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) which occurred between September and December 2019, before the official beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. One patient had returned from China and the other had close contacts TRANS with travellers from China in the 2 weeks prior to the onset of symptoms TRANS. In either case, the aetiology could not be accurately determined. However, the two cases presented a clinical picture (progressive dyspnoea, preceded by dry cough MESHD cough HP and fever MESHD fever HP) and laboratory changes (procalcitonin within the normal range, slight inflammation MESHD, and lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP) compatible with a viral infection MESHD. The chest X-Rays series of the first patient showed lesions (reticulations, ground glass, and nodules ≤ 6 mm) similar to those found in COVID-19. In addition, unlike the 25-year-old female TRANS patient who had no comorbidity, the 55-year-old male TRANS patient who had hypertension MESHD hypertension HP as comorbidity, developed a more severe acute respiratory distress HP which progressed to death MESHD.Conclusion: These cases bring to the attention a number of facts which make us suspect that the COVID-19 epidemic may have already been present in the region months before the official beginning of the pandemic. 

    Epidemiologic, Clinical, and Laboratory Findings of the COVID-19 in the current pandemic

    Authors: Yewei Xie; Zaisheng Wang; Huipeng Liao; Gifty Marley; Dan Wu; Weiming Tang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28367/v1 Date: 2020-05-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The COVID-19 caused the pandemic affected the world deeply, with more than 3,000,000 people infected and nearly 200,000 deaths MESHD. This article aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results and laboratory findings of COVID-19 pandemic.Methods We scoped for relevant literatures published during 1st Dec 2019 to 23rd Apr 2020 based on four databases by using English and Chinese. The evidence was synthesized narratively.Results The COVID-19 pandemic was found to have a higher transmission TRANS rate compared to SARS and MERS, and involved 4 stages of evolution. The basic reproduction number TRANS ( R0 TRANS) is 3.32 (95% CI:3.24–3.39) and the incubation period TRANS was 5.24 days (95% CI:3.97–6.50, 5 studies) on average, and the average time for symptoms onset TRANS varied by countries. Common clinical spectrums identified included fever MESHD fever HP (38.1–39.0℃), cough MESHD cough HP and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, with Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD (ARDS) being the most common complication reported. Body temperatures above 39.0 ℃, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, and anorexia MESHD anorexia HP were more common symptoms in severe patients. Aged TRANS over 60 years old, having co-morbidities, and developing complications were the commonest high-risk factors associated with severe conditions. Leucopenia and lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP were the most common signs of infection MESHD while liver and kidney damage were rare but may cause bad outcomes for patients. The bilateral, multifocal Ground-Glass Opacification (GGO) on peripheral, and the consolidative pulmonary opacity HP were the most frequent CT results and the tendency of mortality rates differed by region.Conclusions We provided a bird’s-eye view of the COVID-19 during the current pandemic, which will help better understanding the key traits of the disease MESHD. The findings could be used for disease’s future research, control and prevention.

    Immunosuppression is associated with a lower risk of moderate to severe acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD in COVID-19.

    Authors: Enric Monreal; Susana Sainz de la Maza; Pedro Gullón; Elena Natera-Villalba; Juan Luis Chico-García; Álvaro Beltrán-Corbellini; Javier Martínez-Sanz; Nuria García-Barragán; Javier Buisán; Rafael Toledano; Araceli Alonso-Canovas; Paula Pérez-Torre; María Consuelo Matute-Lozano; Jose Luis López-Sendón; Guillermo García-Ribas; Íñigo Corral; Jesús Fortún; Beatriz Montero-Errasquín; Luis Manzano; Luis Máiz-Carro; Lucienne Costa-Frossard; Jaime Masjuan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-27095/v1 Date: 2020-05-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease MESHD disease that has spread TRANS that has spread rapidly worldwide. The role of immunosuppression among COVID-19 patients has not been elucidated and management may be challenging.OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in severe outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 according to immune system state.DESIGN: Retrospective single-center observational study with confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal from March 18, 2020 to April 04, 2020. The final date of follow-up was April 09, 2020.PARTICIPANTS: Confirmed COVID-19 patients.MAIN MEASURES: The primary endpoint was development of moderate-severe acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS). Time to moderate-severe ARDS, the need for mechanical or non-invasive ventilation (MV/NIV), death MESHD, and a composite of death MESHD or MV/NIV were secondary endpoints.KEY RESULTS: Of 138 patients included, 29 (21%) were immunocompromised (IC), with 95 (68.8%) male TRANS patients and a median (IQR) age TRANS of 68 (54 – 78) years. Among the baseline characteristics, no relevant or significant differences were observed between IC and non-immunocompromised (non-IC) patients. A significantly lower proportion of IC patients (24.1% [95% CI, 11.4 – 44.0%]) compared to non-IC patients (49.5% [95% CI, 40.1 – 59.0%]) developed moderate-severe ARDS, in both unadjusted (OR 0.32 [95% CI, 0.13 – 0.82], p=0.018) and adjusted (aOR 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05 – 0.52], p=0.003) analyses. A positive non-significant trend toward a longer time to moderate or severe ARDS, a lower need for MV/NIV, and a lower risk of death MESHD or MV/NIV were detected in IC. A trend toward a shorter- hospitalization in IC was observed.CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of COVID-19 patients, immunosuppression was associated with a lower risk of moderate-severe ARDS. This suggests a potential protective effect from a hypothesized host hyper-inflammatory response and warrants reconsideration of drug discontinuation in IC patients.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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