Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    High neutralizing potency of swine glyco-humanized polyclonal antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Bernard Vanhove; Odile Duvaux; Juliette Rousse; Pierre-Joseph Royer; Gwenaelle Evanno; Carine Ciron; Elsa Lheriteau; Laurent Vacher; Nadine Gervois; Romain Oger; Yannick Jacques; Apolline Salama; Roberto Duchi; Andrea Perota; Philippe Delahaut; Matthieu Ledure; Melody Paulus; Ray So; Chris Ka Pun Mok; Roberto Bruzzone; Marc Bouillet; Sophie Brouard; Emanuele Cozzi; Cesare Galli; Dominique Blanchard; Jean-Marie Bach; Jean-Paul Soulillou

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.217158 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: bioRxiv

    Perfusion of convalescent plasma SERO (CP) has demonstrated a potential to improve the pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD induced by SARS-CoV-2, but procurement and standardization of CP are barriers to its wide usage. Heterologous polyclonal antibodies SERO of animal origin have been used to fight against infectious agents and are a possible alternative to the use of CP in SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD. However, heterologous polyclonal antibodies SERO trigger human natural xenogeneic antibody SERO responses particularly directed against animal-type carbohydrate epitopes, mainly the N-glycolyl form of the neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and the Gal alpha1,3-galactose (a-Gal), ultimately forming immune complexes and potentially leading to serum SERO sickness or allergy HP allergy MESHD. To circumvent these drawbacks, we engineered animals lacking the cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) and alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) enzymes to produce glyco-humanized polyclonal antibodies SERO (GH-pAb) lacking Neu5Gc and a-Gal epitopes. We also found that these IgG Fc domains fail to interact with human Fc receptors and thereby should confer the safety advantage to avoiding macrophage dependent exacerbated inflammatory responses or elicit antibody SERO-dependent enhancement (ADE), two drawbacks possibly associated with antibody SERO responses against SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we immunized CMAH/GGTA1 double knockout (DKO) pigs with the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD) domain to elicit neutralizing antibodies SERO. Animals rapidly developed hyperimmune sera with end-titers binding dilutions over one to a million and end-titers neutralizing dilutions of 1:10,000. The IgG fraction purified and formulated following clinical Good Manufacturing Practices, named XAV-19, neutralized Spike/ACE-2 interaction at a concentration < 1microgram/mL and inhibited infection of human cells by SARS-CoV-2 in cytopathic assays. These data and the accumulating safety advantages of using glyco-humanized swine antibodies SERO in humans warrant clinical assessment of XAV-19 to fight against COVID-19.

    The impact of COVID-19 on patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD: A Big Data analysis

    Authors: Jose Luis Izquierdo; Carlos Almonacid; Yolanda Gonzalez; Carlos Del Rio-Bermudez; Julio Ancochea; Remedios Cardenas; Joan B Soriano

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20161596 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: From the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, an association between the severity of COVID-19 and the presence of certain medical chronic conditions has been suggested. However, unlike influenza and other viruses, the burden of the disease in patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD has been less evident. Objective: This study aims at a better understanding of the burden of COVID-19 in patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD and the impact of asthma HP, its related comorbidities, and treatment on the prognosis of COVID-19. Methods: We analyzed clinical data from patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD from January 1st to May 10th, 2020 using big data analytics and artificial intelligence through the SAVANA Manager clinical platform. Results: Out of 71,192 patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD, 1,006 (1.41%) suffered from COVID-19. Compared to asthmatic individuals without COVID-19, patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD and COVID-19 were significantly older (55 vs. 42 years), predominantly female TRANS (66% vs. 59%), had higher prevalence SERO of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, dyslipidemias MESHD, diabetes MESHD, and obesity HP obesity MESHD, and smoked more frequently. Contrarily, allergy HP allergy MESHD-related factors such as rhinitis HP rhinitis MESHD and eczema HP eczema MESHD were less frequent in asthmatic patients with COVID-19 (P < .001). Higher prevalence SERO of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, dyslipidemia MESHD, diabetes MESHD, and obesity HP obesity MESHD was also confirmed in those patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD and COVID-19 who required hospital admission. The percentage of individuals using inhaled corticosteroids ( ICS MESHD) was lower in patients who required hospitalization due to COVID-19, as compared to non-hospitalized patients (48.3% vs. 61.5%; OR: 0.58: 95% CI 0.44-0.77). During the study period, 865 (1.21%) patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD were being treated with biologics. Although these patients showed increased severity and more comorbidities at the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) level, their hospital admission rates due to COVID-19 were relatively low (0.23%). COVID-19 increased inpatient mortality in asthmatic patients (2.29% vs 0.54%; OR 2.29: 95% CI 4.35-6.66). Conclusion: Our results indicate that the number of COVID-19 cases in patients with asthma HP has been low, although higher than the observed in the general population. Patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD and COVID-19 were older and were at increased risk due to comorbidity-related factors. ICS and biologics are generally safe and may be associated with a protective effect against severe COVID-19 infection MESHD.

    Cross-sectional survey on impact of paediatric COVID-19 among Italian paediatricians: report from the SIAIP rhino- sinusitis HP and conjunctivitis HP committee.

    Authors: Lucia Diaferio; Giuseppe Fabio Parisi; Giulia Brindisi; Cristiana Indolfi; Giuseppe Marchese; Daniele Giovanni Ghiglioni; Anna Maria Zicari; Gian Luigi Marseglia; Michele Miraglia del Giudice

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40612/v2 Date: 2020-07-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundThere is ample evidence that COVID-19 is significantly less severe in children TRANS than in adults TRANS and  asthma and allergy HP, the most common chronic disorders in children TRANS, are not included in the top 10 comorbidities related to COVID-19 fatalities. Nevertheless,  concerns about asthma HP and allergy HP are still high.. In order to evaluate the impact of paediatric COVID-19 among Italian paediatricians, we sent a 20-questions anonymous internet-based survey to 250 Italian paediatricians with particular address to allergic symptoms and those affecting the upper airwaysMethodsThe questionnaire was conceived and pretested in April 2020, by a working group of experts of the Italian Paediatric Society for Allergy HP and Immunology (SIAIP), and structured into different sections of 20 categorized and multiple choice questions. The first part included questions about epidemiological data follows by a second part assessing the way to manage a suspected COVID-19 infection and personal experiences about that. The third part concerned questions about patients’ clinical characteristics and clinical manifestations.The survey was emailed once between April and mid-May 2020. ResultsA total 99 participants had participated in our survey and provided responses to our electronic questionnaire. The distribution of patients reported per month varies significantly according to the geographical area (P=0.02). Data confirmed that in the North part of Italy the rate of patients referred is higher than in the rest of Italy. Almost all respondents (98%) reported caring for up to a maximum of 10 infected children TRANS and the last 2% more than twenty. Among these patients, according to the 75% of responders, a maximum rate of 20% were affected by allergic rhino- conjunctivitis HP and in particular in the North of Italy while in the Centre and in the South there was a higher incidence (P=0.09). Almost the same applies for asthma HP, 83% of responders declared that up to a maximum of 20% of affected children TRANS were asthmatic, from 20% to 40% for the 13,5% of responders and from 40% to 60% for the last 3,5%. As for the allergic conjunctivitis HP also for asthma HP, we found a higher incidence in the Centre and in South than in the North (P=0.03).

    Perception and Management of COVID-19 Among Allergic Children TRANS: An Italian Survey.

    Authors: Lucia Diaferio; Giuseppe Fabio Parisi; Giulia Brindisi; Cristiana Indolfi; Giuseppe Marchese; Daniele Giovanni Ghiglioni; Anna Maria Zicari; Gian Luigi Marseglia; Michele Miraglia del Giudice

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40612/v1 Date: 2020-07-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background There is ample evidence that COVID-19 is significantly less severe in children TRANS than in adults TRANS and it has been reported that asthma HP and allergy HP allergy MESHD, the most prevalent chronic disorders MESHD in children TRANS, are not included in the top 10 comorbidities associated with COVID-19 fatalities. Nevertheless, there would seem that the concerns about asthma HP and the risk of disease and related outcomes are still high. In order to assess these features, we conducted a 20-question anonymous internet-based survey among Italian paediatricians. Methods The questionnaire was conceived and pretested in April 2020, by a working group of experts of the Italian Paediatric Society for Allergy HP Allergy MESHD and Immunology (SIAIP).  The survey was emailed once between April and mid-May 2020. Participants were allowed to complete only a single survey.Results A total 99 participants had taken part in our survey and provided responses to our electronic questionnaire. The distribution of patients reported per month varies significantly according to the geographical area (P=0.02). Data confirmed that in the North part of Italy the rate of patients referred is higher than in the rest of Italy. Almost all respondents (98%) reported caring for up to a maximum of 10 infecting children TRANS and the last 2% more than twenty. Among these patients, according to the 75% of responders, a maximum rate of 20% were affected by allergic rhino-conjunctivitis MESHD conjunctivitis HP and in particular in the North of Italy while in the Centre and in the South there was a higher incidence (P=0.09). Almost the same applies for asthma HP asthma MESHD, 83% of responders declared that up to a maximum of 20% of affected children TRANS were asthmatic, from 20% to 40% for the 13,5% of responders and from 40% to 60% for the last 3,5%. As for the allergic conjunctivitis HP allergic conjunctivitis MESHD also for asthma HP, we found a higher incidence in the Centre and in South than in the North (P=0.03).Conclusions This study is the first to provide a comprehensive review of COVID-19 knowledge and perceptions among paediatricians in Italy. From our point of view, it provides important information clearly useful for improving a good practice.

    Ag nanoparticles-based antimicrobial polycotton fabrics to prevent the transmission TRANS and spread of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Guilherme Carvalho Tremiliosi; Luiz Gustavo Pagotto Simoes; Daniel Tamassia Minozzi; Renato Ignacio Santos; Daiane Barboza Vilela; Edison Luiz Durigon; Rafael Rahal Guaragna Machado; Douglas Sales Medina; Lara Kelly Ribeiro; Ieda Lucia Viana Rosa; Marcelo Assis; Juan Manuel Andres Bort; Elson Longo; Lucio H. Freitas-Junior

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.26.152520 Date: 2020-06-26 Source: bioRxiv

    Pathogens (bacteria, fungus and virus) are becoming a potential threat to the health of human beings and environment worldwide. They widely exist in the environment, with characteristics of variety, spreading quickly and easily causing adverse reactions. In this work, an Ag-based material is used to be incorporated and functionalized in polycotton fabrics using pad-dry-cure method. This composite proved to be effective for inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2 virus, decreasing the number of replicates in 99.99% after an incubation period TRANS of 2 minutes. In addition, it caused 99.99% inhibition of the pathogens S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans, preventing cross-infections MESHD and does not cause allergies HP allergies MESHD or photoirritation processes, demonstrating the safety of its use.

    Detection of antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 SERO spike glycoprotein in both serum SERO and saliva enhances detection of infection

    Authors: Sian E Faustini; Sian E. Jossi; Marisol Perez-Toledo; Adrian Shields; Joel D. Allen; Yasunori Watanabe; Maddy L. Newby; Alex Cook; Carrie R. Willcox; Mahboob Salim; Margaret Goodall; Jennifer L. Heaney; Edith Marcial-Juarez; Gabriella L. Morley; Barbara Torlinska; David C. Wraith; Tonny Veenith; Stephen Harding; Stephen Jolles; Ponsford J Mark; Tim Plant; Aarnoud Huissoon; Matthew K. O'Shea; Benjamin E. Willcox; Mark T. Drayson; Max Crispin; Adam F. Cunningham; Alex G. Richter

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.16.20133025 Date: 2020-06-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Detecting antibody SERO responses during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is essential in determining the seroepidemiology of the virus and the potential role of antibody SERO in disease. Scalable, sensitive and specific serological assays SERO are essential to this process. The detection of antibody SERO in hospitalized patients with severe disease has proven straightforward; detecting responses in subjects with mild disease and asymptomatic TRANS asymptomatic MESHD infections has proven less reliable. We hypothesized that the suboptimal sensitivity SERO of antibody SERO assays and the compartmentalization of the antibody SERO response may contribute to this effect. Methods: We systemically developed an ELISA assay SERO, optimising different antigens and amplification steps, in serum SERO and saliva from symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD subjects. Results: Using trimeric spike glycoprotein, rather than nucleocapsid enabled detection of responses in individuals with low antibody SERO responses. IgG1 and IgG3 predominate to both antigens, but more anti-spike IgG1 than IgG3 was detectable. All antigens were effective for detecting responses in hospitalized patients. Anti-spike, but not nucleocapsid, IgG, IgA and IgM antibody SERO responses were readily detectable in saliva from non-hospitalized symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS individuals. Antibody SERO responses in saliva and serum SERO were largely independent of each other and symptom reporting. Conclusions. Detecting antibody SERO responses in both saliva and serum SERO is optimal for determining virus exposure and understanding immune responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Funding. This work was funded by the University of Birmingham, the National Institute for Health Research (UK), the NIH National Institute for Allergy HP Allergy MESHD and Infectious Diseases, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the University of Southampton.

    A short therapeutic regimen based on hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 in patients with non-severe disease. A strategy associated with a reduction in hospital admissions and complications.

    Authors: José A. Oteo; Pedro Marco; Luis Ponce de León; Alejandra Roncero; Teófilo Lobera; Valentín Lisa

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.10.20101105 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: medRxiv

    The new SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD named COVID-19 has severely hit our Health System. At the time of writing this paper no medical therapy is officially recommended or has shown results in improving the outcomes in COVID-19 patients. With the aim of diminishing the impact in Hospital admissions and reducing the number of medical complications, we implemented a strategy based on a Hospital Home-Care Unit (HHCU) using an easy-to-use treatment based on an oral administration regimen outside the hospital with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) plus azithromycin (AZM) for a short period of 5 days. Patients and methods: Patients [≥] 18 years old visiting the emergency room at the Hospital Universitario San Pedro de Logrono (La Rioja) between March, 31st and April, 12th diagnosed with COVID-19 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD by a specific PCR, as follows: Patients with pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (CURB [≤] 1) who did not present severe comorbidities and had no processes that contraindicated this therapeutic regime. Olygosimptomatic patients without pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD aged TRANS [≥] 55 years. Patients [≥] 18 years old without pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD with significant comorbidities. We excluded patients with known allergies HP allergies MESHD to some of the antimicrobials used and patients treated with other drugs that increase the QTc MESHD or with QTc >450msc. The therapeutic regime was: HCQ 400 mg every twice in a loading dose followed by 200 mg twice for 5 days, plus AZM 500 mg on the first day followed by 250 mg daily for 5 days. A daily telephone follow-up was carried out from the hospital by the same physician. The end-points of our study were: 1.- To measure the need for hospital admission within 15 days after the start of treatment. 2.- To measure the need to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) within 15 days after the start of the treatment. 3.- To describe the severity of the clinical complications developed. 4.- To measure the mortality within 30 days after starting treatment (differentiating if the cause is COVID-19 or something else). 5.-To describe the safety and adverse effects of the therapeutic regime. Results: During the 13 days studied a total of 502 patients were attended in the emergency room due to COVID-19. Forty-two were sent at home; 80 were attended by the HHCU (patients on this study) and 380 were admitted to the Hospital. In our series there were a group of 69 (85.18%) patients diagnosed with pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (37 males TRANS and 32 females TRANS). Most of them, 57 (82.60%) had a CURB65 score of <1 (average age TRANS 49) and 12 (17.40%) a CURB score of 1 (average age TRANS 63). Eighteen (22.50%) of the pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD patients also had some morbidity as a risk factor. 11 patients (13.75%) without pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD were admitted to the HHCU because comorbidities or age TRANS [≥] 55 years. Six patients with pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD had to be hospitalized during the observation period, 3 of them because side effects and 3 because of worsening. One of these patients, with morbid obesity HP obesity MESHD and asthma HP asthma MESHD, had clinical worsening needing mechanical ventilation at ICU and developed acute distress respiratory syndrome MESHD distress respiratory HP syndrome. With the exception of the patient admitted to the ICU, the rest of the patients were discharged at home in the following 8 days (3 to 8 days). Twelve patients (15%), 11 of whom had pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, experienced side effects affecting mainly the digestive. In another patient a QTc interval prolongation MESHD (452 msc) was observed. In total 3 of these patients had to be admitted in the Hospital, 2 because of vomiting HP vomiting MESHD and 1 because a QTc interval lengthening. None of the patients needed to stop the HCQ or AZM and all the 80 patients finished the therapeutic strategy. From the group without pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD only a patient developed diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD that did not require hospitalization or stop the medication. Conclusions: Our strategy has been associated with a reduction in the burden of hospital pressure, and it seems to be successful in terms of the number of patients who have developed serious complications and / or death. None of the patients died in the studied period and only 6 have to be admitted in conventional hospitalization area.

    COVID-19 Hospitalization is More Frequent and Severe in Down Syndrome

    Authors: Louise Malle; Cynthia Gao; Nicole Bouvier; Bethany Percha; Dusan Bogunovic

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.26.20112748 Date: 2020-06-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Individuals with rare disorders MESHD, like Down syndrome ( DS MESHD) are historically understudied. Currently, it is not known how COVID-19 pandemic affects individuals with DS. Herein, we report an analysis of individuals with DS who were hospitalized with COVID-19 in the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City, USA. Methods. In this retrospective, single-center study of 4,615 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, we analyzed all patients with DS admitted in the Mount Sinai Health System. Hospitalization rates, clinical and outcomes were assessed. Findings. Contrary to an expected number of one, we identified six patients with DS. We found that patients with DS are at an 8.9-fold higher risk of hospitalization with COVID-19 when compared to non-DS patients. Hospitalized DS individuals are on average 10 years younger than non-DS patients with COVID-19. Moreover, type 2 diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP appears to be an important driver of this susceptibility to COVID-19. Finally, patients with DS MESHD have more severe outcomes than controls, and are more likely to progress to sepsis HP sepsis MESHD in particular. Interpretation. We demonstrate that individuals with DS represent a higher risk population for COVID-19 compared to the general population and conclude that particular care should be taken for both the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in these patients. Funding. National Institute of Allergy HP Allergy MESHD and Infectious Diseases MESHD

    A Unique Clade of SARS-CoV-2 Viruses MESHD is Associated with Lower Viral Loads in Patient Upper Airways

    Authors: Ramon Lorenzo-Redondo; Hannah Hyochan Nam; Scott Christopher Roberts; Lacy Marie Simons; Lawrence J Jennings; Chao Qi; Chad J Achenbach; Alan R Hauser; Michael G Ison; Judd F Hultquist; Egon A Ozer

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.20107144 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), has been accompanied by the emergence of distinct viral clades, though their clinical significance remains unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the phylogenetic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in Chicago, Illinois and assess their relationship to clinical parameters. Methods We performed whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 isolates collected from COVID-19 patients in a Chicago healthcare system in mid-March, 2020. Using these and other publicly available sequences, we performed phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and phylodynamic analyses. Patient data was assessed for correlations between demographic or clinical characteristics and virologic features. Findings The 88 SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences in our study separated into three distinct phylogenetic clades. Clade 1 was most closely related to viral sequences from New York, and showed evidence of rapid expansion across the US, while Clade 3 was most closely related to those in Washington state. Clade 2 was localized primarily to the Chicago area with limited evidence of expansion elsewhere. At the time of diagnosis, patients infected with Clade 1 viruses had significantly higher average viral loads in their upper airways relative to patients infected with Clade 2 viruses, independent of time to symptom onset TRANS and disease severity. Interpretation These results show that multiple variants of SARS-CoV-2 are circulating in the Chicago area that differ in their relative viral loads in patient upper airways. These data suggest that differences in virus genotype impact viral load and may in turn influence viral transmission TRANS and spread. Funding Dixon Family Translational Research Award, Northwestern University Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (NUCATS), National Institute of Allergy HP Allergy MESHD and Infectious Diseases MESHD ( NIAID MESHD)

    In Vitro Virucidal Effect of Intranasally Delivered Chlorpheniramine Maleate Compound Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2)

    Authors: Gustavo Ferrer; Jonna Westover

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-25854/v1 Date: 2020-04-28 Source: ResearchSquare

     Background. The initial global outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic, responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first reported in Wuhan, China, at the end of December 2019. COVID-19 shares similarities with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) MESHD, and it behaves similarly to influenza with a high intranasal viral load. The genome sequence of COVID-19 opened the opportunity for multiple in vitro and clinical trials, but we still do not have a clear path to treatment. Chlorpheniramine is a safe and effective antihistamine with potent antiviral activity against various strains of influenza A/B, thus suggesting that CPM has broad antiviral activity. We tested the virucidal potential of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) in a nasal spray composition currently in development as an anti- allergy HP allergy MESHD medication.Methods. The virucidal activity of chlorpheniramine maleate was tested using viral stock of SARS-CoV-2, USA-WA1/2020 strain in Vero 76 infected cells. The end-point titer (CCID50) values were calculated with the Reed-Muench (1948) equation. Three independent replicates of each sample were tested, and the average and standard deviation were calculated. Results were compared with untreated controls by one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s multiple comparison test in GraphPad Prism (version 8) software. Results. After 25-minutes of contact time, the nasal spray reduced the levels of the virus from 4.2 to 1.7 log10 CCID50 per 0.1 mL, a statistically significant reduction of 2.5 log10 CCID50.Conclusions. This study demonstrates the strong virucidal effect against SARS-CoV-2 of a nasal spray containing chlorpheniramine maleate. Given that CPM has broad antiviral effects against influenza, virucidal effect against SARS-CoV-2, and coadjuvant effects with hydroxychloroquine in treating multidrug-resistant malaria MESHD with minimal side effects. We propose two further studies: a randomized placebo-controlled study of intranasally delivered chlorpheniramine in patients with mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2, and a second study aiming to determine the potential antiviral and adjuvant effects of CPM plus hydroxychloroquine, versus chloroquine alone, in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2.   

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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