Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Cough (537)

Fever (437)

Infections (260)

Disease (258)

Coronavirus Infections (181)


Human Phenotype

Cough (537)

Fever (437)

Fatigue (152)

Pneumonia (134)

Dyspnea (85)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 537
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    Turbulence dictates the fate of virus-containing liquid droplets in violent expiratory events

    Authors: Marco E. Rosti; Mattia Cavaiola; Stefano Olivieri; Agnese Seminara; Andrea Mazzino

    id:2008.05119v1 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: arXiv

    Violent expiratory events, such as coughing MESHD coughing HP and sneezing MESHD sneezing HP, are highly nontrivial examples of two-phase mixture of liquid droplets dispersed into an unsteady humid turbulent fluid phase. Understanding the physical mechanisms determining the fate of droplets is becoming a priority given the global COVID-19 emergency MESHD caused by the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. By means of state-of-the-art fully resolved direct numerical simulations we contribute to solve this issue by identifying the key role of turbulence on the fate of exhaled droplets. Our results impact the current notion of social distance.

    A Large-Scale Clinical Validation Study Using nCapp Cloud Plus Terminal by Frontline Doctors for the Rapid Diagnosis of COVID-19 and COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in China

    Authors: Dawei Yang; Tao Xu; Xun Wang; Deng Chen; Ziqiang Zhang; Lichuan Zhang; Jie Liu; Kui Xiao; Li Bai; Yong Zhang; Lin Zhao; Lin Tong; Chaomin Wu; Yaoli Wang; Chunling Dong; Maosong Ye; Yu Xu; Zhenju Song; Hong Chen; Jing Li; Jiwei Wang; Fei Tan; Hai Yu; Jian Zhou; Jinming Yu; Chunhua Du; Hongqing Zhao; Yu Shang; Linian Huang; Jianping Zhao; Yang Jin; Charles A. Powell; Yuanlin Song; Chunxue Bai

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20163402 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background The outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic acute infectious disease MESHD, especially with the features of possible asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS and high contagiousness. It causes acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD and results in a high mortality rate if pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP is involved. Currently, it is difficult to quickly identify asymptomatic TRANS cases or COVID-19 patients with pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP due to limited access to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nucleic acid tests and CT scans, which facilitates the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD at the community level, and contributes to the overwhelming of medical resources in intensive care units. Goal This study aimed to develop a scientific and rigorous clinical diagnostic tool for the rapid prediction of COVID-19 cases based on a COVID-19 clinical case database in China, and to assist global frontline doctors to efficiently and precisely diagnose asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 patients and cases who had a false-negative RT-PCR test result. Methods With online consent, and the approval of the ethics committee of Zhongshan Hospital Fudan Unversity (approval number B2020-032R) to ensure that patient privacy is protected, clinical information has been uploaded in real-time through the New Coronavirus Intelligent Auto-diagnostic Assistant Application of cloud plus terminal (nCapp) by doctors from different cities (Wuhan, Shanghai, Harbin, Dalian, Wuxi, Qingdao, Rizhao, and Bengbu) during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. By quality control and data anonymization on the platform, a total of 3,249 cases from COVID-19 high-risk groups were collected. These patients had SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results and chest CT scans, both of which were used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. In particular, the dataset included 137 indeterminate cases who initially did not have RT-PCR tests and subsequently had positive RT-PCR results, 62 suspected cases who initially had false-negative RT-PCR test results and subsequently had positive RT-PCR results, and 122 asymptomatic TRANS cases who had positive RT-PCR test results, amongst whom 31 cases were diagnosed. We also integrated the function of a survey in nCapp to collect user feedback from frontline doctors. Findings We applied the statistical method of a multi-factor regression model to the training dataset (1,624 cases) and developed a prediction model for COVID-19 with 9 clinical indicators that are fast and accessible: 'Residing or visiting history in epidemic regions', 'Exposure history to COVID-19 patient', 'Dry cough MESHD cough HP', ' Fatigue MESHD Fatigue HP', 'Breathlessness', 'No body temperature decrease after antibiotic treatment', 'Fingertip blood SERO oxygen saturation<=93%', ' Lymphopenia MESHD Lymphopenia HP', and 'C-reactive protein (CRP) increased'. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for the model was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.89) in the training dataset and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.86) in the validation dataset (1,625 cases). To ensure the sensitivity SERO of the model, we used a cutoff value of 0.09. The sensitivity SERO and specificity of the model were 98.0% (95% CI: 96.9%, 99.1%) and 17.3% (95% CI: 15.0%, 19.6%), respectively, in the training dataset, and 96.5% (95% CI: 95.1%, 98.0%) and 18.8% (95% CI: 16.4%, 21.2%), respectively, in the validation dataset. In the subset of the 137 indeterminate cases who initially did not have RT-PCR tests and subsequently had positive RT-PCR results, the model predicted 132 cases, accounting for 96.4% (95% CI: 91.7%, 98.8%) of the cases. In the subset of the 62 suspected cases who initially had false-negative RT-PCR test results and subsequently had positive RT-PCR results, the model predicted 59 cases, accounting for 95.2% (95% CI: 86.5%, 99.0%) of the cases. Considering the specificity of the model, we used a cutoff value of 0.32. The sensitivity SERO and specificity of the model were 83.5% (95% CI: 80.5%, 86.4%) and 83.2% (95% CI: 80.9%, 85.5%), respectively, in the training dataset, and 79.6% (95% CI: 76.4%, 82.8%) and 81.3% (95% CI: 78.9%, 83.7%), respectively, in the validation dataset, which is very close to the published AI model. The results of the online survey 'Questionnaire Star' showed that 90.9% of nCapp users in WeChat mini programs were 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' with the tool. The WeChat mini program received a significantly higher satisfaction rate than other platforms, especially for 'availability and sharing convenience of the App' and 'fast speed of log-in and data entry'. Discussion With the assistance of nCapp, a mobile-based diagnostic tool developed from a large database that we collected from COVID-19 high-risk groups in China, frontline doctors can rapidly identify asymptomatic TRANS patients and avoid misdiagnoses of cases with false-negative RT-PCR results. These patients require timely isolation or close medical supervision. By applying the model, medical resources can be allocated more reasonably, and missed diagnoses can be reduced. In addition, further education and interaction among medical professionals can improve the diagnostic efficiency for COVID-19, thus avoiding the transmission TRANS of the disease from asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS patients at the community level.

    Knowledge and attitude of dentists, dental auxiliaries, and students regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Authors: Suliman Yousif Shahin; Amr Said Bugshan; Khalid Salman Almulhim; Mishali Saud AlSharief; Yousif Al Dulaijan; Faisal Dhaifallah Alqarni

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57059/v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of dental professionals in Saudi Arabia regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19).Methods: A questionnaire was developed to assess various dental professionals from both governmental and private sectors through online and social media outlets. Results: A total of 1,033 responses were collected. Moreover, 63.4% of respondents (63.4%) were working in hospitals. Of all respondents, 44.9%, 33.4%, and 21.7% were in governmental clinics, academia, and private sector, respectively. Overall knowledge on incubation period TRANS and route of transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 was satisfactory across all dental professions. All dental professionals except for dental assistants demonstrated adequate knowledge on the recommended hand-soap cleaning time (p < 0.001). Most dental professionals displayed unsatisfactory knowledge and disagreement on the survival of SARS-CoV-2 outside the host (p < 0.001). Furthermore, 75.1% of respondents were reluctant to treat a suspected COVID-19 patient, and 92% participants believed that the mode of transmission TRANS was droplet inhalation. Fever MESHD Fever HP, coughing MESHD coughing HP, and shortness of breath were identified as the most common symptoms of COVID-19. Most standard methods of prevention in the dental office were selected by at least 50% of participants. Conclusions: An appropriate level of knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 incubation period TRANS and signs and symptoms MESHD of COVID-19 was noted among all dental professionals in Saudi Arabia. Perceived survival outside the host was modest. A certain level of apprehension toward suspected SARS-CoV-2 patients existed among most professionals. Pandemic-awareness campaigns are essential among healthcare providers.

    Prevalence SERO, Pattern and Impact of Self Medication of Anti-infective Agents During COVID-19 Outbreak in Dhaka City

    Authors: Morshed Nasir; Khandaker Abu Talha; ASM Salauddin Chowdhury; Tahmina Zahan; Rawshan Ara Perveen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57011/v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 is putting a massive strain on vulnerable healthcare system in low and middle-income countries like Bangladesh. Inequitable access to healthcare is further widened by the socio-economic gap and sense of insecurity during this pandemic. Self-medication is a common practice in Bangladesh as it provides a low-cost alternative for people, which involves inappropriate and injudicious use of medicines to treat self-recognized symptoms by the people. During the outbreak of COVID-19 in Dhaka city, the tendency of taking medicines by own decision was thought to be increased alarmingly due to unusual distress, caused by high self-awareness of their health and buying capacity of medication. Objectives: To observe the prevalence SERO, pattern, sources and impact of self-medication practice among the respondents with high socio-economic standings and education. Setting: Citizens living in Dhaka city, Bangladesh during COVID-19 outbreak from April 2020 to May 2020. Method: Cross sectional online survey conducted on 626 citizens without having background of medical knowledge or related to any healthcare services (doctors, nurses, pharmacist, medical students) by structured questionnaires during COVID-19 outbreak. Outcome measures: Frequency of self-medication, commonly used antimicrobial agents, symptoms causing self-medication, sources of inspiration, relation with COVID-19 test results, economic burden involved in self-medication during outbreak. Results: The prevalence SERO of self-medication amid the outbreak of COVID-19 was 88.33% and only 179 (28.59%) took medication with doctors’ advice and remaining 447 (71.40%) respondents took the drugs as “self-medication” by other sources. The most frequently used anti-infective drugs during the outbreak were ivermectine (77.15%), azithromycin (54.15%), doxycycline (40.25%). The common symptoms were fever MESHD fever HP, throat pain MESHD pain HP, dry- cough MESHD cough HP and total 105 (16.77%) respondents took medications without having any symptoms. Almost 355 (85.33%) had taken medication without doing any test for COVID-19. The causes of self-medication as news of spread, effects and remedies in media channels, internet; mental stress of lockdown and isolation, insecurity and panic about scarcity of drug and healthcare support. Conclusion: High risks of developing antibiotic resistance, adverse drug reactions and financial loss was predictable with absence of strict regulatory enforcement to protect people and proper utilization resources during COVID-19 outbreak in Dhaka city.

    The Epidemiology Characteristics of Positive COVID-19 patients in a Caribbean Territory.

    Authors: Chavin D. Gopaul; Dale Ventour; Michelle Trotman; Davlin Thomas

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20148288 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The purpose of the study is to determine the epidemiology of COVID-19 in a Caribbean Territory by the characterisation of patients in terms of, the numbers, socio demographics and associated co-morbidities. This comparison was done between local cases and imported cases. There have been no prior studies on COVID-19 in the Caribbean and as such this paper attempts to discuss the patterns associated with COVID-19 patients in the Caribbean. Methods: This study determined the epidemiology of COVID-19 in a Caribbean territory using retrospective data. Analysis was performed using Excel and SPSS v23. Results: The majority of patients were female TRANS (61.9%) vs male TRANS (38.0%). The majority of the population were between 45 -64 yrs (43.4%) followed by above 65 at 28.8%. Cough MESHD Cough HP was the most common presenting complaint at 44.9%, with fever MESHD fever HP being second 37.1%. The majority of female TRANS participants had a travel TRANS history at 61.9%, while males TRANS were 38.0 %. The occurrence of cough MESHD cough HP was high among both local cases (46.4%) and imported cases (47.6%). Conclusions: These patterns can inform clinicians and other health care workers on the unique findings associated with COVID-19 positive patients especially those in the Caribbean region

    Extended lifetime of respiratory droplets in a turbulent vapour puff and its implications on airborne disease MESHD transmission TRANS

    Authors: Kai Leong Chong; Chong Shen Ng; Naoki Hori; Rui Yang; Roberto Verzicco; Detlef Lohse

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168468 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    To mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic, it is key to slow down the spreading of the life-threatening coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). This spreading mainly occurs through virus-laden droplets expelled at speaking, screaming, shouting, singing, coughing MESHD coughing HP, sneezing MESHD sneezing HP, or even breathing [1-7]. To reduce infections MESHD through such respiratory droplets, authorities all over the world have introduced the so-called "2-meter distance rule" or "6-foot rule". However, there is increasing empirical evidence, e.g. through the analysis of super-spreading events [6, 8-11], that airborne transmission TRANS of the coronavirus over much larger distances plays a major role [1-3, 7, 12-15], with tremendous implications for the risk assessment of coronavirus transmission TRANS. It is key to better and fundamentally understand the environmental ambient conditions under which airborne transmission TRANS of the coronavirus is likely to occur, in order to be able to control and adapt them. Here we employ direct numerical simulations of a typical respiratory aerosol in a turbulent jet of the respiratory event within a Lagrangian-Eulerian approach [16-18] with 5000 droplets, coupled to the ambient velocity, temperature, and humidity fields to allow for exchange of mass and heat [19] and to realistically account for the droplet evaporation under different ambient conditions. We found that for an ambient relative humidity of 50% the lifetime of the smallest droplets of our study with initial diameter of 10 m gets extended by a factor of more than 30 as compared to what is suggested by the classical picture of Wells [20, 21], due to collective effects during droplet evaporation and the role of the respiratory humidity [22], while the larger droplets basically behave ballistically. With increasing ambient relative humidity the extension of the lifetimes of the small droplets further increases and goes up to 150 times for 90% relative humidity, implying more than two meters advection range of the respiratory droplets within one second. Smaller droplets live even longer and travel TRANS further. Our results may explain why COVID-19 superspreading events can occur for large ambient relative humidity such as in cooled-down meat-processing plants [10] or in pubs with poor ventilation. We anticipate our tool and approach to be starting points for larger parameter studies and for optimizing ventilation and indoor humidity controlling concepts, which in the upcoming autumn and winter both will be key in mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Airborne dispersion of droplets during coughing MESHD coughing HP: a physical model of viral transmission TRANS

    Authors: Hongying Li; Fong Yew Leong; George Xu; Chang Wei Kang; Keng Hui Lim; Ban Hock Tan; Chian Min Loo

    id:2008.01912v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: arXiv

    The Covid-19 pandemic has focused attention on airborne transmission TRANS of viruses. Using realistic air flow simulation, we model droplet dispersion from coughing MESHD coughing HP and study the transmission risk TRANS related to SARS-CoV-2. Although most airborne droplets are 8-16 $\mu$m in diameter, the droplets with the highest transmission TRANS potential are, in fact, 32-40 $\mu$m. Use of face masks is therefore recommended for both personal and social protection. We found social distancing effective at reducing transmission TRANS potential across all droplet sizes. However, the presence of a human body 1 m away modifies the aerodynamics so that downstream droplet dispersion is enhanced, which has implications on safe distancing in queues. Based on median viral load, we found that an average of 0.55 viral copies is inhaled at 1 m distance per cough MESHD cough HP. Droplet evaporation results in significant reduction in droplet counts, but airborne transmission TRANS remains possible even under low humidity conditions.

    Testing for SARS-CoV-2 in care home staff and residents in English care homes: A service evaluation

    Authors: Emma Smith; Clare F Aldus; Julii Brainard; Sharon Dunham; Paul R Hunter; Nicholas Steel; Paul Everden

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20165928 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background COVID-19 has especially affected care home residents. Aim To evaluate a nurse-led Enhanced Care Home Team (ECHT) enhanced SARS-CoV-2 testing strategy. Design and setting Service evaluation in care homes in Norfolk UK. Method Residents and staff received nose and throat swab tests (7 April to 29 June 2020). Resident test results were linked with symptoms on days 0-14 after test and mortality to 13 July 2020. Results Residents (n=518) in 44 homes and staff (n=340) in 10 care homes were tested. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was identified in 103 residents in 14 homes and 49 staff in seven homes. Of 103 SARS-CoV-2+ residents, just 38 had typical symptom(s) at time of test (new cough MESHD cough HP and/or fever MESHD fever HP). Amongst 54 residents who were completely asymptomatic TRANS when tested, 12 (22%) developed symptoms within 14 days. Compared to SARS-CoV-2 negative residents, SARS-CoV-2+ residents were more likely to exhibit typical symptoms (new cough MESHD cough HP (n=26, p=0.001); fever MESHD fever HP (n=24, p=<0.001)) or as generally-unwell (n=18, p=0.001). Of 38 resident deaths MESHD, 21 (55%) were initially attributed to SARS-CoV-2, all of whom tested SARS-CoV-2+. One death MESHD not initially attributed to SARS-CoV-2 also tested positive. Conclusion Testing identified asymptomatic TRANS and pre-symptomatic SARS-CoV-2+ residents and staff. Being generally-unwell was common amongst symptomatic residents and may indicate SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in older people in the absence of more typical symptoms. Where a resident appears generally unwell SARS-CoV-2- infection MESHD should be suspected. Protocols for testing involved integrated health and social care teams.

    Ontology-based annotation and analysis of COVID-19 phenotypes

    Authors: Yang Wang; Fengwei Zhang; Hong Yu; Xianwei Ye; Yongqun He

    id:2008.02241v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: arXiv

    The epidemic of COVID-19 has caused an unpredictable and devastated disaster to the public health in different territories around the world. Common phenotypes include fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, shortness of breath, and chills MESHD chills HP. With more cases investigated, other clinical phenotypes are gradually recognized, for example, loss of smell, and loss of tastes. Compared with discharged or cured patients, severe or died patients often have one or more comorbidities, such as hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease MESHD. In this study, we systematically collected and analyzed COVID-19-related clinical phenotypes from 70 articles. The commonly occurring 17 phenotypes were classified into different groups based on the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). Based on the HP classification, we systematically analyze three nervous phenotypes (loss of smell, loss of taste, and headache MESHD headache HP) and four abdominal phenotypes ( nausea MESHD nausea, vomiting HP, vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP, and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP) identified in patients, and found that patients from Europe and USA turned to have higher nervous phenotypes and abdominal phenotypes than patients from Asia. A total of 23 comorbidities were found to commonly exist among COVID-19 patients. Patients with these comorbidities such as diabetes and kidney failure had worse outcomes compared with those without these comorbidities.

    Knowledge and attitude of dentists, dental auxiliaries and students regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Authors: Suliman Shahin; Amr Bugshan; Khalid Almulhim; Mishali AlSharief; Yousif Al-Dulaijan; Faisal al-Qarni

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53964/v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of dental professionals in Saudi Arabia regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19).Methods: A questionnaire was developed to assess various dental professionals from both governmental and private sectors through online and social media outlets. Results: A total of 1,033 responses were collected. Moreover, 63.4% of respondents (63.4%) were working in hospitals. Of all respondents, 44.9%, 33.4%, and 21.7% were in governmental clinics, academia, and private sector, respectively. Overall knowledge on incubation period TRANS and route of transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 was satisfactory across all dental professions. All dental professionals except for dental assistants demonstrated adequate knowledge on the recommended hand-soap cleaning time (p < 0.001). Most dental professionals displayed unsatisfactory knowledge and disagreement on the survival of SARS-CoV-2 outside the host (p < 0.001). Furthermore, 75.1% of respondents were reluctant to treat a suspected COVID-19 patient, and 92% participants believed that the mode of transmission TRANS was droplet inhalation. Fever MESHD Fever HP, coughing MESHD coughing HP, and shortness of breath were identified as the most common symptoms of COVID-19. Most standard methods of prevention in the dental office were selected by at least 50% of participants. Conclusions: An appropriate level of knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 incubation period TRANS and signs and symptoms MESHD of COVID-19 was noted among all dental professionals in Saudi Arabia. Perceived survival outside the host was modest. A certain level of apprehension toward suspected SARS-CoV-2 patients existed among most professionals. Pandemic-awareness campaigns are essential among healthcare providers.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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