Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Cough (251)

Infections (246)

Fever (210)

Disease (127)

Coronavirus Infections (76)


Human Phenotype

Cough (251)

Fever (210)

Pneumonia (63)

Fatigue (63)

Dyspnea (40)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Italian healthcare workers: a multicenter study

    Authors: Paolo Boffetta; Francesco Violante; Paolo Durando; Giuseppe De Palma; Enrico Pira; Luigi Vimercati; Alfonso Cristaudo; Giancarlo Icardi; Emma Sala; Maurizio Coggiola; Silvio Tafuri; Vittorio Gattini; Pietro Apostoli; Giovanna Spatari; - Working Group on SARS-CoV-2 infection in Italian healthcare workers

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20158717 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Healthcare workers (HCW) are at increased risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, yet limited information is available on risk factors of infection MESHD. Methods. We pooled data on occupational surveillance of 10,654 HCW who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in six Italian centers. Information was available on demographics, job title, department of employment, source of exposure, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and COVID-19-related symptoms. We fitted multivariable logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Findings. The prevalence SERO of infection MESHD varied across centers and ranged from 3.0% to 22.0%, being strongly correlated with that of the respective areas. Women were at lower risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD compared to men. Fever MESHD Fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP and malaise were the symptoms most strongly associated with infection MESHD, together with anosmia HP and ageusia MESHD. No differences in the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD were detected between job titles, or working in a COVID-19 designated department. Reported contact with a patient inside or outside the workplace was a risk factor. Use of a mask was strongly protective against risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD as was use of gloves. The use of a mask by the source of exposure (patient or colleague) had an independent effect in reducing infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk.

    Estimates of the rate of infection and asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 disease MESHD in a population sample from SE England

    Authors: Philippa M Wells; Katie M Doores; Simon Couvreur; Rocio Martin Martinez; Jeffrey Seow; Carl Graham; Sam Acors; Neophytos Kouphou; Stuart Neil; Richard Tedder; Pedro Matos; Kate Poulton; Maria Jose Lista; Ruth Dickenson; Helin Sertkaya; Thomas Maguire; Edward Scourfield; Ruth Bowyer; Deborah Hart; Aoife O'Byrne; Kathryn Steele; Oliver Hemmings; Carolina Rosadas; Myra McClure; Joan Capedevila-Pujol; Jonathan wolf; Sebastien Ourseilin; Matthew Brown; Michael Malim; Timothy Spector; Claire Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20162701 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Understanding of the true asymptomatic TRANS rate of infection MESHD of SARS-CoV-2 is currently limited, as is understanding of the population-based seroprevalence SERO after the first wave of COVID-19 within the UK. The majority of data thus far come from hospitalised patients, with little focus on general population cases, or their symptoms. Methods: We undertook enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO characterisation of IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein of 431 unselected general-population participants of the TwinsUK cohort from South-East England, aged TRANS 19-86 (median age TRANS 48; 85% female TRANS). 382 participants completed prospective logging of 14 COVID-19 related symptoms via the COVID Symptom Study App, allowing consideration of serology alongside individual symptoms, and a predictive algorithm for estimated COVID-19 previously modelled on PCR positive individuals from a dataset of over 2 million. Findings: We demonstrated a seroprevalence SERO of 12% (51participants of 431). Of 48 seropositive individuals with full symptom data, nine (19%) were fully asymptomatic TRANS, and 16 (27%) were asymptomatic TRANS for core COVID-19 symptoms: fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP or anosmia HP. Specificity of anosmia HP for seropositivity was 95%, compared to 88% for fever MESHD fever HP cough MESHD cough HP and anosmia HP combined. 34 individuals in the cohort were predicted to be Covid-19 positive using the App algorithm, and of those, 18 (52%) were seropositive. Interpretation: Seroprevalence SERO amongst adults TRANS from London and South-East England was 12%, and 19% of seropositive individuals with prospective symptom logging were fully asymptomatic TRANS throughout the study. Anosmia HP demonstrated the highest symptom specificity for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO response. Funding: NIHR BRC, CDRF, ZOE global LTD, RST-UKRI/MRC

    Clinical characteristics of neonates with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review

    Authors: Yuan Hu; Jing Xiong; Yuan Shi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50795/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    This study aimed to summarize the existing literature on severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in newborns to clarify the clinical features and outcomes of neonates with COVID-19. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and VIP databases from January 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020. The references of relevant studies were also searched. A descriptive summary was organized by aspects of clinical presentations (symptoms, laboratory examinations, and imaging) and outcomes. We identified 14 studies reporting 18 newborns with COVID-19. The most common clinical manifestations were fever MESHD fever HP (62.5%), shortness of breath (50.0%), diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP/ vomiting MESHD vomiting HP/feeding intolerance(43.8%), cough MESHD cough HP (37.5%), dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP (25.0%), and nasal congestion/runny nose/ sneeze MESHD sneeze HP(25.0%). Atypical symptoms included jaundice MESHD jaundice HP and convulsion. Lymphocyte numbers decreased in 5 cases, and radiographic findings were likely to show pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. All newborns recovered and discharged from the hospital, and there was no death MESHD.Conclusion: Clinical symptoms of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are atypical, most of them are mild. Up to now, the prognosis of newborns is good, and there is no death MESHD. Intrauterine vertical transmission TRANS is possible, but confirmed evidence is still lacking. The Long-term follow-up of potential influences of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on neonates need further exploration.

    Children TRANS with COVID-19 like symptoms in Italian Pediatric Surgeries: the dark side of the coin

    Authors: Gianfranco Trapani; Vassilios Fanos; Enrico Bertino; Giulia Maiocco; Osama Al Jamal; Michele Fiore; VIncenzo Bembo; Domenico Careddu; Lando Barberio; Luisella Zanino; Giuseppe Verlato

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20149757 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS are nonspecific and shared with other common acute viral illnesses ( fever MESHD fever HP, respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms, and cutaneous signs), thus making clinical differential diagnosis tricky. In Italy, first line management of pediatric care is handed over to Primary Care Pediatricians (PCPs), who were not allowed to directly perform diagnostic tests during the recent COVID-19 outbreak. Without a confirmatory diagnosis, PCPs could only collect information on ''COVID-19 like symptoms'' rather than identify typical COVID-19 symptoms. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 like symptoms in outpatient children TRANS, during Italian lockdown. To provide PCPs a risk score to be used in clinical practice during the differential diagnosis process. METHODS: A survey was submitted to 50 PCPs (assisting 47,500 children TRANS) from 7 different Italian regions between the 4th of March and the 23rd of May 2020 (total and partial lockdown period). COVID-19 like symptoms in the assisted children TRANS were recorded, as well as presence of confirmed/suspected cases in children TRANS's families, which was taken as proxy of COVID-19. Multivariable logistic regression was accomplished to estimate the risk of having suspected/ confirmed cases TRANS in families, considering symptoms as potential determinants. RESULTS: 2,300 children TRANS (4.8% of overall survey population) fell HP ill with COVID-19 like symptoms, 3.1% and 1.7% during total and partial lockdown period respectively. The concurrent presence of fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, cough MESHD cough HP, and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP in children TRANS, in absence of sore throat/ earache MESHD and abnormal skin signs, represents the maximum risk level of having a suspected/ confirmed case TRANS of COVID-19 at home. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of children TRANS presenting COVID-19 like symptoms at home has been remarkable also during the total lockdown period. The present study identified a pattern of symptoms which could help, in a cost-effective perspective, PCPs in daily clinical practice to define priorities in addressing children TRANS to the proper diagnostic procedure.

    Analyzing the dominant SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS modes towards an ab-initio SEIR model

    Authors: Swetaprovo Chaudhuri; Saptarshi Basu; Abhishek Saha

    id:2007.13596v1 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: arXiv

    In this work, different transmission TRANS modes of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and their role in determining the evolution of the Covid-19 pandemic are analyzed. Probability of infection MESHD caused by inhaling infectious droplets (initial, ejection diameters between 0.5-750$\mu m$) and probability of infection MESHD by the corresponding desiccated nuclei that mostly encapsulate the virions post droplet evaporation, are calculated. At typical, air-conditioned yet quiescent, large indoor space, for the average viral loading, and at early times, cough MESHD cough HP droplets of initial diameter between $10 \mu m$ and $50 \mu m$ have the highest infection MESHD probability. However, by the time they are to be inhaled, the diameters are most likely $5-6$ times smaller with respect to their initial diameters. While the initially near unity infection MESHD probability due to droplets (airborne/ballistic) rapidly decays within the first $25$s, the small yet persistent infection MESHD probability of airborne desiccated nuclei decays appreciably only by $1000$s. Combined with molecular collision theory adapted to calculate frequency of contact TRANS frequency of contact SERO between the susceptible population and the droplet/nuclei cloud, infection MESHD probabilities are used to define infection MESHD rate constants, ab-initio, leading to a SEIR model. Assuming the virus sustains equally well within the dried droplet nuclei as in the droplets, the floating nuclei leads to a stronger contribution to the corresponding rate constants with respect to the droplets, in the above-mentioned conditions. Combining both pathways, the basic reproduction number TRANS $\mathcal{R}_0$ caused by cough MESHD cough HP droplets and nuclei are calculated. Viral load, minimum infectious dose, sensitivity SERO of the virus half-life to the phase of its vector, extent of dilution of the respiratory jet/puff by the entraining air are the important factors that determine specific physical modes of transmission TRANS and the pandemic evolution.

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19): Reviews, Applications, and Current Status

    Authors: Tanweer Alam

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0641.v1 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: Preprints.org

    Currently, the COVID‐19 has directly affected the millions of humans lives. The symptoms of the disease MESHD involving fever MESHD fever HP, malaise, chest infection MESHD, and breathing difficulties, were identified, and its existence is continuously becoming restructured. The World Health Organization (WHO) had mentioned the wide diagnostics test besides COVID-19 that would also assist medical facilities to recognize infectious diseases as well MESHD as currently focusing efficiently on preventing and afterward defeating this viral disease MESHD. The infection MESHD is usually transmitted among human beings in direct contact, greatest through the liquid bubbles generated through cough MESHD cough HP, sneeze MESHD sneeze HP, or speaking. This paper reviews the COVID 19 pandemic, its history, current updates, contact tracing TRANS applications, and use of emerging technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT) and Blockchain for stopping the spreading and provide service online to the patient from a distance.

    EPICOVID19: Psychometric assessment and validation of a short diagnostic scale for a rapid Covid-19 screening based on reported symptoms

    Authors: Luca Bastiani; Loredana Fortunato; Stefania Pieroni; Fabrizio Bianchi; Fulvio Adorni; Federica Prinelli; Andrea Giacomelli; Gabriele Pagani; Stefania Maggi; Caterina Trevisan; Marianna Noale; Nithiya Jesuthasan; Aleksandra Sojic; Carla Pettenati; Massimo Andreoni; Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi; Massimo Galli; Sabrina Molinaro

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.22.20159590 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background Confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported in 213 countries and regions and as of 12 July 2020, over 12 million cases, with 561617 deaths MESHD have been reported worldwide. The number of cases changes quickly and varies depending upon which source you use to track, so in the current epidemiological context, the early recognition is critical for the rapid identification of suspected cases (with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD-like symptoms and signs MESHD) to be immediately subjected to quarantine measures. Although surveys are widely used for identifying COVID-19 cases, outcomes and associated risks, no validated epidemiological tool exists for surveying SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the population so far. Methods Our study is the phase II of the EPICOVID19 national survey, launched in April 2020 including a national convenience sample of 201121 adults TRANS, who voluntarily filled the EPICOVID19 questionnaire. The phase II questionnaire was mailed to all subjects who underwent tests for COVID-19 by nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and who accepted to be involved in the second phase of the study, focused on the results reported for NPS and/or serological IgG/IgM tests. We evaluated the capability of the self-reported symptoms collected through the EPICOVID19 questionnaire to discriminate the COVID-19 among symptomatic subjects, in order to identify possible cases to undergo instrumental measurements and clinical examinations. We defined a method for the identification of a total score and validated it with reference to the serological and molecular clinical diagnosis, using four standard steps: identification of critical factors, confirmation of presence of latent variable, development of optimal scoring algorithm and validation of the scoring algorithm. Findings 2703 subjects [66% response rate] completed the Phase II questionnaire. Of 2703 individuals, 694 (25.7%) were NPS(+) and of these 84 (12.1% of the 694 NPS(+)) were asymptomatic TRANS. In the individuals who performed serological testing SERO, of the 472 who did IgG(+) and 421 who did IgM(+), 22.9% and 11.6% tested positive, respectively. Among IgG(+) 1 of 108 subjects was asymptomatic TRANS (0.9%) while 5/49 subjects among IgM(+) were asymptomatic TRANS (10.2%). Compared with NPS(-), among NPS(+) subjects there was a higher rate for Fever MESHD Fever HP (421 [60.7%] vs 391[19.5% ]; p<0.0001), Loss of Taste and/or Smell (365 [52.6%] vs 239 [11.9% ]; p<0.0001) and Cough MESHD Cough HP (352 [50.7%] vs 580 [28.9% ]; p<0.0001). Also for other symptoms the frequencies were significantly higher in NPS(+) subjects than in NPS(-) ones (p<0.001). Among groups with serological tests SERO, the symptoms with higher percentages in the subjects IgG(+) were Fever MESHD Fever HP (65 [60.2%] vs 43[11.8% ]; p<0.0001) and Pain MESHD Pain HP in muscles, bones, joints (73 [67.6%] vs 71 [19.5% ]; p<0.0001). For the COVID-19 self-reported symptoms items, exploratory (proportion variance explained [89.9%]) and confirmatory factor analysis results (SMSR 0.072; RMSEA 0.052) highlights the presence of one latent variable (factor) underlying the symptoms. We define the one-factor solution as EPICOVID19 diagnostic scale and optimal score for each items was identified: Respiratory problems (1.03), Chest pain MESHD Chest pain HP (1.07), Loss of Taste and/or Smell (0.97) and Tachycardia MESHD Tachycardia HP ( palpitations HP) (1.05) were the most important symptoms. The cut-off score was 2.56 ( Sensitivity SERO 76.56%; Specificity 68.24%) in NPS(+) and 2.59 (Se 80.37; Sp 80.17) in IgG(+) subjects.

    Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage After COVID-19 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Sajjad Muhammad; Soheil Naderi; Mostafa Ahmadi; Askar Ghorbani; Daniel Hänggi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48374/v1 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 virus infection MESHD leads to a severe and dysbalanced inflammatory response with hypercytokinemia and immunodepression. Systemic inflammation MESHD due to viral infections MESHD can potentially cause vascular damage including disruption of blood SERO-brain barrier (BBB) and alterations in coagulation system that may also lead to cardiovascular and neurovascular events. Here, we report the first case of COVID-19 infection MESHD leading to aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). Case DescriptionA 61-year-old woman presented with dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, cough MESHD cough HP and fever MESHD fever HP. She was over weight with Body MESHD mass-index of 34 and history of hypertension MESHD hypertension HP. No history of subarachnoid hemorrhage MESHD subarachnoid hemorrhage HP in the family. She was admitted in ICU due to low oxygen saturation (89%). A chest CT showed typical picture of COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Oropharyngeal swab with a PCR-based testing was COVID-19 positive. She was prescribed with favipiravir and hydroxychloroquine in Addition to oxygen support. On second day she experienced sudden headache MESHD headache HP and losst conciousness. A computer tomography (CT) with CT-angiography revealed subarachnoid haemorrhage in basal cisterns from a ruptured MESHD anterior communicating artery aneurysm MESHD. The aneurysm MESHD was clipped microsurgically through a standard pterional approach and the patient was admitted again to intensive care unit for further intensive medical treatment. Post-operative the patient showed slight motor dysphasia HP. No other neurological deficits.ConclusionAneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to COVID-19 infection MESHD might be triggered by systemic inflammation MESHD. COVID-19 infection MESHD could be one of the risk factors leading to instability and rupture MESHD of intracranial aneurysm MESHD.

    Pandemic of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Saudi Arabia

    Authors: Maryam Ahmed Awaji

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0549.v1 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: Preprints.org

    Introduction Most cases of COVID-19 coronavirus infection MESHD occurred in the Chinese city of Wuhan at the end of December 2019 in the form of acute pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. COVID-19 virus infects people of all ages TRANS. The most affected elderly TRANS people with underlying medical conditions. This may cause various symptoms such as fever MESHD fever HP, difficulty breathing, lung infection MESHD, coughing MESHD coughing HP and sneezing MESHD sneezing HP. Aim The aim of the present study to highlight the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Method A search was conducted using the relevant keywords to retrieve the studies conducted in Saudi Arabia regarding COVID-19. The search was by Google Scholar, Pub MED, and Twitter. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic carries multiple-risk, and public health groups, such as the United States' Centres for Disease MESHD Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organisation (WHO), are monitoring the pandemic and posting updates on their website. These groups have also made recommendations on disease MESHD prevention and treatment, and according to the Saudi Centres for Disease MESHD Control, they have also included the necessary public health measures for mandatory reporting by calling a certain number and through the e-health monitoring network.

    COVID-19 infection MESHD among healthcare workers: a cross-sectional study in southwest Iran

    Authors: Golnar Sabetian; Mohsen Moghadami; Leila Hashemizadeh Fard Haghighi; Mohammad Javad Fallahi; Reza Shahriarirad; Naeimehossadat Asmarian; Yalda Sadat Moeini

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-47641/v1 Date: 2020-07-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: With the novel coronavirus pandemic, the impact on the healthcare system and workers cannot be overlooked.  However, studies on the infection MESHD status of medical personnel are still lacking. It is imperative to ensure the safety of health-care workers (HCWs) not only to safeguard continuous patient care but also to ensure they do not transmit the virus, therefore evaluation infection MESHD rates in these groups are indicated.Methods: Demographic and clinical data regarding infected cases among HCWs of Fars, Iran with positive SARS‐CoV‐2 PCR tests were obtained from 10th March to 16th May.Results: Our data demonstrated a rate of 5.62% (273 out of 4854 cases) infection MESHD among HCW, with a mean age TRANS of 35 years and a dominance of female TRANS cases (146 cases: 53.5%). The majority of infected cases were among nurses (51.3%) while the most case infection MESHD rate (CIR) was among physicians (27 out of 842 performed test (3.2%)). Also, the highest rate of infection MESHD was in the emergency MESHD rooms (30.6%). Also, 35.5% of the patients were asymptomatic TRANS and the most frequent clinical features among symptomatic patients were myalgia MESHD myalgia HP (46%) and cough MESHD cough HP (45.5%). Although 5.5% were admitted to hospitals, there were no reports of ICU admission. Furthermore, 10.3% of the cases reported transmitting the infection MESHD to family and friends TRANS. Regarding safety precautions, 1.6% didn't wear masks and 18.7% didn't use gloves in work environments. Conclusion: HCWs are among the highest groups at risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD during the COVID-19 pandemic; therefore, analysis of the infection MESHD status of these groups is vital to maintain enough attention from the public, provide effective suggestions for government agencies and expanding protective measures is essential to decrease infection MESHD rates.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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