Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


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    Proposal of selective wedge instillation of pulmonary surfactant for COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD based on computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Authors: Hiroko Kitaoka; Hisato Kobayashi; Takayuki Takimoto; Takashi Kijima

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The most important target cell of SARS-CoV-2 is Type II pneumocyte which produces and secretes pulmonary MESHD surfactant (PS) that prevents alveolar MESHD collapse. PS instillation therapy is dramatically effective for infant respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome but has been clinically ineffective for ARDS. Nowadays, ARDS is regarded as non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema HP pulmonary edema MESHD with vascular hyper-permeability regardless of direct relation to PS dysfunction. However, there is a possibility that the ineffectiveness of PS instillation for ARDS is due to insufficient delivery MESHD. Then, we performed PS instillation simulation with realistic human airway models by the use of computational fluid dynamics, and investigated how instilled PS would move in the liquid layer covering the airway wall and reach to alveolar regions MESHD.Methods: Two types of 3D human airway model were prepared: One was from the trachea to lobular bronchi and the other was from a sub-segmental bronchus to respiratory bronchioles. Thickness of the liquid layer covering the airway was assigned as 14 % of the inner radius of the airway segment. Initially existing liquid layer was assumed to be replaced by instilled PS. Flow rate of instilled PS was assigned a constant value, which was determined by the total amount and instillation time in clinical use. The PS concentration of the liquid layer during instillation was computed by solving advective-diffusion equation.Results: The driving pressure from the trachea to respiratory bronchioles was calculated at 317 cmH2O, which is about 20 times of a standard value in conventional PS instillation method where the driving pressure is given by difference between inspiratory and end-expiratory pressures of a ventilator. It means that almost all PS would not reach alveolar MESHD regions but move to and fro within the airway according to the change of ventilator pressure. On the other hand, the driving pressure from sub-segmental bronchus was calculated at 273 cm H2O, that is clinically possible by wedge instillation under bronchoscopic observation. Conclusions: The simulation study has revealed that selective wedge instillation under bronchoscopic observation should be tried for COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD even before ARDS. It will be also useful for preventing secondary lung fibrosis MESHD

    Early Oxygen Inhalation to Prevent SARS-CoV-2-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome MESHD Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome

    Authors: Shu Yuan; Si-Cong Jiang; Zi-Lin Li

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0360.v1 Date: 2020-04-20 Source:

    Acute respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) and the serious complications are the most frequent causes of death of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. We bring out a hypothesis that early low-flow oxygen inhalation would maintain the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction MESHD (an essential protection mechanism of the lung that optimize gas exchange) and accelerate the re-absorption of pulmonary edema HP pulmonary edema MESHD fluid. The optimal time for oxygen therapy was analyzed and four comments are proposed: (1) Finger SpO2 should be measured at home simultaneously with the first-time nucleic acid test. (2) If the patient's SpO2 was lower than the reference value by 2% or more, it is suggested to be hospitalized immediately for standard low-flow oxygen inhalation. (3) If it was not possible to be admitted to hospital immediately, the patient is recommended to take oxygen in the home. (4) The Patients with low SpO2 are advised to use prone position as much as possible.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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