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MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    The COVID-19 mortality effects of underlying health conditions in India: a modelling study

    Authors: Paul Novosad; Radhika Jain; Alison Campion; Sam Asher

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.05.20140343 Date: 2020-07-08 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To model how known COVID-19 comorbidities will affect mortality rates and the age TRANS distribution of mortality in a large lower middle income country (India), as compared with a high income country (England), and to identify which health conditions drive any differences. Design: Modelling study. Setting: England and India. Participants: 1,375,548 respondents aged TRANS 18 to 99 to the District Level Household Survey-4 and Annual Health Survey in India. Additional information on health condition prevalence SERO on individuals aged TRANS 18 to 99 was obtained from the Health Survey for England and the Global Burden of Diseases, Risk Factors, and Injuries Studies (GBD). Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was the proportional increase in age TRANS-specific mortality in each country due to the prevalence SERO of each COVID-19 mortality risk factor ( diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, chronic heart disease MESHD, respiratory illness MESHD, kidney disease MESHD, liver disease MESHD, and cancer MESHD, among others). The combined change in overall mortality and the share of deaths under 60 from the combination of risk factors was estimated in each country. Results: Relative to England, Indians have higher rates of diabetes MESHD (10.6% vs. 8.5%), chronic respiratory disease MESHD (4.8% vs. 2.5%), and kidney disease MESHD (9.7% vs. 5.6%), and lower rates of obesity HP obesity MESHD (4.4% vs. 27.9%), chronic heart disease MESHD (4.4% vs. 5.9%), and cancer MESHD (0.3% vs. 2.8%). Population COVID-19 mortality in India relative to England is most increased by diabetes MESHD (+5.4%) and chronic respiratory disease MESHD (+2.3%), and most reduced by obesity HP obesity MESHD (-9.7%), cancer MESHD (-3.2%), and chronic heart disease MESHD (-1.9%). Overall, comorbidities lower mortality in India relative to England by 9.7%. Accounting for demographics and population health explains a third of the difference in share of deaths under age TRANS 60 between the two countries. Conclusions: Known COVID-19 health risk factors are not expected to have a large effect on aggregate mortality or its age TRANS distribution in India relative to England. The high share of COVID-19 deaths from people under 60 in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains unexplained. Understanding mortality risk associated with health conditions prevalent in LMICs, such as malnutrition HP malnutrition MESHD and HIV MESHD/ AIDS MESHD, is essential for understanding differential mortality. Keywords: COVID-19, India, low- and middle-income countries, comorbidity

    Beyond COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review of the Role of Global Health in the Evolution and Practice of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Authors: Henry Asante Antwi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40212/v1 Date: 2020-07-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundGlobal health crisis continues to drive the dynamics of corporate social responsibility across industries with self-perpetuating momentum. From a historical point of view, more than a century of immense corporate fecundity has formed the ecological conditions and shaped current understanding of the effect of global health on CSR. The HIV-AIDS MESHD, the Opiod, the environmental health, obesity HP obesity MESHD and many other health crises have become a synergistic platform to enhance corporate offer and competitiveness through voluntary support and care for victims. This review therefore revisits the core issues in global health that continues to drive CSR across industries. It seek to establish the driving dynamics of healthcare in CSR engagement, identify its contribution to theory and practice and predict the future pattern as corporate enterprises navigate new CSR strategies through the epochal challenges presented by COVID-19MethodThe procedures and set of activities outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow chart was used to carry out the systematic review.ResultsThe analysis has shown that from time immemorial, global health has played a major role in the development and implementation of CSR among enterprises. The HIV-AIDS pandemic MESHD, the environmental health crises are two dominant global health crisis that have shaped and continue to drive CSR activities in numerous work places but COVID-19 presents a deeper challenge for enterprise. These diseases are capable of self-mobilising advocates at the international level, have a grabbing value that reaches the corridors of power in international humanitarian organisations and multinational enterprises.ConclusionsThe impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) on CSR is predicted to be monumental and uncommon. The call for a radical overhaul of health and safety measures in enterprises is now urgent than ever before. There is a moral obligation for enterprises to reform current risk assessments and collaborate more deeply with state agencies to invest in the health and safety inspections at the world place.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).
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MeSH Disease
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