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MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    AIDS MESHD and COVID-19 are two diseases separated by a common lymphocytopenia MESHD

    Authors: Salvatore Sciacchitano; Simonetta Giovagnoli; Rachele Amodeo; Iolanda Santino; Maurizio Simmaco; Paolo Anibaldi; Deborah French; Rita Mancini; Claudia De Vitis; Michela D'Ascanio; Alberto Ricci; Alfredo Pennica; Antonio Aceti

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-43462/v1 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    HIV and SARS-CoV-2 are responsible for two of the most dangerous and life-threatening infectious diseases of our times. To better analyze the difference in the immunological response elicited by the two infections, we compare the alterations in the lymphocyte subpopulations, measured by flow cytometry analysis (FCA) in both AIDS MESHD and COVID-19 patients, referred to our University Hospital. A total of 184 HIV infected MESHD patients were retrospectively examined and the results of FCA collected and compared to those obtained in 110 SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients, examined during the actual outbreak. We observe a comparable reduction in B cells in both diseases and a more severe reduction in the total amount of T cells in COVID-19 as compared to AIDS MESHD patients. The analysis of the T cells subpopulations indicates that there is a comparable reduction in the CD4+ cells count. Conversely, a remarkable difference between them is observed in the CD8+ counts. In AIDS MESHD patients the CD8+ cells are slightly higher than normal, while in COVID-19 patients the CD8+ cell count is markedly reduced. As a result, the CD4+/CD8+ ratios, is very low in AIDS MESHD and higher than normal in COVID-19 patients. The NK cells are reduced in both diseases, but SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD causes a more severe reduction compared to HIV infection MESHD. In conclusion, both HIV and SARS-CoV-2 MESHD viruses induce major changes in the lymphocytes count, with remarkable similarities and differences between them. The total absolute numbers of T cells and, in particular of the CD8+ subpopulation, are lower in COVID-19 patients compared to AIDS MESHD ones, while the CD4+ are reduced in both at similar levels. These results indicate that the host immune system reacts differently to the two infection MESHD, but they are responsible of a comparable dropping effect on the serum SERO levels of CD4+ T cell population. The meaning of the similarities and of the differences in terms of T cells activation and serum SERO depletion are discussed. The knowledge on how the immune system reacts to these two infections will be useful to better define their mechanism of action and to design specific preventive and therapeutic approaches.

    All-in-One Dual CRISPR-Cas12a (AIOD-CRISPR) Assay: A Case for Rapid, Ultrasensitive and Visual Detection of Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and HIV virus

    Authors: Xiong Ding; Kun Yin; Ziyue Li; Changchun Liu

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.19.998724 Date: 2020-03-21 Source: bioRxiv

    A recent outbreak of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, has spread rapidly all over the world. Human immunodeficiency HP immunodeficiency MESHD virus ( HIV MESHD) is another deadly virus and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MESHD immunodeficiency HP syndrome ( AIDS MESHD). Rapid and early detection of these viruses will facilitate early intervention and reduce disease transmission risk TRANS. Here, we present an All-In-One Dual CRISPR-Cas12a (termed "AIOD-CRISPR") assay method for simple, rapid, ultrasensitive, one-pot, and visual detection of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and HIV virus MESHD. In our AIOD CRISPR assay, a pair of crRNAs was introduced to initiate dual CRISPR-Cas12a detection and improve detection sensitivity SERO. The AIOD-CRISPR assay system was successfully utilized to detect nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV with a sensitivity SERO of few copies. Also, it was evaluated by detecting HIV-1 RNA extracted from human plasma SERO samples, achieving a comparable sensitivity SERO with real-time RT-PCR method. Thus, our method has a great potential for developing next-generation point-of-care molecular diagnostics.

    Methylene blue photochemical treatment as a reliable SARS-CoV-2 plasma SERO virus inactivation method for blood SERO safety and convalescent plasma SERO therapy for the COVID-19 outbreak

    Authors: Changzhong Jin; Bin Yu; Jie Zhang; Hao Wu; Xipeng Zhou; Hangping Yao; Fumin Liu; Xiangyun Lu; Linfang Cheng; Miao Jiang; Nanping Wu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-17718/v1 Date: 2020-03-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background  With the outbreak of unknown pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in Wuhan, China in December 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) attracted worldwide attention. Although coronaviruses typically infect the upper MESHD or lower respiratory tract, discovery of the virus in plasma SERO is common. Therefore, the risk of transmitting coronavirus through transfusion of blood SERO products remains. As more asymptomatic TRANS infections are found in COVID-19 cases, blood SERO safety is shown to be particularly important, especially in endemic areas. Study Design and MethodsBX-1, an ‘ AIDS MESHD treatment instrument’ based on methylene blue (MB) photochemical technology, developed by Boxin (Beijing) Biotechnology Development LTD, has proven that inactivation of lipid-enveloped viruses such as HIV-1 in plasma SERO has high efficiency, without damage to other components in the plasma SERO, and proved safe and reliable in clinical trials of HIV treatment. In order to confirm the inactivation effect of BX-1 in SARS-CoV-2, we used the SARS-CoV-2 virus strain isolated from Zhejiang University for plasma SERO virus inactivation studies. Results and ConclusionBX-1 can effectively eliminate SARS-CoV-2 within 2 mins, and the virus titer decline can reach 4.5 log10 TCID50/mL. Faced with the expanding epidemic, BX-1 is safe for blood SERO transfusion and plasma SERO transfusion therapy in recovery patients, and the inactivated vaccine preparation has great potential for treatment in the current outbreak.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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