Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    COVID-19 Pandemic and the South African Podiatrist

    Authors: Bernhard Zipfel; Nadia Dembskey

    id:10.20944/preprints202009.0425.v1 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: Preprints.org

    The Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is clearly taking a firmer grip on South Africa and more podiatrists will face the potential transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2. Government response was swift with the implementation of a travel TRANS ban, strict national lockdown as well as social distancing and hygiene protocols in line with international health regulations. Co-morbidities such as tuberculosis MESHD and HIV MESHD/ AIDS MESHD, endemic to South Africa, are considered a dangerous combination with COVID-19, making many South Africans vulnerable to contracting the COVID-19. Patients with diabetes MESHD as well as the aged TRANS are vulnerable, both in terms of potential combined complications and challenges in continuity in foot care. The demands of the pandemic may outstrip the ability of the health systems to cope. Should this time arrive, all healthcare practitioners, including podiatrists, would have to step in and take on a role beyond their scope of practice in order to ensure that the healthcare system does not get overwhelmed. It is important for podiatrists to keep abreast with the developments around the COVID-19, in order that they may institute appropriate clinical practice which will ensure maximum protection for themselves, staff and patients as well as providing quality foot health care.

    Modeling COVID-19 Transmission TRANS in Africa: Country-wise Projections of Total and Severe Infections HP Under Different Lockdown Scenarios

    Authors: Isabel Frost; Jessica Craig; Gilbert Osena; Stephanie Hauck; Erta Kalanxhi; Emily Schueller; Oliver Gatalo; Yupeng Yany; Katie Tseng; Gary Lin; Eili Klein

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.20188102 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives As of August 24th 2020, there have been 1,084,904 confirmed cases TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 and 24,683 deaths across the African continent. Despite relatively lower numbers of cases initially, many African countries are now experiencing an exponential increase in case numbers. Estimates of the progression of disease and potential impact of different interventions are needed to inform policy making decisions. Herein, we model the possible trajectory of SARS-CoV-2 in 52 African countries under different intervention scenarios. Design We developed a compartmental model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS to estimate the COVID-19 case burden for all African countries while considering four scenarios: no intervention, moderate lockdown, hard lockdown, and hard lockdown with continued restrictions once lockdown is lifted. We further analyzed the potential impact of COVID-19 on vulnerable populations affected by HIV MESHD/ AIDS MESHD and TB. Results In the absence of an intervention, the most populous countries had the highest peaks in active projected number of infections MESHD with Nigeria having an estimated 645,081 severe infections HP infections MESHD. The scenario with a hard lockdown and continued post-lockdown interventions to reduce transmission TRANS was the most efficacious strategy for delaying the time to the peak and reducing the number of cases. In South Africa projected peak severe infections HP increase from 162,977 to 203,261, when vulnerable populations with HIV MESHD/ AIDS MESHD and TB are included in the analysis. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic is rapidly spreading across the African continent. Estimates of the potential impact of interventions and burden of disease are essential for policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the distribution of limited resources and to balance the economic costs of interventions with the potential for saving lives.

    Overcoming Reporting Delays Is Critical to Timely Epidemic Monitoring: The Case of COVID-19 in New York City

    Authors: Jeffrey E Harris

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20159418 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    During a fast-moving epidemic, timely monitoring of case counts and other key indicators of disease spread TRANS is critical to an effective public policy response. We describe a nonparametric statistical method - originally applied to the reporting of AIDS MESHD cases in the 1980s - to estimate the distribution of reporting delays of confirmed COVID-19 cases in New York City. During June 21 - August 1, 2020, the estimated mean delay in reporting was 5 days, with 15 percent of cases reported after 10 or more days. Relying upon the estimated reporting-delay distribution, we project COVID-19 incidence during the most recent three weeks as if each case had instead been reported on the same day that the underlying diagnostic test had been performed. The statistical method described here overcomes the problem of reporting delays only at the population level. The method does not eliminate reporting delays at the individual level. That will require improvements in diagnostic technology, test availability, and specimen processing.

    COVID-19 in Uganda: Predicting the impact of the disease and public health response on disease burden

    Authors: David Bell; Kristian Schultz Hansen; Agnes N Kiragga; Andrew Kambugu; John Kissa; Anthony K Mbonye

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20102202 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    Objective COVID-19 transmission TRANS and the public health lock-down response are now established in sub-Saharan Africa, including Uganda. Population structure and prior morbidities differ markedly between these countries from those where outbreaks were previously established. We predicted the relative impact of COVID-19 and the response in Uganda to understand whether the benefits could be outweighed by the costs. Design and setting Age TRANS-based COVID-19 mortality data from China were applied to the population structures of Uganda and countries with previously established outbreaks, comparing theoretical mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Based on recent Ugandan data and theoretical scenarios of programme deterioration, we predicted potential additional disease burden for HIV/AIDS, malaria MESHD and maternal mortality. Main outcome measures DALYs lost and mortality. Results Based on population age TRANS structure alone Uganda is predicted to have a relatively low COVID-19 burden compared to equivalent transmission TRANS in China and Western countries, with mortality and DALYs lost predicted to be 12% and 19% that of Italy. Scenarios of lockdown impact predict HIV/ AIDS MESHD and malaria MESHD equivalent to or higher than that of an extensive COVID-19 outbreak. Emerging HIV/ AIDS MESHD and maternal mortality data indicate that such deterioration could be occurring. Conclusions The results predict a relatively low COVID-19 impact on Uganda associated with its young population, with a high risk of negative impact on non-COVID-19 disease burden from a prolonged lockdown response. The results are likely to reflect the situation in other sub-Saharan populations, underlining the importance of tailoring COVID-19 responses to population structure and potential disease vulnerabilities.

    All-in-One Dual CRISPR-Cas12a (AIOD-CRISPR) Assay: A Case for Rapid, Ultrasensitive and Visual Detection of Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and HIV virus at the Point of Care

    Authors: Xiong Ding; Kun Yin; Ziyue Li; Rajesh V. Lalla; Enrique Ballesteros; Maroun M. Sfeir; Changchun Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-25826/v1 Date: 2020-04-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    The recent outbreak of novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19 disease, has spread TRANS rapidly all over the world. Human immunodeficiency HP immunodeficiency MESHD virus ( HIV MESHD) is another deadly virus and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MESHD immunodeficiency HP syndrome ( AIDS MESHD). Rapid and early detection of these viruses will facilitate early intervention and prevent disease spread TRANS. Here, we present an All-In-One Dual CRISPR-Cas12a (termed "AIOD-CRISPR") assay method for simple, rapid, ultrasensitive, specific, one-pot, and visual detection of coronavirus SARS-CoV- 2 and HIV-1 virus. In our AIOD-CRISPR assay, a pair of crRNAs was introduced to initiate dual CRISPR-Cas12a-based detection and improve both detection sensitivity SERO and fluorescence signals. The AIOD-CRISPR assay method was utilized to detect nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) of the SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 with a sensitivity SERO of few copies. We validated our AIOD-CRISPR method by using COVID-19 swab samples and obtained consistent results with that of RT-PCR method. More importantly, we successfully demonstrated to use a low- cost hand warmer (~$ 0.3) as an incubator of our AIOD-CRISPR assay and detect COVID-19 patient samples within 20 minutes, enabling an instrument-free, visual detection of COVID-19 at the point of care. Thus, our method has significant potential for developing next-generation point-of-care molecular diagnostics.

    The reflection on an AIDS MESHD patient with asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 

    Authors: Rongrong Yang; Xien Gui; Shicheng Gao; Pingzheng Mo; Hengning Ke; Yongxi Zhang; Yong Xiong

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-18738/v1 Date: 2020-03-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    We reported the process of exposure, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and prognosis of an A IDS MESHDpatient with asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19. In our report, we found the asymptomatic TRANS is still shedding virus for at least 29 days. Therefore, we suggested that for individuals who had close contact TRANS with diagnosed or suspected COVID-19 patients, in addition to isolation, medical observation, and further related testing if clinical symptoms appear in the observation period, it is best to collect nasopharyngeal and throat swab specimens and test for COVID-19 nucleic acid as early as possible. The purpose of this active detection is to screen out COVID-19 asymptomatic patients, and to avoid further transmission TRANS through recessive source of i nfection. MESHD Our findings will facilitate understanding of asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 and improve prevention strategies against COVID-19 transmission. 

    All-in-One Dual CRISPR-Cas12a (AIOD-CRISPR) Assay: A Case for Rapid, Ultrasensitive and Visual Detection of Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and HIV virus

    Authors: Xiong Ding; Kun Yin; Ziyue Li; Changchun Liu

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.19.998724 Date: 2020-03-21 Source: bioRxiv

    A recent outbreak of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, has spread rapidly all over the world. Human immunodeficiency HP immunodeficiency MESHD virus ( HIV MESHD) is another deadly virus and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MESHD immunodeficiency HP syndrome ( AIDS MESHD). Rapid and early detection of these viruses will facilitate early intervention and reduce disease transmission risk TRANS. Here, we present an All-In-One Dual CRISPR-Cas12a (termed "AIOD-CRISPR") assay method for simple, rapid, ultrasensitive, one-pot, and visual detection of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and HIV virus MESHD. In our AIOD CRISPR assay, a pair of crRNAs was introduced to initiate dual CRISPR-Cas12a detection and improve detection sensitivity SERO. The AIOD-CRISPR assay system was successfully utilized to detect nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV with a sensitivity SERO of few copies. Also, it was evaluated by detecting HIV-1 RNA extracted from human plasma SERO samples, achieving a comparable sensitivity SERO with real-time RT-PCR method. Thus, our method has a great potential for developing next-generation point-of-care molecular diagnostics.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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