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    Blood SERO Type Distribution in Autoimmune Diseases MESHD: An Anonymous, Large-Scale, Self-Report Pilot Study

    Authors: Edward S Harris; Harlan D Harris; Miroslav Malkovsky

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-75388/v1 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Recent research has verified that blood SERO group or Rh factor can influence susceptibility to various cardiovascular, neoplastic and infectious diseases MESHD including COVID-19. While a number of studies have looked at correlations between blood SERO group and various rheumatological diseases MESHD, findings have been inconsistent, often because many of these studies suffered from small sample size issues. In order to better understand the potential relationships between blood SERO group/Rh factor and rheumatological diseases MESHD, we performed a large-scale self-report pilot study of blood SERO type distributions in five autoimmune diseases MESHD.Methods: Five autoimmune diseases MESHD were included in the study: systemic sclerosis MESHD, systemic lupus erythematosus HP systemic lupus erythematosus MESHD, rheumatoid arthritis HP rheumatoid arthritis MESHD, psoriasis MESHD, and ankylosing spondylitis MESHD. We also included a control group in which participants did not have any autoimmune diseases MESHD.  The participants were recruited through social media and organizations such as the Lupus Foundation and the National Psoriasis Foundation. Respondents who met the inclusion criteria were asked only two questions by anonymous survey: blood SERO type and country of birth.Results: Each autoimmune disorder MESHD group included between 570 and 951 US participants. While there was little difference in blood SERO type distribution patterns among the five diseases, unexpectedly, all five disease groups showed a consistent pattern where Rh negative was almost twice as high as US population norms. A post-hoc non-autoimmune control group was added in order to determine if this anomalous finding was an artifact of the study design. The control group displayed a similar unexpected increase in the Rh-negative blood SERO type prevalence SERO, suggesting that the very high Rh-negative frequency among the tested disease groups was likely to be an artifact of the study design. Conclusions: Overall, our preliminary study results show no meaningful differences between the disease groups and the post-hoc control group, suggesting that neither ABO type nor Rh factor affects susceptibility to the development of any of the five studied autoimmune diseases MESHD. Nevertheless, the unexpected observed difference in Rh factor distribution between the studied groups/control group and the corresponding US population norms has important implications for any research study using self-selected subjects.  Our results suggest that such studies may be subject to unanticipated biases, requiring meticulous controls to confirm impartiality and exclude any artifacts of the study design.

    Association between autoimmune diseases MESHD and COVID-19 as assessed in both a test-negative case-control and population case-control design

    Authors: Rossella Murtas; Anita Andreano; Federico Gervasi; Davide Guido; David Consolazio; Sara Tunesi; Laura Andreoni; Maria Teresa Greco; Maria Elena Gattoni; Monica Sandrini; Antonio Riussi; Antonio Giampiero Russo

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-58948/v1 Date: 2020-08-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 epidemic has paralleled with the so called infodemic, where countless pieces of information have been disseminated on putative risk factors for COVID-19. Among those, emerged the notion that people suffering from autoimmune diseases MESHD ( AIDs MESHD) have a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods: The cohort included all COVID-19 cases residents in the Agency for Health Protection (AHP) of Milan that, from the beginning of the outbreak, developed a web-based platform that traced TRANS positive and negative cases as well as related contacts. AIDs MESHD subjects were defined ad having one the following autoimmune disease MESHD: rheumatoid arthritis HP rheumatoid arthritis MESHD, systemic lupus erythematosus HP systemic lupus erythematosus MESHD, systemic sclerosis MESHD, Sjogren disease, ankylosing spondylitis MESHD, myasthenia gravis MESHD, Hashimoto's disease MESHD, acquired autoimmune hemolytic anemia HP autoimmune hemolytic anemia MESHD, and psoriatic arthritis MESHD arthritis HP. To investigate whether AID subjects are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, and whether they have worse prognosis than AIDs MESHD-free subjects once infected, we performed a combined analysis of a test-negative design case-control study, a case-control with test-positive as cases, and one with test-negative as cases (CC-NEG). Results: During the outbreak, the Milan AHP endured, up to April 27th 2020, 20,364 test-positive and 34,697 test-negative subjects. We found no association between AIDs MESHD and being positive to COVID-19, but a statistically significant association between AIDs MESHD and being negative to COVID-19 in the CC-NEG. If, as likely, test-negative subjects underwent testing because of respiratory infection MESHD symptoms, these results imply that autoimmune diseases MESHD may be a risk factor for respiratory infections MESHD in general (including COVID-19), but they are not a specific risk factor for COVID-19. Furthermore, when infected by SARS-CoV-2, AIDs MESHD subjects did not have a worse prognosis compared to non- AIDs MESHD subjects. Results highlighted a potential unbalance in the testing campaign, which may be correlated to the characteristics of the tested person, leading specific frail population to be particularly tested.Conclusions: Lack of availability of sound scientific knowledge inevitably lead unreliable news to spread over the population, preventing people to disentangle them form reliable information. Even if additional studies are needed to replicate and strengthen our results, these findings represent initial evidence to derive recommendations based on actual data for subjects with autoimmune diseases MESHD.

    Chronic treatment with hydroxychloroquine and SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Authors: Antonio Ferreira; Antonio Oliveira-e-Silva; Paulo Bettencourt

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.26.20056507 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Hydroxychloroquine sulphate (HCQ) is being scrutinized for repositioning in the treatment and prevention of SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD. This antimalarial drug is also chronically used to treat patients with autoimmune diseases MESHD. Methods: By analyzing the Portuguese anonymized data on private and public based medical prescriptions we have identified all cases chronically receiving HCQ for the management of diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus HP systemic lupus erythematosus MESHD, rheumatoid arthritis HP rheumatoid arthritis MESHD, and other autoimmune diseases MESHD. Additionally, we have detected all laboratory confirmed cases TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and all laboratory confirmed negative cases in the Portuguese population (mandatorily registered in a centrally managed database). Cross linking the two sets of data has allowed us to compare the proportion of HCQ chronic treatment (at least 2 grams per month) in laboratory confirmed cases TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD with laboratory confirmed negative cases. Results: Out of 26,815 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, 77 (0.29%) were chronically treated with HCQ, while 1,215 (0.36%) out of 333,489 negative patients were receiving it chronically (P=0.04). After adjustment for age TRANS, sex, and chronic treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants, the odds ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection for chronic HP treatment with HCQ has been 0.51 (0.37-0.70). Conclusions: Our data suggest that chronic treatment with HCQ confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    A Novel RP-HPLC-DAD Method Development for Anti-Malarial MESHD and COVID-19 Hydroxy Chloroquine Sulfate Tablets and Profiling of In-Vitro Dissolution in Multimedia.

    Authors: THIRUPATHI DONGALA; Santhosh Kumar Ettaboina; Naresh Kumar Katari

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.pex-880/v2 Date: 2020-04-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Hydroxychloroquine sulfate is one of a large series of 4-aminoquinolines with antimalarial activity. Moreover, it is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis HP rheumatoid arthritis MESHD. Sometimes Hydroxychloroquine sulfate is very effective for the treatment of autoimmune diseases MESHD. Based on the recent clinical experiments it is exploiting for the treatment of COVID-19, corona virus across the globe. A Reverse phase RP-HPLC method have been developed and validated as per the current ICH MESHD guidelines for estimation of Hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets. As part of method validation specificity, linearity, precision and recovery parameters were verified. The concentration and area relationships were linear (R2 > 0.999), over the concentration range of 25 to 300 µg mL-1 for HCQ. The relative standard deviations for precision and intermediate precision were less than 1.5%. The proposed RP-HPLC generic method was applied successfully for evaluation of invitro dissolution profile with different pH conditions like 0.1N HCl, pH 4.5 Acetate buffer and pH 6.8 Phosphate buffers of US marketed reference product.

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