Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (201)

Hypertension (137)

Fever (122)

Cough (105)

Respiratory distress (88)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Oncologic Immunomodulatory Agents in Patients with Cancer and COVID-19

    Authors: Justin Jee; Aaron J Stonestrom; Sean Devlin; Teresa Nguyentran; Beatriz Wills; Varun Narendra; Michael B Foote; Melissa Lumish; Santosha Vardhana; Stephen Pastores; Neha Korde; Dhwani Patel; Steven Horwitz; Michael Scordo; Anthony Daniyan

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.11.20145458 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background Corticosteroids, anti-CD20 agents, immunotherapies, and cytotoxic chemotherapy are commonly used in the treatment of patients with cancer. How these agents impact patients with cancer who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear. Methods We retrospectively investigated associations between SARS-CoV-2-associated respiratory failure HP or death MESHD with receipt of the aforementioned medications and with pre-COVID-19 neutropenia MESHD neutropenia HP. The study included all cancer patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center until June 2, 2020 (N=820). We controlled for cancer-related characteristics known to predispose to worse COVID-19. To address that more acutely ill patients receive therapeutic corticosteroids, we examined patient subsets based on different levels of respiratory support: <=2 L/min supplemental oxygen, >2L/min supplemental oxygen, and advanced respiratory support prior to death MESHD. Results Corticosteroid administration was associated with worse outcomes in the pre-2L supplemental oxygen cohort; no statistically significant difference was observed in the >2L/min supplemental oxygen and post-critical cohorts. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were lower, and ferritin levels were higher, after corticosteroid administration. In patients with metastatic thoracic cancer, 9 of 25 (36%) and 10 of 31 (32%) had respiratory failure HP or death MESHD among those who did and did not receive immunotherapy, respectively. Seven of 23 (30%) and 52 of 187 (28%) patients with hematologic cancer had respiratory failure HP or death MESHD among those who did and did not receive anti-CD20 therapy, respectively. Chemotherapy itself was not associated with worse outcomes, but pre-COVID-19 neutropenia MESHD neutropenia HP was associated with worse COVID-19 course. Relative prevalence SERO of chemotherapy-associated neutropenia MESHD neutropenia HP in previous studies may account for different conclusions regarding the risks of chemotherapy in patients with COVID-19. In the absence of prospective studies and evidence-based guidelines, our data may aid providers looking to assess the risks and benefits of these agents in caring for cancer patients in the COVID-19 era.

    Human Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Lung Organoids: a Model for SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD and Drug Test

    Authors: Rongjuan Pei; Jianqi Feng; Yecheng Zhang; Hao Sun; Lian Li; Xuejie Yang; Jiangping He; Shuqi Xiao; Jin Xiong; Ying Lin; Kun Wen; Hongwei Zhou; Jiekai Chen; Zhili Rong; Xinwen Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.244350 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: bioRxiv

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by infection MESHD infection with the severe HP with the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is spread primary via respiratory droplets and infects the lungs. Currently widely used cell lines and animals are unable to accurately mimic human physiological conditions because of the abnormal status of cell lines (transformed or cancer cells) and species differences between animals and humans. Organoids are stem cell-derived self-organized three-dimensional culture in vitro and model the physiological conditions of natural organs. Here we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infected and extensively replicated in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived lung organoids, including airway and alveolar organoids. Ciliated cells, alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells and rare club HP cells were virus target cells. Electron microscopy captured typical replication, assembly and release ultrastructures and revealed the presence of viruses within lamellar bodies in AT2 cells. Virus infection MESHD induced more severe cell death MESHD in alveolar organoids than in airway organoids. Additionally, RNA-seq revealed early cell response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and an unexpected downregulation of ACE2 mRNA. Further, compared to the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) inhibitor camostat, the nucleotide analog prodrug Remdesivir potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung organoids. Therefore, human lung organoids can serve as a pathophysiological model for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and drug discovery.

    Clustering of age TRANS standardised COVID-19 infection MESHD fatality ratios and death MESHD trajectories

    Authors: Thu-Lan Kelly; Greer Humphrey; Caroline Miller; Jacqueline A Bowden; Joanne Dono; Paddy A Phillips

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.11.20172478 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background An accurate measure of the impact of COVID-19 is the infection MESHD fatality ratio, or the proportion of deaths MESHD among those infected, which does not depend on variable testing rates between nations. The risk of mortality from COVID-19 depends strongly on age TRANS and current estimates of the infection MESHD fatality ratio do not account for differences in national age TRANS profiles. Comparisons of cumulative death MESHD trajectories allow the effect and timing of public health interventions to be assessed. Our purpose is to (1) determine whether countries are clustered according to infection MESHD fatality ratios and (2) compare interventions to slow the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD by clustering death MESHD trajectories. Methods National age TRANS standardised infection MESHD fatality ratios were derived from age TRANS stratified estimates from China and population estimates from the World Health Organisation. The IFRs were clustered into groups using Gaussian mixture models. Trajectory analysis clustered cumulative death MESHD rates in two time windows, 50 and 100 days after the first reported death MESHD. Findings Infection MESHD fatality ratios from 201 nations were clustered into three groups: young, medium and older, with corresponding means (SD) of 0.20% (0.03%), 0.38% (0.11%) and 0.93% (0.21%). At 50 and 100 days after the first reported death MESHD, there were two clusters of cumulative death MESHD trajectories from 113 nations with at least 25 deaths MESHD reported at 100 days. The first group had slowly increasing or stable cumulative death MESHD rates, while the second group had accelerating rates at the end of the time window. Fifty-two nations changed group membership between the time windows. Conclusion A cluster of younger nations have a lower estimated infection MESHD fatality ratio than older nations. The effect and timing of public health interventions in preventing the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD can be tracked by clustering death MESHD rate trajectories into stable or accelerating and comparing changes over time.

    Population perspective comparing COVID-19 to all and common causes of death MESHD in seven European countries

    Authors: Bayanne Olabi; Jayshree Bagaria; Sunil Bhopal; Gwenetta Curry; Nazmy Villarroel; Raj Bhopal

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20170225 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Mortality statistics on the COVID-19 pandemic have led to widespread concern and fear. To contextualise these data, we compared mortality related to COVID-19 with all and common causes of death MESHD, stratifying by age TRANS and sex. We also calculated deaths MESHD as a proportion of the population by age TRANS and sex. Methods: COVID-19 related mortality and population statistics from seven European countries were extracted: England and Wales, Italy, Germany, Spain, France, Portugal and Netherlands. Available data spanned 14-16 weeks since the first recorded deaths MESHD in each country, except Spain, where only comparable stratified data over an 8-week time period was available. The Global Burden of Disease MESHD database provided data on all deaths MESHD and those from pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, cardiovascular disease MESHD combining ischaemic heart disease MESHD and stroke MESHD stroke HP, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP, cancer, road traffic accidents and dementia MESHD dementia HP. Findings: Deaths MESHD related to COVID-19, while modest overall, varied considerably by age TRANS. Deaths MESHD as a percentage of all cause deaths MESHD during the time period under study ranged from <0.01% in children TRANS in Germany, Portugal and Netherlands, to as high as 41.65% for men aged TRANS over 80 years in England and Wales. The percentage of the population who died from COVID-19 was less than 0.2% in every age group TRANS under the age TRANS of 80. In each country, over the age TRANS of 80, these proportions were: England and Wales 1.27% males TRANS, 0.87% females TRANS; Italy 0.6% males TRANS, 0.38% females TRANS; Germany 0.13% males TRANS, 0.09% females TRANS; France 0.39% males TRANS, 0.2% females TRANS; Portugal 0.2% males TRANS, 0.15% females TRANS; and Netherlands 0.6% males TRANS, 0.4% females TRANS. Interpretation: Mortality rates from COVID-19 remains low including when compared to other common causes of death MESHD and will likely decline further while control measures are maintained. These data may help people contextualise their risk and policy makers in decision-making.

    COVID-19 mortality according to civilian records

    Authors: Lisandro Lovisolo; Diego H S Catalao; Rodrigo B Burgos; Malu Grave; Pamella Constantino-Teles; Americo Cunha Jr.

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20170183 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    In this short report, we bring some data-driven analyses of COVID-19 mortality in Brazil. The impact of COVID-19 is evaluated by comparing the 2019 and 2020 civilian death MESHD records. There is evidence of a considerable excess of deaths MESHD since the pandemic started with respect to the previous year. In some states, it is clear that not all excess of deaths MESHD in 2020 is due to COVID-19, but to other respiratory causes that did not present the same prevalence SERO in the previous year. Because of this unusual behavior of respiratory deaths MESHD, we may infer the evidence of a huge amount of under-reporting deaths MESHD due to the COVID-19. The data also shows that COVID-19 has produced an excess death MESHD in all ages TRANS besides people above 90 and below 10 years. In addition, when separates by sex, data indicate a larger increase in the deaths MESHD among males TRANS than females TRANS.

    A Monte Carlo approach to model COVID-19 deaths MESHD and infections MESHD using Gompertz functions

    Authors: Tulio Rodrigues; Otaviano Helene

    id:2008.04989v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: arXiv

    This study describes the dynamics of COVID-19 deaths MESHD and infections MESHD via a Monte Carlo approach. The analyses include death MESHD's data from USA, Brazil, Mexico, UK, India and Russia, which comprise the four countries with the highest number of deaths MESHD/ confirmed cases TRANS, as of Aug 07, 2020, according to the WHO. The Gompertz functions were fitted to the data of weekly averaged confirmed deaths MESHD per day by mapping the $\chi^2$ values. The uncertainties, variances and covariances of the model parameters were calculated by propagation. The fitted functions for the average deaths MESHD per day for USA and India have an upward trend, with the former having a higher growth rate and quite huge uncertainties. For Mexico, UK and Russia, the fits are consistent with a slope down pattern. For Brazil we found a subtle trend down, but with significant uncertainties. The USA, UK and India data shown a first peak with a higher growth rate when compared to the second one, demonstrating the benefits of non-pharmaceutical interventions of sanitary measures and social distance flattening the curve. For USA, a third peak seems quite plausible, most likely related with the recent relaxation policies. Brazil's data are satisfactorily described by two highly overlapped Gompertz functions with similar growth rates, suggesting a two-steps process for the pandemic spreading. The 95% CI for the total number of deaths MESHD ($\times 10^3$) predicted by the model for Aug 31, 2020 are 160 to 220, 110 to 130, 59 to 62, 46.6 to 47.3, 54 to 63 and 16.0 to 16.7 for USA, Brazil, Mexico, UK, India and Russia, respectively. Our estimates for the prevalences SERO of infections MESHD are in reasonable agreement with some preliminary reports from serological studies carried out in USA and Brazil. The method represents an effective framework to estimate the line-shape of the infection MESHD curves and the uncertainties of the relevant parameters based on the actual data.

    Considering indirect benefits is critical when evaluating SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates

    Authors: Molly E. Gallagher; Andrew J. Sieben; Kristin N. Nelson; Alicia N. M. Kraay; Ben Lopman; Andreas Handel; Katia Koelle

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20170456 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Significant progress has already been made in development and testing of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, and Phase III clinical trials have begun for 6 novel vaccine candidates to date. These Phase III trials seek to demonstrate direct benefits of a vaccine on vaccine recipients. However, vaccination is also known to bring about indirect benefits to a population through the reduction of virus circulation. The indirect effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can play a key role in reducing case counts and COVID-19 deaths MESHD. To illustrate this point, we show through simulation that a vaccine with strong indirect effects has the potential to reduce SARS-CoV-2 circulation and COVID-19 deaths MESHD to a greater extent than an alternative vaccine with stronger direct effects but weaker indirect effects. Protection via indirect effects may be of particular importance in the context of this virus, because elderly TRANS individuals are at an elevated risk of death MESHD but are also less likely to be directly protected by vaccination due to immune senescence. We therefore encourage ongoing data collection and model development aimed at evaluating the indirect effects of forthcoming SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

    Characterisation of 22446 patients attending UK emergency MESHD departments with suspected COVID-19 infection MESHD: Observational cohort study

    Authors: Steve Goodacre; Ben Thomas; Ellen Lee; Laura Sutton; Amanda Loban; Simon Waterhouse; Richard Simmonds; Katie Biggs; Carl Marincowitz; Jose Schutter; Sarah Connelly; Elena Sheldon; Jamie Hall; Emma Young; Andrew Bentley; Kirsty Challen; Chris Fitzsimmons; Tim Harris; Fiona Lecky; Andrew Lee; Ian Maconochie; Darren Walter

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171496 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background Hospital emergency MESHD departments play a crucial role in the initial management of suspected COVID-19 infection MESHD. We aimed to characterise patients attending emergency MESHD departments with suspected COVID-19, including subgroups based on sex, ethnicity and COVID-19 test results. Methods We undertook a mixed prospective and retrospective observational cohort study in 70 emergency MESHD departments across the United Kingdom (UK). We collected presenting data from 22446 people attending with suspected COVID-19 between 26 March 2020 and 28 May 2020. Outcomes were admission to hospital, COVID-19 result, organ support (respiratory, cardiovascular or renal), and death MESHD, by record review at 30 days. Results Adults TRANS were acutely unwell (median NEWS2 score 4) and had high rates of admission (67.1%), COVID-19 positivity (31.2%), organ support (9.8%) and death MESHD (15.9%). Children TRANS had much lower rates of admission (27.4%), COVID-19 positivity (1.2%), organ support (1.4%) and death MESHD (0.3%). Adult TRANS men and women presented in similar numbers (10210 versus 10506), but men were more likely to be admitted (72.9% v 61.4%), require organ support (12.2% v 7.7%) and die (18.7% v 13.3%). Black or Asian adults TRANS tended to be younger than White adults TRANS (median age TRANS 54, 50 and 67 years), were less likely to be admitted (60.8%, 57.3%, 69.6%) or die (11.9%, 11.2%, 16.8%), but were more likely to require organ support (15.9%, 14.3%, 8.9%) or have a positive COVID-19 test (40.8%, 42.1%, 30.0%). Adults TRANS admitted with confirmed COVID-19 had similar age TRANS and comorbidities (except chronic lung disease HP lung disease MESHD) to those who did not have COVID-19 confirmed, but were much more likely to need organ support (22.2% v 8.9%) or die (32.7% v 15.9%). Conclusions Important differences exist between patient groups presenting to the emergency MESHD department with suspected COVID-19. People with confirmed COVID-19 have a poor prognosis, compared with similar emergency MESHD admissions without confirmed COVID-19.

    Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO Using Electrochemical Impedance-Based Detector

    Authors: Mohamed Z. Rashed; Jonathan A. Kopecheck; Mariah C. Priddy; Krystal T. Hamorsky; Kenneth E. Palmer; Nikhil Mittal; Joseph Valdez; Joseph Flynn; Stuart Williams

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171652 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Emerging novel human contagious viruses and pathogens put humans at risk of hospitalization and possibly death MESHD due to the unavailability of vaccines and drugs which may take years to develop. Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization and has caused over 550,000 deaths MESHD worldwide as of July 2020. Accurate and scalable point-of-care devices would increase screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of COVID-19 patients. Here, we demonstrate rapid label-free electrochemical detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO using a commercially available impedance sensing platform. A 16-well plate containing sensing electrodes was pre-coated with receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and subsequently tested with samples of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody SERO CR3022 (0.1 g/ml, 1.0 g/ml, 10 g/ml). Subsequent blinded testing was performed on six serum SERO specimens taken from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients (1:100 dilution factor). The platform was able to differentiate spikes in impedance measurements from a negative control (1% milk solution) for all CR3022 samples. Further, successful differentiation and detection of all positive clinical samples from negative control was achieved. Measured impedance values were consistent when compared to standard ELISA SERO test results showing a strong correlation between them (R2 = 0:9). Detection occurs in less than five minutes and the well-based platform provides a simplified and familiar testing interface that can be readily adaptable for use in clinical settings.

    EPIDEMIC ANALYSIS OF COVID-19 IN ALGERIA BY A GENERALIZED SEIR MODEL

    Authors: Mohamed LOUNIS Sr.; Juarez dos Santos AZEVEDO Sr.

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20172155 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    The novel coronavirus diseases MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan is continuing to impress the world by its fast spread and the number of affected persons attracting an unprecedented attention. In this article, we used the classical SEIR model and a generalized SEIR model called SEIRDP model inspired in a model previously used during the outbreak in China to predict the evolution of COVID-19 in Algeria for a future period of 100 days using official reported data from early April to early August, 2020. Initial evaluation showed that the two models had a net correspondence with the reported data during this period for cumulative infected cases but the number of cumulative deaths MESHD was underestimated with the classical SEIR model. Model prediction with the SEIRDP concluded that the number of cumulative infected cases will increase in the next days reaching a number of about 60 k in middle November with a median of about 300 daily cases. Also, the number of estimated deaths MESHD will be around 2k. These results suggest that the COVID-19 is ongoing to infect more persons which may push national authorities to carefully act in the probable leaving of containment.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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