Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 923
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    Inflammasome activation in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Tamara S Rodrigues; Keyla SG Sa; Adriene Y Ishimoto; Amanda Becerra; Samuel Oliveira; Leticia Almeida; Augusto V Goncalves; Debora B Perucello; Warrison A Andrade; Ricardo Castro; Flavio P Veras; Juliana E Toller-Kawahisa; Daniele C Nascimento; Mikhael HF de Lima; Camila MS Silva; Diego B Caetite; Ronaldo B Martins; Italo A Castro; Marjorie C Pontelli; Fabio C de Barros; Natalia B do Amaral; Marcela C Giannini; Leticia P Bonjorno; Maria Isabel F Lopes; Maira N Benatti; Rodrigo C Santana; Fernando C Vilar; Maria Auxiliadora-Martins; Rodrigo Luppino-Assad; Sergio CL de Almeida; Fabiola R de Oliveira; Sabrina S Batah; Li Siyuan; Maira N Benatti; Thiago M Cunha; Jose C Alves-Filho; Fernando Q Cunha; Larissa D Cunha; Fabiani G Frantz; Tiana Kohlsdorf; Alexandre T Fabro; Eurico Arruda; Rene DR de Oliveira; Paulo Louzada-Junior; Dario S Zamboni

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168872 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Severe cases of COVID-19 are characterized by a strong inflammatory process that may ultimately lead to organ failure and patient death MESHD. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a molecular platform that promotes inflammation MESHD via cleavage and activation of key inflammatory molecules including active caspase-1 (Casp1p20), IL-1{beta} and IL-18. Although the participation of the inflammasome in COVID-19 has been highly speculated, the inflammasome activation and participation in the outcome of the disease MESHD is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and it is active in COVID-19, influencing the clinical outcome of the disease MESHD. Studying moderate and severe COVID-19 patients, we found active NLRP3 inflammasome in PBMCs and tissues of post-mortem patients upon autopsy. Inflammasome-derived products such as Casp1p20 and IL-18 in the sera correlated with the markers of COVID-19 severity, including IL-6 and LDH. Moreover, higher levels of IL-18 and Casp1p20 are associated with disease MESHD severity and poor clinical outcome. Our results suggest that the inflammasome is key in the pathophysiology of the disease MESHD, indicating this platform as a marker of disease MESHD severity and a potential therapeutic target for COVID-19.

    An improved methodology for estimating the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Virag Patel; Catherine McCarthy; Rachel A Taylor; Ruth Moir; Louise A Kelly; Emma L Snary

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168187 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Since the identification of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China in December 2019, there have been more than 17 million cases of the disease MESHD in 216 countries worldwide. Comparisons of prevalence SERO estimates between different communities can inform policy decisions regarding safe travel TRANS between countries, help to assess when to implement (or remove) disease MESHD control measures and identify the risk of over-burdening healthcare providers. Estimating the true prevalence SERO can, however, be challenging because officially reported figures are likely to be significant underestimates of the true burden of COVID-19 within a community. Previous methods for estimating the prevalence SERO fail to incorporate differences between populations (such as younger populations having higher rates of asymptomatic TRANS cases) and so comparisons between, for example, countries, can be misleading. Here, we present an improved methodology for estimating COVID-19 prevalence SERO. We take the reported number of cases and deaths MESHD (together with population size) as raw prevalence SERO for the population. We then apply an age TRANS-adjustment to this which allows the age TRANS-distribution of that population to influence the case-fatality rate and the proportion of asymptomatic TRANS cases. Finally, we calculate the likely underreporting factor for the population and use this to adjust our prevalence SERO estimate further. We use our method to estimate the prevalence SERO for 166 countries (or the states of the United States of America, hereafter referred to as US state) where sufficient data were available. Our estimates show that as of the 30th July 2020, the top three countries with the highest estimated prevalence SERO are Brazil (1.26%, 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.37), Kyrgyzstan (1.10%, 95% CI: 0.82 - 1.19) and Suriname (0.58%, 95% CI: 0.44 - 0.63). Brazil is predicted to have the largest proportion of all the current global cases (30.41%, 95%CI: 27.52 - 30.84), followed by the USA (14.52%, 95%CI: 14.26 - 16.34) and India (11.23%, 95%CI: 11.11 - 11.24). Amongst the US states, the highest prevalence SERO is predicted to be in Louisiana (1.07%, 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.12), Florida (0.90%, 95% CI: 0.86 - 0.94) and Mississippi (0.77%, 95% CI: 0.74 - 0.81) whereas amongst European countries, the highest prevalence SERO is predicted to be in Montenegro (0.47%, 95% CI: 0.42 - 0.50), Kosovo (0.35%, 95% CI: 0.29 - 0.37) and Moldova (0.28%, 95% CI: 0.23 - 0.30). Our results suggest that Kyrgyzstan (0.04 tests per predicted case), Brazil (0.04 tests per predicted case) and Suriname (0.29 tests per predicted case) have the highest underreporting out of the countries in the top 25 prevalence SERO. In comparison, Israel (34.19 tests per predicted case), Bahrain (19.82 per predicted case) and Palestine (9.81 tests per predicted case) have the least underreporting. The results of this study may be used to understand the risk between different geographical areas and highlight regions where the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 is increasing most rapidly. The method described is quick and easy to implement. Prevalence SERO estimates should be updated on a regular basis to allow for rapid fluctuations in disease MESHD patterns.

    Is There a Relationship Between Climate, Morphology and Urbanization and COVID19? Preliminary Analysis of Environmental and Pandemic Data in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy)

    Authors: Massimiliano Fazzini; Claudio Bna; Alessandro Cecili; Andrea Giuliacci; Sonia Illuminati; Fabrizio Pregliasco; Claudia Baresi; Enrico Miccadei

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0163.v1 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: Preprints.org

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the defining global health and socioeconomic crisis of our time and represents the greatest challenge faced by the world since the end of the Second World War. The academic literature indicates that climatic features, specifically the temperature and absolute humidity, are very important factors affecting infectious pulmonary disease MESHD epidemics (e.g., SARS, MERS); however, the influence of climatic parameters on COVID-19 remains extremely controversial. The goal of this study is to quantify the existing relationship between several daily climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation, solar radiation, wind direction and intensity, and evaporation), local morphological parameters, and new daily positive swabs for COVID-19, which represents the only parameter that can be statistically used to quantify the pandemic. The daily deaths MESHD parameter was not considered because it is not reliable due to frequent administrative errors. Daily data on meteorological conditions and new cases of COVID-19 were collected for the Lombardy area from March 1, 2020, to April 20, 2020. This region in Italy exhibited the largest number of official deaths MESHD in the world per million inhabitants, with a value of approximately 1700 per million on june 30, 2020. Moreover, the apparent lethality was approximately 17% in this area, mainly due to the considerable housing density and the extensive presence of industrial and craft areas. The Mann-Kendall test and multivariate statistical analysis showed that none of the considered climatic variables exhibited statistically significant relationships with the epidemiological evolution of COVID-19, at least in the spring months in temperate subcontinental climate areas, with the exception of solar radiation, which was directly related and showed an otherwise low explained variability of approximately 20%. Furthermore, the average temperatures of two highly representative meteorological stations of Molise and Lucania, the most weakly affected by the pandemic. The temperatures at these stations were approximately 1.5°C lower than that in the cities in Lombardy of Bergamo and Brescia, again confirming that a significant relationship between the increase in temperature and decrease in virology from COVID-19 was not evident, at least in the Italian peninsula.

    Spatiotemporal dynamic of COVID-19 mortality in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: shifting the high risk from the best to the worst socio-economic conditions

    Authors: Patricia Marques Moralejo Bermudi; Camila Lorenz; Breno Souza de Aguiar; Marcelo Antunes Failla; Ligia Vizeu Barrozo; Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto

    id:2008.02322v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: arXiv

    Currently, Brazil has one of the fastest increasing COVID-19 epidemics in the world, that has caused at least 94 thousand confirmed deaths MESHD until now. The city of Sao Paulo is particularly vulnerable because it is the most populous in the country. Analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of COVID-19 is important to help the urgent need to integrate better actions to face the pandemic. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the COVID-19 mortality, from March to July 2020, considering the spatio-time architectures, the socio-economic context of the population, and using a fine granular level, in the most populous city in Brazil. For this, we conducted an ecological study, using secondary public data from the mortality information system. We describe mortality rates for each epidemiological week and the entire period by sex and age TRANS. We modelled the deaths MESHD using spatiotemporal and spatial architectures and Poisson probability distributions in a latent Gaussian Bayesian model approach. We obtained the relative risks for temporal and spatiotemporal trends and socio-economic conditions. To reduce possible sub notification, we considered the confirmed and suspected deaths MESHD. Our findings showed an apparent stabilization of the temporal trend, at the end of the period, but that may change in the future. Mortality rate increased with increasing age TRANS and was higher in men. The risk of death MESHD was greater in areas with the worst social conditions throughout the study period. However, this was not a uniform pattern over time, since we identified a shift from the high risk in the areas with best socio-economic conditions to the worst ones. Our study contributed by emphasizing the importance of geographic screening in areas with a higher risk of death MESHD, and, currently, worse socio-economic contexts, as a crucial aspect to reducing disease MESHD mortality and health inequities, through integrated public health actions.

    Concurrent cavitary pulmonary tuberculosisand COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP with in vitro immune cell anergy:a case report.

    Authors: Maria Musso; Francesco Di Gennaro; Gina Gualano; Silvia Mosti; Carlotta Cerva; Saeid Najafi Fard; Raffaella Libertone; Virginia Di Bari; Massimo Cristofaro; Roberto Tonnarini; Delia Goletti; Fabrizio Palmieri

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-54297/v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Tuberculosis MESHD (TB) is top infectious disease MESHD killer caused by a single organismresponsible for 1.5 million deaths MESHD in 2018. Both COVID 19 and the pandemic responseare risking to affect control measures for TB and continuity of essential services forpeople affected by this infection MESHD in western countries and even more in developingcountries. Knowledges about concomitant pulmonary TB and COVID-19 are extremelylimited. The double burden of these two diseases MESHD can have devastating effects. Herewe describe from both the clinical and the immunological point of view a case of apatient with in vitro immune cell anergy affected by bilateral cavitary pulmonary TB andsubsequent COVID-19-associated pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP with a worst outcome. COVID-19 can bea precipitating factor in TB respiratory failure HP and, during ongoing SARS COV 2 pandemic, clinicians must be aware of this possible coinfection MESHD in differential diagnosisof patients with active TB and new or worsening chest imaging

    Clinical course and severity outcome indicators among COVID 19 hospitalized patients in relation to comorbidities distribution Mexican cohort

    Authors: Genny Carrillo; Nina Mendez Dominguez; Kassandra D Santos Zaldivar; Andrea Rochel Perez; Mario Azuela Morales; Osman Cuevas Koh; Alberto Alvarez Baeza

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165480 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: COVID-19 affected worldwide, causing to date, around 500,000 deaths MESHD. In Mexico, by April 29, the general case fatality was 6.52%, with 11.1% confirmed case TRANS mortality and hospital recovery rate around 72%. Once hospitalized, the odds for recovery and hospital death MESHD rates depend mainly on the patients' comorbidities and age TRANS. In Mexico, triage guidelines use algorithms and risk estimation tools for severity assessment and decision-making. The study's objective is to analyze the underlying conditions of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Mexico concerning four severity outcomes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort based on registries of all laboratory-confirmed patients with the COVID-19 infection MESHD that required hospitalization in Mexico. Independent variables were comorbidities and clinical manifestations. Dependent variables were four possible severity outcomes: (a) pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, (b) mechanical ventilation (c) intensive care unit, and (d) death MESHD; all of them were coded as binary Results: We included 69,334 hospitalizations of laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized patients to June 30, 2020. Patients were 55.29 years, and 62.61% were male TRANS. Hospital mortality among patients aged TRANS<15 was 9.11%, 51.99% of those aged TRANS >65 died. Male TRANS gender TRANS and increasing age TRANS predicted every severity outcome. Diabetes and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP predicted every severity outcome significantly. Obesity MESHD Obesity HP did not predict mortality, but CKD, respiratory diseases MESHD, cardiopathies were significant predictors. Conclusion: Obesity MESHD Obesity HP increased the risk for pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care admittance, but it was not a predictor of in-hospital death MESHD. Patients with respiratory diseases MESHD were less prone to develop pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, to receive mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit assistance, but they were at higher risk of in-hospital death MESHD.

    Comparing the impact on COVID-19 mortality of self-imposed behavior change and of government regulations across 13 countries

    Authors: Julian Jamison; Donald Bundy; Dean Jamison; Jacob Spitz; Stephane Verguet

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166793 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Countries have adopted different approaches, at different times, to reduce the transmission TRANS of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Cross-country comparison could indicate the relative efficacy of these approaches. We assess various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) over time, comparing the effects of self-imposed (i.e. voluntary) behavior change and of changes enforced via official regulations, by statistically examining their impacts on subsequent death MESHD rates in 13 European countries. Methods and findings: We examine two types of NPI: the introduction of government-enforced closure policies over time; and self-imposed alteration of individual behaviors in response to awareness of the epidemic, in the period prior to regulations. Our proxy for the latter is Google mobility data, which captures voluntary behavior change when disease MESHD salience is sufficiently high. The primary outcome variable is the rate of change in COVID-19 fatalities per day, 16-20 days after interventions take place. Linear multivariate regression analysis is used to evaluate impacts. Voluntarily reduced mobility, occurring prior to government policies, decreases the percent change in deaths MESHD per day by 9.2 percentage points (95% CI 4.5-14.0 pp). Government closure policies decrease the percent change in deaths MESHD per day by 14.0 percentage points (95% CI 10.8-17.2 pp). Disaggregating government policies, the most beneficial are intercity travel TRANS restrictions, cancelling public events, and closing non-essential workplaces. Other sub-components, such as closing schools and imposing stay-at-home rules, show smaller and statistically insignificant impacts. Conclusions: This study shows that NPIs have substantially reduced fatalities arising from COVID-19. Importantly, the effect of voluntary behavior change is of the same order of magnitude as government-mandated regulations. These findings, including the substantial variation across dimensions of closure, have implications for the phased withdrawal of government policies as the epidemic recedes, and for the possible reimposition of regulations if a second wave occurs, especially given the substantial economic and human welfare consequences of maintaining lockdowns.

    Possible Cross-Reactivity Between SARS-CoV-2 Proteins, CRM197 and Proteins in Pneumococcal Vaccines May Protect Against Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Disease MESHD and Death MESHD

    Authors: Robert Root-Bernstein

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0141.v2 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: Preprints.org

    Various studies indicate that vaccination, especially with pneumococcal vaccines, protects against symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and death MESHD. This paper explores the possibility that pneumococcal vaccines in particular, but perhaps other vaccines as well, contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Comparison of the glycosylation structures of SARS-CoV-2 with the polysaccharide structures of pneumococcal vaccines yielded no obvious similarities. However, while pneumococcal vaccines are primarily composed of capsular polysaccharides, some are conjugated to CRM197, a modified diphtheria MESHD toxin, and all contain about three percent protein contaminants, including the pneumococcal surface proteins PsaA, PspA and probably PspC. All of these proteins have very high degrees of similarity, using very stringent criteria, with several SARS-CoV-2 proteins including the spike protein, membrane protein and replicase 1a. CRM197 is also present in Hib and meningitis MESHD meningitis HP vaccines. Equivalent similarities were found at statistically significantly lower rates, or were completely absent, among the proteins in diphtheria MESHD, tetanus MESHD, pertussis, measles MESHD, mumps MESHD, rubella MESHD, and poliovirus vaccines. Notably, PspA and PspC are highly antigenic and new pneumococcal vaccines based on them are currently in human clinical trials so that their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD is easily testable.

    Epidemiological characteristics of SARS-COV-2 in Myanmar

    Authors: Aung Min Thway; Htun Tayza; Tun Tun Win; Ye Minn Tun; Moe Myint Aung; Yan Naung Win; Kyaw M Tun

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166504 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is an infectious disease MESHD caused by a newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In Myanmar, first COVID-19 reported cases were identified on 23rd March 2020. There were 336 reported confirmed cases TRANS, 261 recovered and 6 deaths MESHD through 13th July 2020. The study was a retrospective case series and all COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS from 23rd March to 13th July 2020 were included. The data series of COVID-19 cases were extracted from the daily official reports of the Ministry of Health and Sports (MOHS), Myanmar and Centers for Disease MESHD Control and Prevention (CDC), Myanmar. Among 336 confirmed cases TRANS, there were 169 cases with reported transmission TRANS events. The median serial interval TRANS was 4 days (IQR 3, 2-5) with the range of 0 - 26 days. The mean of the reproduction number TRANS was 1.44 with (95% CI = 1.30-1.60) by exponential growth method and 1.32 with (95% CI = 0.98-1.73) confident interval by maximum likelihood method. This study outlined the epidemiological characteristics and epidemic parameters of COVID-19 in Myanmar. The estimation parameters in this study can be comparable with other studies and variability of these parameters can be considered when implementing disease MESHD control strategy in Myanmar.

    Waves of COVID-19 pandemic. Detection and SIR simulations

    Authors: Igor Nesteruk

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20167098 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Unfortunately, the COVID-19 pandemic is still far from stabilizing. Of particular concern is the sharp increase in the number of diseases MESHD in June-July 2020. The causes and consequences of this sharp increase in the number of cases are still waiting for their researchers, but there is already an urgent need to assess the possible duration of the pandemic, the expected number of patients and deaths MESHD. The resumption of international passenger traffic needs the information for deciding which countries' citizens are welcome guests. Correct simulation of the infectious disease MESHD dynamics needs complicated mathematical models and many efforts for unknown parameters identification. Constant changes in the pandemic conditions (in particular, the peculiarities of quarantine and its violation, situations with testing and isolation of patients) cause various epidemic waves, lead to changes in the parameter values of the mathematical models. Objective. In this article, pandemic waves in Ukraine and in the world will be detected, calculated and discussed. The estimations for hidden periods, epidemic durations and final numbers of cases will be presented. The probabilities of meeting a person spreading the infection MESHD and reproduction numbers TRANS will be calculated for different countries and regions. Methods. We propose a simple method for the epidemic waves detection based on the differentiation of the smoothed number of cases. We use the known SIR (susceptible-infected-removed) model for the dynamics of the epidemic waves. The known exact solution of the SIR differential equations and statistical approach were modified and used. Results. The optimal values of the SIR model parameters were identified for four waves of pandemic dynamics in Ukraine and five waves in the world. The number of cases and the number of patients spreading the infection MESHD versus time were calculated. In particular, the pandemic probably began in August 2019. If current trends continue, the end of the pandemic should be expected no earlier than in March 2021 both in Ukraine and in the world, the global number of cases will exceed 20 million. The probabilities of meeting a person spreading the infection MESHD and reproduction numbers TRANS were calculated for different countries and regions. Conclusions. The SIR model and statistical approach to the parameter identification are helpful to make some reliable estimations of the epidemic waves. The number of persons spreading the infection MESHD versus time was calculated during all the epidemic waves. The obtained information will be useful to regulate the quarantine activities, to predict the medical and economic consequences of the pandemic and to decide which countries' citizens are welcome guests.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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