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SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Covid-19 MESHD and excess mortality rates not comparable across countries

    Authors: Gabrielle E Kelly; Stefano Petti; Norman Noah

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.31.21254689 Date: 2021-04-06 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract: Evidence that more people in some countries and fewer in others are dying because of the pandemic, than is reflected by reported Covid-19 MESHD mortality rates, is derived from mortality data. Worldwide, mortality data is used to estimate the full extent of the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic MESHD, both direct and indirect; the possible short fall in the number of cases reported to the WHO; and to suggest explanations for differences between countries. Excess mortality data is largely varying across countries and is not directly proportional to Covid-19 MESHD mortality. Using publicly available databases, deaths attributed to Covid-19 MESHD in 2020 and all deaths for the years 2015-2020 were tabulated for 36 countries together with economic, health, demographic, and government response stringency index variables. Residual death rates in 2020 were calculated as excess deaths minus death MESHD rates due to Covid-19 MESHD where excess deaths were observed deaths in 2020 minus the average for 2015-2019. For about half the countries, residual deaths were negative and for half, positive. The absolute rates in some countries were double those in others. In a regression analysis, the stringency index (p=0.026) was positively associated with residual mortality. There was no evidence of spatial clustering of residual mortality. The results show that published data on mortality from Covid-19 MESHD cannot be directly comparable across countries, likely due to differences in Covid-19 MESHD death reporting. In addition, the unprecedented public health measures implemented to control the pandemic may have produced either increased or reduced excess deaths MESHD due to other diseases MESHD. Further data on cause-specific mortality is required to determine the extent to which residual mortality represents non- Covid-19 MESHD deaths MESHD and to explain differences between countries.

    Is sickle cell disease a risk factor for severe COVID-19 MESHD : a multicenter national retrospective cohort MESHD

    Authors: Abdulkarim Abdulrahman; Mohammed Wael; Fajer Alammadi; Zahra Almosawi; Reem AlSherooqi; Manal Abduljalil; Nitya Kumar; Manaf AlQahtani

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.30.20249053 Date: 2021-01-04 Source: medRxiv

    IntroductionCoronavirus disease ( COVID-19 MESHD) caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is an infectious disease which has evolved into a worldwide pandemic. Growing evidence suggests that individuals with pre-existing comorbidities are at higher risk of a more serious COVID-19 MESHD illness. Sickle cell disease MESHD ( SCD MESHD SCD HGNC) is an inherited hemoglobinopathy MESHD which increases the susceptibility to infections and as a consequent has higher risks of morbidity and mortality. The impact of COVID-19 MESHD on SCD MESHD SCD HGNC patients could lead to further increase in disease severity and mortality. Studies that examine the effect of SCD HGNC SCD MESHD on COVID-19 MESHD outcomes are lacking. This study aims to determine whether SCD HGNC SCD MESHD is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 MESHD infection in regards to the requirement of non-invasive ventilation/high flow nasal cannula (NIV/HFNC), mechanical intubation (MV) or death MESHD. MethodsRetrospective cohort study which included COVID-19 MESHD patients admitted to four Ministry of Health COVID-19 MESHD treatment facilities in Bahrain during the period of 24, February 2020, to 31, July 2020. All SCD HGNC SCD MESHD patients with COVID-19 MESHD were included and compared to randomly selected non- SCD MESHD SCD HGNC patients with COVID-19 MESHD. Data for the selected patients were collected from the medical records. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to control for confounders and estimate the effect of SCD HGNC SCD MESHD on the outcomes. ResultsA total of 1,792 patients with COVID-19 MESHD were included; 38 of whom were diagnosed with SCD MESHD SCD HGNC as well. In the SCD HGNC SCD MESHD group, one (2.6%) patient required NIV/HFNC, one (2.6%) required MV and one (2.6%) death MESHD occurred. In comparison, 56 (3.2%) of the non- SCD HGNC SCD MESHD patients required NIV/HFNC, 47 (2.7%) required MV and death MESHD occurred in 58 (3.3%) patients. Upon adjusting for confounders, SCD HGNC SCD MESHD had an odds ratio of 1.847 (95% CI: 0.39 - 8.83; p=0.442). ConclusionOur results indicate that SCD HGNC SCD MESHD is not a risk factor for worse disease outcomes in COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Obesity as a predictor for adverse outcomes among COVID-19 MESHD patients: A meta-analysis

    Authors: Pranta Das; Nandeeta Samad; Abdul-Aziz Seidu; Richard Gyan Aboagye; Justice Kanor Tetteh; Bright Opoku Ahinkorah

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.27.20239616 Date: 2020-11-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: This meta-analysis sought to determine the estimated association between obesity MESHD and adverse outcomes among COVID-19 MESHD patients. Methods: We followed the recommended PRISMA guidelines. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect for published literature between December 1, 2019, and October 2, 2020. The data for the study were pooled from studies that contained the search terms "Obesity" AND ( COVID-19 MESHD or 2019-nCoV or Coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2) AND ("ICU admission" OR "Hospitalization" OR "Disease MESHD severity" OR "Invasive mechanical ventilator" OR "Death" MESHD OR "Mortality"). All the online searches were supplemented by reference screening of retrieved studies for additional literature. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) from the retrieved studies were calculated using the random effect model (Inverse-Variance method). Findings: Five studies with a combined sample size of 335,192 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR from the final analysis showed that patients who are severely obese MESHD were more likely to experience adverse outcome ( death MESHD or ICU admission or needing IMV or hospitalization) compared to the normal patients [OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 2.33-3.40, I2 = 29%]. Conclusion: Severe obesity MESHD is a risk factor in developing adverse outcomes among COVID-19 MESHD patients. The finding of the study signifies promotive, preventive, and curative attention to be accorded patients diagnosed with severe obesity MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD.

    Obesity as a Predictor for Adverse Outcomes Among COVID-19 MESHD Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Pranta Das; Nandeeta Samad; Abdul-Aziz Seidu; Richard Gyan Aboagye; Justice Kanor Tetteh; Bright Opoku Ahinkorah

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-111047/v1 Date: 2020-11-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The 2019 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus ( COVID-19 MESHD) is an unexpected pandemic causing mortalities across all ages. However, the severity of its health implications is mostly reported in persons with chronic health conditions with obesity MESHD being identified as one of the leading predisposing factors in acquiring the novel virus and developing its adverse complications. This meta-analysis sought to determine the estimated association between obesity MESHD and adverse outcomes among COVID-19 MESHD patients. Methods: We followed the recommended PRISMA guidelines in executing this study. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect for published literature between December 1, 2019, and October 2, 2020. The data for the study were pooled from studies that contained the search terms "Obesity" AND ( COVID-19 MESHD or 2019-nCoV or Coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2) AND ("ICU admission" OR "Hospitalization" OR "Disease MESHD severity" OR "Invasive mechanical ventilator" OR "Death" MESHD OR "Mortality"). All the online searches were supplemented by reference screening of retrieved studies for additional literature. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) from the retrieved studies were calculated using the random effect model (Inverse-Variance method). Findings: A total of five (5) studies with a combined sample size of 335,192 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR from the final analysis showed that patients who are severely obese MESHD were more likely to experience adverse outcome ( death MESHD or ICU admission or needing IMV or hospitalization) compared to the normal patients [OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 2.33 – 3.40, I2 = 29%].Conclusion: Severe obesity MESHD is a risk factor in developing adverse outcomes among COVID-19 MESHD patients. The finding of the study signifies promotive, preventive, and curative attention to be accorded patients diagnosed with severe obesity MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD

    Excess mortality for care home residents during the first 23 weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD COVID-19 pandemic MESHD in England: a national cohort study

    Authors: Marcello Morciano; Jonathan M Stokes; Evangelos Kontopantelis; Ian Hall; Alexander J Turner

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.11.20229815 Date: 2020-11-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: To estimate excess mortality for care home residents during the COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic in England, exploring associations with care home characteristics. Methods: Daily number of deaths in all residential and nursing homes in England notified to the Care Quality Commission (CQC) from 1st January 2017 to 7th August 2020. Care home level data linked with CQC care home register to identify homes characteristics: client type (over 65s/children and adults), ownership status (for-profit/not-for-profit; branded/independent), and size (small/medium/large). Excess deaths computed as the difference between observed and predicted deaths using local authority fixed-effect Poisson regressions on pre-pandemic data. Fixed-effect logistic regressions were used to model odds of experiencing COVID-19 MESHD suspected/confirmed deaths. Findings: Up to 7th August 2020 there were 29,542 (95%CI: 25,176 to 33,908) excess deaths in all care homes. Excess deaths MESHD represented 6.5% (95%CI: 5.5% to 7.4%) of all care home beds, higher in nursing (8.4%) than residential (4.6%) homes. 64.7% (95%CI: 56.4% to 76.0%) of the excess deaths were confirmed/suspected COVID-19 MESHD. Almost all excess deaths were recorded in the quarter (27.4%) of homes with any COVID-19 MESHD fatalities. The odds of experiencing COVID-19 MESHD attributable deaths were higher in homes providing nursing services (OR: 1.8, 95%CI: 1.6 to 2.0); to older people and/or with dementia MESHD (OR: 5.5, 95%CI: 4.4 to 6.8); among larger (vs. small) homes (OR: 13.3, 95%CI: 11.5 to 15.4); belonging to a large provider/brand (OR: 1.2, 95%CI: 1.1 to 1.3). There was no significant association with for-profit status of providers. Interpretation: To limit excess mortality, policy should be targeted at care homes to minimise the risk of ingress of disease MESHD and limit subsequent transmission. Our findings provide specific characteristic targets for further research on mechanisms and policy priority.

    A study on the speed of governments’ healthcare response to COVID-19 MESHD; cases: China, Hong Kong, Korea, Italy, the US, and Iran

    Authors: Farshad Nourian; Ahmad Sarabi; S.Alireza Mousavinezhad

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-89161/v1 Date: 2020-10-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The spread of the novel COVID-19 MESHD virus has raised many questions on the performance of the national and global healthcare systems.Methods In this paper, we present the results of a study on how the decision-making speed at the national and city levels on dealing with the spread of the Corona virus has impacted the rate of mortality by means of Analytic Hierarchy Process MESHD ( AHP MESHD) and Bubble chart.Results We considered variables such as the level of infrastructures in health, Information Technology, and human development in China and 5 other countries as all these factors could affect the rate of mortality in those countries as well. For each country, the data has been collected and analyzed starting with the time when the first patient was detected as a positive case up to three weeks later. For the time of decision-making, the data which could be used to illustrate the delay or promptitude of decisions included date of first death MESHD, date of quarantine, and the date of aviation suspension.Conclusion Our findings support the hypothesis that the timing of a government’s decision, either proactive or preemptive, along with its level of sophistication in urban and social infrastructures, can impact the mortality rate of contagious diseases MESHD such as COVID-19 MESHD.

    74 Days Dynamic Changes of Chest CT Images of Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) in Hebei Province, China

    Authors: jianqin Liang; Guizeng Liu; Shuzhuang Yu; Yang Yang; Yanchun Li; Hongli Tian; Zhe Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-70721/v1 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Since December 2019, the COVID-19 MESHD infection broke MESHD out in many parts of the world with confirmed and death MESHD cases rapidly increasing, which posed a great threat to human life and health. Current nucleic acid detection and antibody testing for the SARS-CoV-2 were the main methods for diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD, but not so sensitive, with high false negative rate and missed diagnosis rate. Imaging changes of COVID-19 MESHD not only precede symptomatic changes, but also have different imaging characteristics in different periods. We conducted 74 days of dynamic chest CT imaging observation on COVID-19 MESHD patients in Hebei province, aiming to understand the dynamic characteristics of the chest CT changes of COVID-19 MESHD, so as to find the source of infection early, take early intervention measures, and judge the prognosis. Methods Chest CT examinations at intervals 1 to 4 days were conducted for 11 patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD. On the 74th day after onset, chest CT was reexamined to analyze the characteristics of chest CT in each stage. Results Of the 11 cases, 1 case was imported from Wuhan, 10 cases were infected for family clustering after close contact with confirmed COVID-19 MESHD cases. There were 3 ordinary cases, 3 severe cases and 5 critical cases. Among them, 2 critical cases died for old age and complications of underlying diseases MESHD, while 9 cases were cured by April 7, 2020. The changes of chest CT imaging in 1 child appeared prior to the clinical symptoms. 1–4 days after onset of the initial symptom were the early stages: Chest CT was mainly characterized by single lung quasi-circular ground glass shadow and fine mesh shadow. 5–10 days were the progressive stages: The lesion spread along the axial interstitium of the bronchi and gradually diffused to the whole lung, and reach the peak on day 6 to 9, which was characterized by consolidation, paving stone sign, halo sign, reversed halo sign, and even ‘white lung’ for the critical patients. The recovery stages began on day 11 after onset: The fiber cord, ground glass and consolidation shadow were gradually absorbed. After 74 days of follow-up, no serious permanent lung injury MESHD was found. Conclusion Chest CT could determine the different stages of COVID-19 MESHD. Dynamic follow-up chest CT showed a good prognosis of COVID-19 MESHD in Hebei Province, China

    A survival analysis of COVID-19 MESHD in the Mexican population

    Authors: Guillermo Salinas-Escudero; María Fernanda Carrillo-Vega; Víctor Granados-García; Silvia Martínez-Valverde; Filiberto Toledano-Toledano; Juan Garduño-Espinosa

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39083/v1 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background. At present, the Americas region contributes to the largest number of cases of COVID-19 MESHD worldwide. In this area, Mexico is in third place respecting deaths (20,781 total deaths), rate that may be explained by the high proportion of the population over 50 years and the rate of chronic diseases MESHD. The aim of the present work was estimate the risk factors associated with the death rate, considering the time between symptoms onset and the death occurrence, in the Mexican population. Methods. Information of all the confirmed cases for COVID-19 MESHD reported on the public dataset released by the Epidemiological Surveillance System for Viral Respiratory Diseases MESHD of the Mexican Ministry of Health was analyzed. Kapplan-Meier curves were plotted, and a Cox proportional hazard model was constructed. Results. The analysis included 16,752 registries of confirmed cases of COVID-19 MESHD with mean age 46.55±15.55 years; 58.02% (n=9719) men and 9.37% (n=1,569) died. Men (H.R. 1.21, p<0.01, 95% C.I. 1.09-1.35), older age (H.R. 8.24, p<0.01, 95% C.I. 4.22-16.10), CKD (H.R. 1.85, p<0.01, 95% C.I. 1.51-2.25), pneumonia MESHD (H.R. 2.07, p<0.01, 95% C.I. 1.81-2.38), hospitalization and ICU admissions (H.R. 5.86, p<0.01, 95% C.I. 4.81-7.14, and H.R. 1.32, p<0.01, 95% C.I. 1.12-1.55, respectively), intubation (H.R. 2.93, p<0.01, 95% C.I. 2.50-3.45) and health care in public health services (more than twice the risk, p<0.01), were independent factors increasing the risk of death MESHD due to COVID-19 MESHD. Conclusions. The risk of dying at any time during follow-up was especially higher in men, individuals at the older age groups, with chronic kidney disease MESHD and people hospitalized in the public health services.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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