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MeSH Disease


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    Evaluation of the disease outcome in Covid-19 MESHD infected MESHD patients by disease symptoms: a retrospective cross-sectional study in Ilam Province, Iran

    Authors: Jamil Sadeghifar; Habib Jalilian; Khalil Momeni; Hamed Delam; Tadesse Sheleme; Ayoub Rashidi; Fariba Hemmati; Shahab Falahi; Morteza Arab-Zozani

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.10.20228908 Date: 2020-11-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: novel coronavirus disease-19 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) announced as a global pandemic in the year 2020. With the spread of the disease TRANS, a better understanding of patient outcomes associated with their symptoms in diverse geographic levels is vital. We aimed to analysis clinical outcomes of COVID-19 MESHD patients by disease symptoms in Ilam province of Iran. Methods: This is a retrospective study. Data were collected from integrated health system records for all hospitals affiliated to Ilam University of Medical Sciences between 26 Jan 2020 and 02 May 2020. All patients with definite positive test were enrolled in this study. We used descriptive analyses, chi-square test and binary logistic regression to analyze the data using SPSS version 22. Results: The mean age TRANS was 46.47 years. Of 3608 patients, 3477 (96.1%) were discharged and 129 (3.9%) were died. 54.2% of the patients were male TRANS and were in the age group TRANS of 30-40 years old age TRANS. Cough HP, sore throat, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing and fever MESHD fever HP or chills HP were the most common symptoms. People with symptoms of shortness of breath MESHD, abnormal radiographic findings of the chest, and chest pain HP chest pain MESHD and pressure were relatively more likely to die. Based on the findings of binary logistic regression probability of death MESHD in people who showed shortness of breath MESHD, abnormal chest radiographic findings and chest pain HP chest pain MESHD was 1.34, 1.24 and 1.32 times higher than those who did not show these symptoms, respectively. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that presentation of some symptoms does significantly impact on outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Early detection of symptoms and proper management of outcomes can reduce mortality in patients with COVID-19 MESHD.

    Abnormal liver tests in admitted patients with SARS-Cov-2 or other respiratory viruses- prognostic similarities and temporal disparities

    Authors: Noa Shafran; Assaf Issachar; Tzippy Shochat; Inbal Haya Shafran; Michael Bursztyn; Amir Shlomai; iqra chowdry; muhammad Obaid; Iram Sabah; Misbah Kawoosa; Abdul Lone; Shahroz Nabi; Ishtiyaq Sumji; Nikoloz Chkhartishvili; Frédéric Limosin; Carl Kendall

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.23.20218230 Date: 2020-10-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background and Aims: Abnormal liver tests are common in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD, but their association with short-term outcomes is controversial. We aimed to compare the pattern of abnormal liver tests in SARS-CoV-2 patients with those of patients infected with influenza or respiratory syncytial virus MESHD ( RSV MESHD), two non-hepatotropic respiratory viruses, and their association with in-hospital mechanical ventilation or death MESHD. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 1271 hospitalized patients (872 influenza, 218 RSV MESHD, and 181 SARS-Cov-2) in a tertiary medical center. We defined abnormal liver tests as GPT, GOT or GGT[≥]40IU/ML at any time-point during hospitalization. Results: Abnormal liver tests were mild-moderate in the majority of patients regardless of infection type but the majority of patients with influenza or RSV MESHD had a transaminases peak earlier during hospitalization compared to patients with SARS-Cov-2. Abnormal liver tests correlated with markers of severe disease across all types of infections, and were associated with mechanical ventilation or death, occurring mainly in patients with severe liver tests abnormalities (>200IU/L) (27.2%, 39.4% and 55.6% of patients with influenza, RSV MESHD or SARS-Cov-2). In multivariate analysis, controlling for age TRANS, gender TRANS, lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD and CRP, liver tests abnormalities remained significantly associated with mechanical ventilation or death MESHD for influenza (OR= 3.047, 95% CI 1.518-6.117) and RSV MESHD (OR= 3.402, 95% CI 1.032- 11.220) but not for SARS-Cov-2 (OR= 0.995, 95% CI 0.198-4.989). These results were confirmed upon propensity score matching. Conclusions: Abnormal liver tests during hospitalization with different viral respiratory infections MESHD are common, may differ in their time-course and reflect disease severity. They are associated with worse outcomes, mainly in patients with severe liver test abnormalities MESHD, regardless of infection type MESHD.

    Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory findings for patients of different age groups TRANS with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) in a hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Authors: Mutasim E Ibrahim; Obaid S AL-Aklobi; Mosleh M Abomughaid; Mushabab A. Al-Ghamdi; William KK Wu; Tong Liu; Zhidong Cao; Daniel Dajun Zeng; Ian CK Wong; Bernard MY Cheung; Qingpeng Zhang; Gary Tse

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.21.20217083 Date: 2020-10-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Although the coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic continues to rage worldwide, clinical and laboratory studies of this disease have been limited in many countries. We investigated the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings of COVID-19 MESHD infected MESHD patients to identify the effective indicators correlated with the disease. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at King Abdullah Hospital in Bisha Province, Saudi Arabia, from March 20 to June 30, 2020. Patients of different age groups TRANS were confirmed as having COVID-19 MESHD infection using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. The demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of the patients were statistically analyzed. Results: Of the 137 patients, 88 were male TRANS and 49 were female TRANS, with a mean age TRANS of 49.3 years (SD,18.4). The patients were elderly TRANS (n=29), adults TRANS (n=103), and children TRANS (n=5). Of these, 54 (39.4%) had comorbidities, 24% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 12 (8.8%) died. On admission, the main clinical manifestations were fever MESHD fever HP (82.5%), cough HP (63.5%), shortness of breath MESHD (24.8%), chest pain MESHD chest pain HP (19.7%), and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP (18.2%). In all patients, increased neutrophils and decreased lymphocytes were observed. Patients' lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was elevated. C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in 46.7%, D-dimer in 41.6%, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in 39.4% of patients. The elderly TRANS showed higher neutrophil (p=0.003) and lower lymphocyte (p=0.001) counts than adults TRANS and children TRANS. Glucose, creatine kinase-MB, LDH, bilirubin, D-dimer, and ESR were significantly higher in the elderly TRANS than in the adults TRANS. The COVID-19 MESHD death group had a higher leucocyte count (p = 0.043), and higher urea (p=0.025) and potassium (p=0.026) than the recovered group but had a lower hemoglobin concentration (p=0.018). A significant association was determined between COVID-19 MESHD death MESHD (x2(1)=17.751, p<0.001), and the presence of cardiovascular disease MESHD (x2(1)=17.049, p<0.001), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (x2(1)=7.659, p=0.006), renal failure MESHD (x2(1)=4.172, p<0.04), old age TRANS (t(135) = 4.747, p <0.001), and ICU admission (x2(1) = 17.751 (1), p<0.001). Conclusions: The common symptoms found in this study could be useful for identifying potential COVID-19 MESHD patients. Investigating some of the laboratory and clinical parameters could help assess the disease progression, risk of mortality, and follow up patients who could progress to a fatal condition.

    Simulation and prediction of further spread of COVID-19 MESHD in The Republic of Serbia by SEIRDS model of disease transmission TRANS

    Authors: Slavoljub Grozdan Stanojevic; Mirza Ponjavic; Slobodan Stanojevic; Aleksandar Stevanovic; Sonja Radojicic; Beatriz Perazzi; Sergio Villordo; Diego Alvarez; - BioBanco Working Group; Marcela Echavarria; Kasopefoluwa Y. Oguntuyo; Christian Stevens; Benhur Lee; Jorge Carradori; Julio Caramelo; Marcelo Yanovsky; Andrea Gamarnik; Bart N Lambrecht; Lynda Coughlan; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Bruno G De Geest; Michael Schotsaert; Marion Yger; Bertrand Degos; Louise-Laure Mariani; Christophe Bouche; Nathalie Dzierzynski; Bruno Oquendo; Flora Ketz; An-Hung Nguyen; Aurelie Kas; Jean-Yves Delattre; Jean-Christophe Corvol

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.21.20216986 Date: 2020-10-23 Source: medRxiv

    As a response to the pandemic caused by SARSCov-2 virus, on 15 March, 2020, the Republic of Serbia introduced comprehensive anti-epidemic measures to curb COVID 19. After a slowdown in the epidemic, on 6 May, 2020, the regulatory authorities decided to relax the implemented measures. However, the epidemiological situation soon worsened again. As of 15 October, 2020, a total of 35,454 cases of SARSCov-2 infection MESHD have been reported in Serbia, including 770 deaths MESHD caused by COVID19 MESHD. In order to better understand the epidemic dynamics and predict possible outcomes, we have developed a mathematical model SEIRDS (S-susceptible, E-exposed, I-infected MESHD, R-recovered, D-dead due to COVID19 MESHD infection, S-susceptible). When developing the model, we took into account the differences between different population strata, which can impact the disease dynamics and outcome. The model can be used to simulate various scenarios of the implemented intervention measures and calculate possible epidemic outcomes, including the necessary hospital capacities. Considering promising results regarding the development of a vaccine against COVID19 MESHD, the model is enabled to simulate vaccination among different population strata. The findings from various simulation scenarios have shown that, with implementation of strict measures of contact reduction, it is possible to control COVID19 MESHD and reduce number of deaths MESHD. The findings also show that limiting effective contacts within the most susceptible population strata merits a special attention. However, the findings also show that the disease has a potential to remain in the population for a long time, likely with a seasonal pattern. If a vaccine, with efficacy equal or higher than 65%, becomes available it could help to significantly slow down or completely stop circulation of the virus in human population. The effects of vaccination depend primarily on: 1. Efficacy of available vaccine(s), 2. Prioritization of the population categories for vaccination, and 3. Overall vaccination coverage of the population, assuming that the vaccine(s) develop solid immunity in vaccinated individuals. With expected basic reproduction number TRANS of Ro=2.46 and vaccine efficacy of 68%, an 87%- coverage would be sufficient to stop the virus circulation.

    The wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric complications MESHD in Covid-19 MESHD patients within a multidisciplinary hospital context

    Authors: Cecile Delorme; Marion Houot; Charlotte Rosso; Stephanie Carvalho; Thomas Nedelec; Redwan Maatoug; Victor Pitron; Salimata Gassama; Sara Sambin; Stephanie Bombois; Bastien Herlin; Gaelle Ouvrard; Gaelle Bruneteau; Adele Hesters; Ana Zenovia Gales; Bruno Millet; Foudil Lamari; Stephane Lehericy; Vincent Navarro; Benjamin Rohaut; Sophie Demeret; Thierry Maisonobe; Marion Yger; Bertrand Degos; Louise-Laure Mariani; Christophe Bouche; Nathalie Dzierzynski; Bruno Oquendo; Flora Ketz; An-Hung Nguyen; Aurelie Kas; Jean-Yves Delattre; Jean-Christophe Corvol

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.21.20216747 Date: 2020-10-23 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To describe the spectrum of neurological and psychiatric complications MESHD in patients with Covid-19 MESHD seen in a multidisciplinary center over six months. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational study on all patients showing neurological or psychiatric MESHD symptoms in the context of Covid-19 MESHD seen in the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry of the APHP-Sorbonne University. We collected demographic data, medical and treatment history, comorbidities, symptoms, date of onset, and severity of Covid-19 MESHD infection, neurological and psychiatric symptoms MESHD, neurological and psychiatric MESHD examination data and, when available, results from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, brain magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging, 18-fluorodesoxyglucose-position emission computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT)), electroencephalography (EEG) and electroneuromyography (ENMG). Results: 245 patients were included in the analysis. One-hundred fourteen patients (47%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and 10 (4%) died. The most frequently reported neuropsychiatric symptoms were motor deficit (41%), cognitive disturbance MESHD (35%), impaired consciousness MESHD (26%), psychiatric disturbance MESHD (24%), headache MESHD headache HP (20%) and behavioral disturbance MESHD (18%). The most frequent syndromes diagnosed were encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD (43%), critical illness polyneuropathy MESHD polyneuropathy HP and myopathy MESHD myopathy HP (26%), isolated psychiatric disturbance MESHD (18%), and cerebrovascular disorders MESHD (16%). No patients showed evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in their CSF. Encephalopathy HP Encephalopathy MESHD was associated with greater age TRANS and higher risk of death MESHD. Critical illness neuromyopathy MESHD was associated with an extended stay in the ICU. Conclusions: The majority of the neuropsychiatric complications recorded could be imputed to critical illness, intensive care and systemic inflammation MESHD, which contrasts with the paucity of more direct SARS-CoV-2-related complications or post- infection disorders MESHD.

    Multiplexed proteomics and imaging of resolving and lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the lung

    Authors: Marian Kalocsay; Zoltan Maliga; Ajit J Nirmal; Robyn J Eisert; Gary A Bradshaw; Yu-An Chen; Roxanne J Pelletier; Connor A Jacobson; Julian Mintseris; Amanda J Martinot; Dan H Barouch; Peter Sorger; Mirta Roses; Vasee Sathiyamoorthy; John-Arne Rottingen; Soumya Swaminathan; Qingyuan Yang; David Hines; William Clarke; Richard Eric Rothman; Andrew Pekosz; Katherine Fenstermacher; Zitong Wang; Scott L Zeger; Antony Rosen

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.14.339952 Date: 2020-10-15 Source: bioRxiv

    Normal tissue physiology and repair depends on communication with the immune system. Understanding this communication at the molecular level in intact tissue requires new methods. The consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, which can result in acute respiratory distress HP, thrombosis MESHD and death MESHD, has been studied primarily in accessible liquid specimens such as blood SERO, sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage, all of which are peripheral to the primary site of infection in the lung. Here, we describe the combined use of multiplexed deep proteomics with multiplexed imaging to profile infection and its sequelae directly in fixed lung tissue specimens obtained from necropsy of infected MESHD animals and autopsy of human decedents. We characterize multiple steps in disease response from cytokine accumulation and protein phosphorylation to activation of receptors, changes in signaling pathways, and crosslinking of fibrin to form clots. Our data reveal significant differences between naturally resolving SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in rhesus macaques and lethal COVID-19 MESHD in humans. The approach we describe is broadly applicable to other tissues and diseases.

    COVID-19 MESHD in Italy: targeted testing as a proxy of limited health care facilities and a key to reducing hospitalization rate and the death MESHD toll.

    Authors: Arnab Bandyopadhyay; Marta Schips; Tanmay Mitra; Sahamoddin Khailaie; Sebastian Binder; Michael Meyer-Hermann; Amanda Loban; Simon Waterhouse; Richard Simmonds; Catherine Biggs; Carl Marincowitz; Jose Schutter; Sarah Connelly; Elena Sheldon; Jamie Hall; Emma Young; Andrew Bentley; Kirsty Challen; Chris Fitzsimmons; Tim Harris; Fiona Lecky; Andrew Lee; Ian Maconochie; Darren Walter

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.12.20211169 Date: 2020-10-14 Source: medRxiv

    The novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (CoV) has induced a worldwide pandemic, notably in Italy, one of the worst-hit countries in Europe, which witnessed a death toll unseen in the recent past. There are potentially many factors, such as infections from undetected index cases, early vs late testing strategies, limited health care facilities etc., that might have aggravated the COVID-19 MESHD situation in Italy. We developed a COVID-19 MESHD specific infection epidemic MESHD model composed of susceptible (S), exposed (E), carrier TRANS (C), infected (I), recovery (R) and dead (D) (SECIRD), specifically parameterized for Italy to disentangle the impact of these factors and their implications on infection dynamics to help planning an effective control strategy for a possible second wave. Our model discriminates between detected infected MESHD and undetected individuals who played a crucial role in the disease spreading TRANS and is not well addressed by classical SEIR-like transmission TRANS models. We first estimated the number of undetected infections through a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) framework, which ranges from ~7 to ~22 fold higher than reported infections, depending upon regions. We exploited this information to evaluate the impact of the undetected component on the evolution of the pandemic and the benefits of an enhanced testing strategy. In high testing regions like Veneto, 18% of all infections resulted in hospitalization, while for Lombardia and Piemonte, it is 25% and 27%, respectively. We investigated the impact of an overwhelmed health care system upon death MESHD toll by applying hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) capacities in the SECIRD model, and we estimated a 10% reduction in death in Lombardia MESHD, the worst hit region, if a higher number of hospital facilities had been available since the beginning. Adopting a combined strategy of rapid early and targeted testing (~10 fold) with increased hospital capacity would help in avoiding bottlenecks affecting the health care system. Our results demonstrate that the early testing would have a strong impact on the overall hospital accessibility and, hence, upon death toll (~20% to 50% reduction) and could have mitigated the lack of facilities at the crucial middle stage of the epidemic.

    Insights Into the First Seven-months of COVID-19 MESHD Pandemic in Bangladesh: Lessons Learned MESHD from a High-risk Country

    Authors: Md. Hasanul Banna Siam; Md.Mahbub Hasan; Shazed Mohammad Tashrif; Md. Hasinur Rahaman Khan; Enayetur Raheem; Mohammad Sorowar Hossain

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-10-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundSouth Asian countries including Bangladesh have been struggling to control the COVID-19 MESHD pandemic despite imposing months of lockdown and other public health measures. In-depth epidemiological information from these countries is lacking. From the perspective of Bangladesh, this study aims at understanding the epidemiological features and gaps in public health preparedness and risk communication. MethodsThe study used publicly available data of seven months (8 March 2020–10 September 2020) from the respective health departments of Bangladesh and Johns Hopkins University Coronavirus Resource Centre. Human mobility data were obtained from Google COVID-19 MESHD Community Mobility Reports. Spatial distribution maps were created using ArcGIS Desktop. Descriptive statistics was used to report the incidence, case fatality rates (CFR), and trend analysis.  Results Despite nationwide lockdown, an increase in human mobility linked to specific public events was observed. During this period, a total of 47,153 cases and 650 deaths MESHD were reported. As lockdown ended, the incidence rate was increased by around 50% within a week. In seven months, about 350,000 cases were identified with a CFR of 1.4%. Males TRANS were disproportionately affected in terms of infection MESHD (71%) and death MESHD (77%) than females TRANS. The CFR for males TRANS was higher than females TRANS (1.4% versus 1.11%). Over 50% of infected cases were reported among young adults TRANS (20-40-year age group TRANS). Trends of the cumulative incidence were slower in South Asia with lower mortality compared to the EU and USA. As of 10 September 2020, over 20,000 frontline health workers were affected, and more than 2100 unofficial deaths MESHD were reported. Reduced testing capacity was observed as compared to other countries. Although a downward trend in laboratory test positive percentage was seen, the number of new deaths per day remained largely unchanged.  ConclusionWe identified critical gaps in public health preparedness and risk communication in battling COVID-19 MESHD pandemic. We believe our findings, observations and recommendations will function as a valuable resource to facilitate better public health decisions for managing current and future infectious disease MESHD like COVID-19 MESHD in the settings of developing countries. 

    Computational Modeling Indicates A Decreased Affinity of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 by Steroids

    Authors: Alireza Mansouri; Rasoul Kowsar; Khaled Sadeghi; Akio Miyamoto

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    The novel coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) presently poses significant concerns around the world. Latest reports show that the degree of disease and mortality of COVID-19 MESHD infected MESHD patients may vary from gender TRANS to gender TRANS with a very high risk of death MESHD for seniors. It was hypothesized that sex steroid hormones estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), testosterone (T), and dexamethasone (DEX) may change the interaction of coronavirus spike protein (CSP) with angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Data showed that E2 was more strongly to interact with the main protease of the coronavirus, while T had the lowest affinity for CSP. The binding energy of the CSP to ACE2 was increased in the presence of steroids; the greatest increase was observed by DEX and E2. The binding free energy of the CSP to ACE2 was the highest in the presence of E2 and DEX. Together, the interaction between CSP and ACE2 can be disrupted by E2 and to a greater extent by DEX, in part explaining the lower incidence of COVID-19 MESHD infection in women than men. The potential use of E2 and DEX to reduce coronavirus attachment MESHD to ACE2 in the early phase of the coronavirus invasion needs to be clinically investigated.

    Analysis of Clinical Characteristics, Laboratory Findings and Therapy of 134 Cases of COVID-19 MESHD in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Analysis

    Authors: Rui Zhang; Jie Zhang; Jiebing Chen

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundAs everyone knows, the pandemic COVID-19 MESHD is spreading in the whole world. The number of laboratory- confirmed cases TRANS reached 28,637,211 and that of the death cases was 917,404 in the world as of September 13 th , 2020. We sought to analyse the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and therapy of some cases with COVID-19 MESHD.MethodsIn this retrospective study, we extracted the data on 134 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD in Wuhan Xinzhou District People's Hospital from January 16 th to April 24 th , 2020. Cases were confirmed TRANS by real-time RT-PCR and abnormal radiologic findings. Outcomes were followed up until May 1 th , 2020. ResultsCo-infection MESHD infection and severe HP underlying diseases made it easier for a case with COVID-19 MESHD to develop to be a severe one or reach an outcome of death MESHD. Age TRANS above 60 years old, male TRANS and symptoms such as fever HP fever MESHD, cough MESHD cough HP, chest tightness MESHD chest tightness HP, headaches HP headaches MESHD and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD were related to severe COVID-19 MESHD and an outcome of death MESHD. In addition, higher temperature, blood SERO leukocyte count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, D-dimer level, alanine aminotransferase activity, aspartate aminotransferase activity, α -hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity and creatine kinase activity were also related to severe COVID-19 MESHD and an outcome of death MESHD, and so was lower lymphocyte count. Administration of gamma globulin seemed helpful for reducing the mortality of patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD, however the P value was greater than 0.05 (P=0.180), which mean under the same condition, studies of larger samples are needed in the future.ConclusionMultiple factors were related to severe COVID-19 MESHD and an outcome of death MESHD. Administration of gamma globulin seemed helpful for reducing the mortality of severe cases. More related studies are needed in the future.

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