Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 121
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    Evaluation of two RT-PCR techniques for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in serum SERO for microbiological diagnosis

    Authors: Alexandra Martin Ramirez; Nelly Daniella Zurita Cruz; Ainhoa Gutierrez-Cobos; Diego Anibal Rodriguez Serrano; Isidoro Gonzalez Alvaro; Emilia Roy Vallejo; Sara Gomez de Frutos; Leticia Fontan Garcia-Rodrigo; Laura Cardenoso Domingo; Anthony Aizer; Douglas Holmes; Scott Bernstein; Michael Spinelli; David Park; Larry Chinitz; Lior Jankelosn; Kimberly Jones-Beatty; William Christopher Golden; Andrew J. Satin; Jeanne S. Sheffield; Andrew Pekosz; Sabra Klein; Irina Burd

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.15.20231795 Date: 2020-11-16 Source: medRxiv

    Presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in serum SERO (viraemia) in COVID-19 MESHD patients has been related to poor prognosis and death MESHD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of two commercial reverse real-time-PCR (rRT-PCR) kits, cobas SARS-CoV-2 (Cobas test) and TaqPath COVID-19 MESHD CE-IVD RT-PCR Kit (Taqpath test), to detect viraemia in COVID-19 MESHD patients and their implementation as routine diagnosis in microbiology laboratory. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 203 adult TRANS patients admitted to Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, (89 Intensive Care Unit and 114 ward) with at least one serum sample SERO collected in the first 48 hours from admission. A total 265 serum samples SERO were included for study. Evaluation of both rRT-PCR techniques was performed comparing with the gold standard, a Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Nucleic Acid Diagnostic Kit; considering at least one target as a positive result. Comparison of Cobas test and Taqpath test with the gold standard method, showed high values of specificity (93.75 and 92.19 respectively) and Positive Predictive Value SERO (92.92 and 99.88 respectively). Nevertheless, sensitivity SERO (53.72 and 73.63 respectively) and Negative Predictive Value SERO (32.53 and 42.99 respectively) were lower; Kappa values were 0.35 for cobas test and 0.56 for Taqpath test. For both techniques, differences of viraemia detection between the ICU and non-ICU patients were significant (p<0.001). Consequently, SARS-CoV-2 viraemia MESHD positive results obtained by both rRT-PCR should be considered good tools and may help in handling COVID-19 MESHD patients. Moreover, these methods could be easily integrated in the routine laboratory COVID-19 MESHD diagnosis and may open new strategies based on an early COVID-19 MESHD treatment.

    Genetic association analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in 455,838 UK Biobank participants

    Authors: Jack A Kosmicki; Julie E Horowitz; Nilanjana Banerjee; Rouel Lanche; Anthony Marcketta; Evan Maxwell; Xiaodong Bai; Dylan Sun; Joshua Backman; Deepika Sharma; Colm O'Dushlaine; Ashish Yadav; Adam Mansfield; Alexander Li; Joelle Mbatchou; Kyoko Watanabe; Lauren Gurski; Shane McCarthy; Adam Locke; Shareef Khalid; Olympe Chazara; Yunfeng Huang; Erika Kvikstad; Aalok Nadkar; Amanda O'Neill; Paul Nioi; Margaret M Parker; Slave Petrovski; Heiko Runz; Joseph Szustakowski; Quanli Wang; Marcus Jones; Suganthi Balasubramanian; William Salerno; Alan Shuldiner; Jonathan Marchini; John Overton; Lukas Habegger; Michael Cantor; Jeffrey Reid; Aris Baras; Goncalo R Abecasis; Manuel A Ferreira

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.28.20221804 Date: 2020-11-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus disease-19 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD), a respiratory illness MESHD with influenza-like symptoms that can result in hospitalization or death MESHD. We investigated human genetic determinants of COVID-19 MESHD risk and severity in 455,838 UK Biobank participants, including 2,003 with COVID-19 MESHD. Methods. We defined eight COVID-19 MESHD phenotypes (including risks of infection TRANS, hospitalization and severe disease) and tested these for association with imputed and exome sequencing variants. Results. We replicated prior COVID-19 MESHD genetic associations with common variants in the 3p21.31 (in LZTFL1) and 9q34.2 (in ABO) loci. The 3p21.31 locus (rs11385942) was associated with disease severity amongst COVID-19 MESHD cases (OR=2.2, P=3x10-5), but not risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD without hospitalization (OR=0.89, P=0.25). We identified two loci associated with risk of infection TRANS at P<5x10-8, including a missense variant that tags the epsilon 4 haplotype in APOE (rs429358; OR=1.29, P=9x10-9). The association with rs429358 was attenuated after adjusting for cardiovascular disease MESHD disease and Alzheimer HP Alzheimer's disease MESHD status (OR=1.15, P=0.005). Analyses of rare coding variants identified no significant associations overall, either exome-wide or with (i) 14 genes related to interferon signaling and reported to contain rare deleterious variants in severe COVID-19 MESHD patients; (ii) 36 genes located in the 3p21.31 and 9q34.2 GWAS risk loci; and (iii) 31 additional genes of immunologic relevance and/or therapeutic potential. Conclusions. Our analyses corroborate the association with the 3p21.31 locus and highlight that there are no rare protein-coding variant associations with effect sizes detectable at current sample sizes. Our full analysis results are publicly available, providing a substrate for meta-analysis with results from other sequenced COVID-19 MESHD cases as they become available. Association results are available at https://rgc- covid19 MESHD.regeneron.com

    The Contribution of Endothelial Dysfunction in Systemic Injury Subsequent to SARS-Cov-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Jessica Maiuolo; Rocco Mollace; Micaela Gliozzi; Vincenzo Musolino; Cristina Carresi; Sara Paone; Miriam Scicchitano; Roberta Macrì; Saverio Nucera; Francesca Bosco; Federica Scarano; Maria Caterina Zito; Stefano Ruga; Annamaria Tavernese; Vincenzo Mollace

    id:10.20944/preprints202010.0585.v1 Date: 2020-10-28 Source: Preprints.org

    Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection MESHD is associated, alongside with lung infection MESHD and respiratory disease MESHD, to cardiovascular dysfunction MESHD that occurs at any stage of the disease. This includes ischemic MESHD heart disease MESHD, arrhythmias HP arrhythmias MESHD, and cardiomyopathies MESHD cardiomyopathies HP. The common pathophysiological link between SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and the cardiovascular events is represented by coagulation abnormalities HP coagulation abnormalities MESHD and disruption of factors released by endothelial cells which contribute in maintaining the blood SERO vessels into an anti-thrombotic state. Thus, early alteration of the functionality of endothelial cells, which may be found soon after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, seems to represent the major target of SARS CoV-2 disease MESHD state and accounts for the systemic vascular dysfunction MESHD that leads to detrimental effect in terms of hospitalization and death accompanying the disease MESHD. In particular, the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with ACE2 receptor located in endothelial cell surface, either at the pulmonary and systemic level, leads to early impairment of endothelial function which, in turn, is followed by vascular inflammation MESHD and thrombosis of peripheral HP thrombosis of peripheral MESHD blood SERO vessels. This highlights systemic hypoxia MESHD and further aggravates the vicious circle that compromises the development of the disease leading to irreversible tissue damage and death of patients with SARS CoV-2 infection MESHD. The review aims to assess some recent advances to define the crucial role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of vascular complications accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. In particular, the molecular mechanisms associated to the interaction of SARS CoV-2 with ACE2 receptor located on the endothelial cells are highlighted to support its role in compromising endothelial cell functionality. Finally, the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in enhancing pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are assessed in order to identify early therapeutic interventions able to reduce the impact of the disease in high-risk patients.

    Abnormal liver tests in admitted patients with SARS-Cov-2 or other respiratory viruses- prognostic similarities and temporal disparities

    Authors: Noa Shafran; Assaf Issachar; Tzippy Shochat; Inbal Haya Shafran; Michael Bursztyn; Amir Shlomai; iqra chowdry; muhammad Obaid; Iram Sabah; Misbah Kawoosa; Abdul Lone; Shahroz Nabi; Ishtiyaq Sumji; Nikoloz Chkhartishvili; Frédéric Limosin; Carl Kendall

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.23.20218230 Date: 2020-10-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background and Aims: Abnormal liver tests are common in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD, but their association with short-term outcomes is controversial. We aimed to compare the pattern of abnormal liver tests in SARS-CoV-2 patients with those of patients infected with influenza or respiratory syncytial virus MESHD ( RSV MESHD), two non-hepatotropic respiratory viruses, and their association with in-hospital mechanical ventilation or death MESHD. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 1271 hospitalized patients (872 influenza, 218 RSV MESHD, and 181 SARS-Cov-2) in a tertiary medical center. We defined abnormal liver tests as GPT, GOT or GGT[≥]40IU/ML at any time-point during hospitalization. Results: Abnormal liver tests were mild-moderate in the majority of patients regardless of infection type but the majority of patients with influenza or RSV MESHD had a transaminases peak earlier during hospitalization compared to patients with SARS-Cov-2. Abnormal liver tests correlated with markers of severe disease across all types of infections, and were associated with mechanical ventilation or death, occurring mainly in patients with severe liver tests abnormalities (>200IU/L) (27.2%, 39.4% and 55.6% of patients with influenza, RSV MESHD or SARS-Cov-2). In multivariate analysis, controlling for age TRANS, gender TRANS, lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD and CRP, liver tests abnormalities remained significantly associated with mechanical ventilation or death MESHD for influenza (OR= 3.047, 95% CI 1.518-6.117) and RSV MESHD (OR= 3.402, 95% CI 1.032- 11.220) but not for SARS-Cov-2 (OR= 0.995, 95% CI 0.198-4.989). These results were confirmed upon propensity score matching. Conclusions: Abnormal liver tests during hospitalization with different viral respiratory infections MESHD are common, may differ in their time-course and reflect disease severity. They are associated with worse outcomes, mainly in patients with severe liver test abnormalities MESHD, regardless of infection type MESHD.

    Clinical correlations of SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO responses in patients with COVID-19 MESHD infection

    Authors: Mia DeSimone; Daimon P Simmons; Nicole Tolan; Stacy Melanson; Athena Petrides; Milenko Tanasijevic; Peter Schur; Jill Hakim; Keirstinne Turcios; Lee Atkinson-McEvoy; Raphael Hirsch; Roberta L Keller; Theodore Ruel; Auritte Cohen-Ross; Araceli Leon; Naomi Bardach; Aaron F Carlin; Alex E. Clark; Laura Berreta; Daniel Maneval; Felix Frueh; Brett L Hurst; Hong Wang; Klaudia I Kocurek; Frank M Raushel; Jair L. Siqueira-Neto; Thomas D Meek; James H McKerrow

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.22.20213207 Date: 2020-10-23 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease 19 ( COVID-19 MESHD) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Understanding the clinical correlations of antibodies SERO produced by infected individuals will be critical for incorporating antibody SERO results into clinical management. This study was an observational cohort study to evaluate antibody SERO responses in individuals with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD, including 48 hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 MESHD by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at a large tertiary care medical center. Serum samples SERO were obtained from patients at various time points during the disease course and tested for IgM and IgG antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. Medical records were reviewed, and antibody SERO levels were compared with clinical and laboratory findings. Patients did not have high levels of antibodies SERO within one week of symptoms, but most had detectable IgM and IgG antibodies SERO between 8 and 29 days after onset of symptoms TRANS. Some individuals did not develop measurable levels of IgM or IgG antibodies SERO. IgM antibodies SERO were associated with elevated ALT, but there were no other significant associations. We did not observe significant associations of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO with clinical outcomes, including intubation and death MESHD. SARS-CoV-2 IgM MESHD IgM and IgG antibodies SERO were unlikely to be detected in the first week of infection or in severely HP immunocompromised individuals. Although we did not observe associations with clinical outcomes, IgM antibodies SERO were associated with higher ALT levels. Antibody SERO production reflects the virus-specific immune response, which is important for immunity but also drives pathology, and antibody SERO levels may be important for guiding treatment of individuals with COVID-19 MESHD.

    2.5 Million Person-Years of Life Have Been Lost Due to COVID-19 MESHD in the United States

    Authors: STEPHEN J ELLEDGE

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.18.20214783 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 MESHD pandemic, caused by tens of millions of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHDs world-wide, has resulted in considerable levels of mortality and morbidity. The United States has been hit particularly hard having 20 percent of the world's infections but only 4 percent of the world population. Unfortunately, significant levels of misunderstanding exist about the severity of the disease and its lethality. As COVID-19 MESHD disproportionally impacts elderly TRANS populations, the false impression that the impact on society of these deaths is minimal may be conveyed by some because elderly TRANS individuals are closer to a natural death MESHD. To assess the impact of COVID-19 MESHD in the US, I have performed calculations of person-years of life lost as a result of 194,000 premature deaths due to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD as of early October, 2020. By combining actuarial data on life expectancy and the distribution of COVID-19 MESHD associated deaths we estimate that over 2,500,000 person-years of life have been lost so far in the pandemic in the US alone, averaging over 13.25 years per person with differences noted between males TRANS and females TRANS. Importantly, nearly half of the potential years of life lost occur in non- elderly TRANS populations. Issues impacting refinement of these models and the additional morbidity caused by COVID-19 MESHD beyond lethality are discussed.

    Different mutations in SARS-CoV-2 associate with severe and mild outcome

    Authors: Adam Nagy; Sandor Pongor; Balazs Gyorffy; Xiaoyan Yan; Xiaojing Jiang; Ruonan Xu; Siyu Wang; Chao Zhang; Xin Yuan; Zhe Xu; Lei Huang; Junliang Fu; Yuanyuan Li; Yu Zhang; Weiqi Liu; Tianyi Liu; Jin-Wen Song; Liangliang Sun; Fan Yang; Xin Zhang; Bo Zhang; Ming Shi; Fanping Meng; Yanning Song; Yongpei Yu; Jiqiu Wen; Qi Li; Qing Mao; Markus Maeurer; Alimuddin Zumla; Chen Yao; Weifen Xie; Fu-Sheng Wang; Anthony Atala; Ali Ghodsizad; Joshua M Hare

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.16.20213710 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction. Genomic alterations in a viral genome can lead to either better or worse outcome and identifying these mutations is of utmost importance. Here, we correlated protein-level mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 virus to clinical outcome. Methods. Mutations in viral sequences from the GISAID virus repository were evaluated by using hCoV-19/Wuhan/WIV04/2019 as the reference. Patient outcomes were classified as mild disease, hospitalization and severe disease ( death MESHD or documented treatment in an intensive-care unit). Chi-square test was applied to examine the association between each mutation and patient outcome. False discovery rate was computed to correct for multiple hypothesis testing and results passing a FDR cutoff of 5% were accepted as significant. Results. Mutations were mapped to amino acid changes for 2,120 non-silent mutations. Mutations correlated to mild outcome were located in the ORF8, NSP6, ORF3a, NSP4, and in the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein N. Mutations associated with inferior outcome were located in the surface (S) glycoprotein, in the RNA dependent RNA polymerase, in the 3'-to5' exonuclease, in ORF3a, NSP2 and N. Mutations leading to severe outcome with low prevalence SERO were found in the surface (S) glycoprotein and in NSP7. Five out of 17 of the most significant mutations mapped onto a 10 amino acid long phosphorylated stretch of N indicating that in spite of obvious sampling restrictions the approach can find functionally relevant sites in the viral genome. Conclusions. We demonstrate that mutations in the viral genes may have a direct correlation to clinical outcome. Our results help to quickly identify SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD harboring mutations related to severe outcome.

    Clinical course of COVID-19 MESHD patients needing supplemental oxygen outside the intensive care unit

    Authors: Ayham Daher; Paul Balfanz; Maria Aetou; Bojan Hartmann; Dirk Müller-Wieland; Tobias Müller; Nikolaus Marx; Michael Dreher; Christian G Cornelissen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-95432/v1 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: Patients suffering from CVOID-19 mostly experience a benign course of the disease. Approximately 14 % of SARS-CoV2 infected MESHD patients are admitted to a hospital. Cohorts exhibiting severe lung failure MESHD in the form of acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) have been well characterized. Patients without ARDS MESHD but in need of supplementary oxygen have received much less attention. This study describes the diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 MESHD needing oxygen support during their stay on regular ward.Methods: All 133 patients admitted to the RWTH Aachen university hospital with the diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD were included in an observational registry. Clinical data sets were extracted from the hospital information system. This analysis includes all 57 patients requiring supplemental oxygen not admitted to the ICU.Results: 57 patients needing supplemental oxygen and being treated outside the ICU were analyzed. Patients exhibited the typical set of symptoms for COVID-19 MESHD. Of note, hypoxic MESHD patients mostly did not suffer from clinically relevant dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP despite oxygen saturations below 92 %. Patients had fever MESHD fever HP for 7 [2-11] days and needed supplemental oxygen for 8 [5-13] days resulting in an overall hospitalization time of 12 [7-20] days. In addition, patients had persisting systemic inflammation MESHD with CRP levels remaining elevated until discharge or death MESHD.Conclusion: This description of COVID-19 MESHD patients requiring oxygen therapy should be taken into account when planning treatment capacity. Patients on oxygen need long-term inpatient care.

    Global dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 clades and their relation to COVID-19 MESHD epidemiology

    Authors: Samira M. Hamed; Walid F. Elkhatib; Ahmed S. Khairallah; Ayman M. Noreddin

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-89876/v1 Date: 2020-10-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    Expansion of COVID-19 MESHD worldwide increases interest in unraveling genomic variations of novel SARS-CoV-2 virus. Metadata of 60,703 SARS-CoV-2 genomes submitted to GISAID database were analyzed with respect to genomic clades and their geographic, age TRANS, and gender TRANS distributions. Clade GR was the most frequently identified followed by G and GH. Chronological analysis revealed expansion in SARS-CoV-2 clades MESHD with D614Gmutations indicating adaptation-driven evolution. Of them, clade GH showed a slight regression. GR, GH MESHD and L clades prevail in countries with higher deaths. GR clade showed higher prevalence SERO among severe/deceased patients. Metadata analysis showed higher (p > 0.05) prevalence SERO of severe/deceased cases among males TRANS than females TRANS and predominance of GR clade in female TRANS and children TRANS patients. Furthermore, severe disease/ death MESHD was more prevalent (p < 0.05) in elderly TRANS than in adults TRANS/ children TRANS. These findings uniquely provide an evidence-based evolution of SARS-CoV-2 leading to altered infectivity, virulence, and mortality.

    High flow nasal oxygen therapy to avoid intubation in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP: A multicenter retrospective study

    Authors: Nicolas Bonnet; Olivier Martin; Marouane Boubaya; Vincent Levy; Nathan Ebstein; Philippe Karoubi; Yacine Tandjaoui Lambiotte; Guillaume Van Der Meersch; johanna Oziel; Marie Soulie; Mohamed Ghalayini; Anais Winchenne; Jean Ralph Zahar; Passem Ahmed; Stéphane Gaudry; Yves Cohen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-88292/v1 Date: 2020-10-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:. The efficacy of high flow nasal canula oxygen therapy (HFNO) to prevent invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is not well established in severe coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD). The aim of this study was to compare the risk of intubation between two strategies of oxygenation (conventional oxygenation and HFNO) in critically ill COVID 19 patientsMethods: This was a multicenter retrospective case series witch took place  in two intensive care units (ICU) of tertiary hospitals in the Paris region from March 11, to May 3, 2020. We enrolled consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 MESHD and acute respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD ( ARF MESHD) who did not receive IMV at ICU admission. The primary outcome was the rate of IMV after ICU admission. Secondary outcomes were death MESHD at day 28 and day 60, length of ICU stay, ventilator-free days and number of patients with ventilator-free days >14 days. Data from the HFNO group were compared with those from the standard oxygen therapy (SOT) group.ResultsAmong 138 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 62 (45%) were treated with SOT alone, and 76 (55%) with HFNO. In HFNO group, 39/76 (51%) patients were intubated and 46/62 (74%) in SOT group. After using a standard logistic regression on the original sample, HFNO was associated with significantly lower rate IMV (OR [IC-95%] 0.37 [0.18 – 0.76] p = 0.007). After propensity score application, HFNO was still associated with a lower rate of intubation (OR [IC-95%] 0.31 [0.14-0.66] p = 0.002). Length of ICU stay and mortality at day 28 and day 60 did not significantly differ between HFNO and SOT groups after propensity score application. In a univariate analysis, ventilator-free days at days 28 was higher in HNFO group (21 days vs 10 days, p=0.005). The number of patients with ventilator free-days >14 days was higher in HFNO group after propensity score application (66% vs 39%; OR 3.91[1.91-7.99], p=0.0002).ConclusionsHigh flow nasal canula oxygen for ARF MESHD due to COVID-19 MESHD reduces the need for intubation. 

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