Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    90 Days of COVID-19 Social Distancing and Its Impacts on Air Quality and Health in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Authors: Daniela Debone; Mariana da Costa; Simone Miraglia

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0022.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: Preprints.org

    The coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic caused by spreading rapidly a severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has imposed a unique situation for the humanity. Sao Paulo has reported 124,105 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 and 5,623 deaths MESHD up to June 14th, being considered the epicenter of the pandemic in Brazil and in South America. Due to the measures for social distancing, there was a drop in the air pollution concentration in Sao Paulo. Starting on March 16th, 2020, we broke 90 days of social distancing into 13 weeks and compared to an equivalent period in 2019. We investigated the air quality improvement during the quarantine period and compared the associated avoided deaths MESHD to COVID-19 burden deaths MESHD. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was the best indicator of air quality in the analyzed weeks, since its reduction reached 58 %. Our study showed that the 5,623 deaths MESHD occurred during the analyzed weeks of quarantine represents an economic health loss of US$ 10.5 billion. In opposite, we observed a significant air quality improvement due to pollutants concentrations’ reductions during the analyzed weeks. Considering PM10, PM2.5 and NO2, the decrease of concentration levels respectively avoided 78, 337 and 387 premature deaths MESHD and prevented up to US$ 1.5 billion on health costs. These results highlight the importance of continuing to enforce existing air pollution regulations and measures to protect human health both during and after COVID-19 pandemic.

    High SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in Health Care Workers but relatively low numbers of deaths MESHD in urban Malawi

    Authors: Marah Grace Chibwana; Khuzwayo Chidiwa Jere; Jonathan Mandolo; Vincent Katunga-Phiri; Dumizulu Tembo; Ndaona Mitole; Samantha Musasa; Simon Sichone; Agness Lakudzala; Lusako Sibale; Prisca Matambo; Innocent Kadwala; Rachel Louise Byrne; Alice Mbewe; Ben Morton; Chimota Phiri; Jane Mallewa; Henry C Mwandumba; Emily R Adams; Stephen B Gordon; Kondwani Charles Jambo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164970 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background In low-income countries, like Malawi, important public health measures including social distancing or a lockdown, have been challenging to implement owing to socioeconomic constraints, leading to predictions that the COVID-19 pandemic would progress rapidly. However, due to limited capacity to test for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD, there are no reliable estimates of the true burden of infection MESHD and death MESHD. We, therefore, conducted a SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey amongst health care workers (HCW) in Blantyre city to estimate the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in urban Malawi. Methods Five hundred otherwise asymptomatic TRANS HCWs were recruited from Blantyre City (Malawi) from 22nd May 2020 to 19th June 2020 and serum samples SERO were collected all participants. A commercial ELISA SERO was used to measure SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in serum SERO. We run local negative samples (2018 - 2019) to verify the specificity of the assay. To estimate the seroprevalence SERO of SARS CoV-2 antibodies SERO, we adjusted the proportion of positive results based on local specificity of the assay. Results Eighty-four participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. The HCW with a positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO result came from different parts of the city. The adjusted seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO was 12.3% [CI 9.0-15.7]. Using age TRANS-stratified infection MESHD fatality estimates reported from elsewhere, we found that at the observed adjusted seroprevalence SERO, the number of predicted deaths MESHD was 8 times the number of reported deaths MESHD. Conclusion The high seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO among HCW and the discrepancy in the predicted versus reported deaths MESHD, suggests that there was early exposure but slow progression of COVID-19 epidemic in urban Malawi. This highlights the urgent need for development of locally parameterised mathematical models to more accurately predict the trajectory of the epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa for better evidence-based policy decisions and public health response planning.

    Use of a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody SERO (itolizumab) in elderly TRANS patients with moderate COVID-19

    Authors: Mayra Ramos-Suzarte; Yayquier Diaz; Yordanis Martin; Nestor Antonio Calderon; William Santiago; Orlando Vinet; Yulieski La O; Jorge Perez; Augusto Oyarzabal; Yoan Perez; Geidy Lorenzo; Meylan Cepeda; Danay Saavedra; Zayma Mazorra; Daymys Estevez; Patricia Lorenzo-Luaces; Carmen Valenzuela; Armando Caballero; Kalet leon; Tania Crombet; Carlos Jorge Hidalgo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20153833 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Introduction: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a recent outbreak of Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19). In Cuba, the first case of COVID-19 was reported on March 11. Elderly TRANS with multiple comorbidities are particularly susceptible to adverse clinical outcomes in the course of SARS CoV-2 infection MESHD. During the outbreak, a local transmission TRANS event took place in a nursing home in Villa Clara province, Cuba, in which nineteen elderly TRANS residents were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Based on the increased susceptibility to viral-induced cytokine release syndrome MESHD inducing respiratory and systemic complications in this population, the patients were included in an expanded access clinical trial to receive itolizumab, an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody SERO. Results: All the patients had underlying medical conditions. The product was well tolerated. After the first dose, the course of the disease MESHD was favorable and 18 out of 19 (94.7%) patients were discharged clinically recovered with negative RT-PCR at 13 days (median). One dose of itolizumab, circulating IL-6 decreased in the first 24-48 hours in patients with high baseline values, whereas in patients with low levels, this concentration remained over low values. To preliminary assess the effect of itolizumab, a control group was selected among the Cuban COVID-19 patients, which did not receive immunomodulatory therapy. Control subjects were well-matched regarding age TRANS, comorbidities and severity of the disease MESHD. Every three moderately ill patients treated with itolizumab, one admission in intensive care unit (ICU) was prevented. Discussion/Conclusion: Itolizumab was well tolerated. Its effect is associated with a reduction and controlling IL-6 serum SERO levels. Moreover, treated patients had a favorable clinical outcome, considering their poor prognosis. This treatment is associated significantly with a decrease the risk to be admitted in ICU and reduced 10 times the risk of death MESHD. This study corroborates that the timely use of itolizumab, in combination with other antiviral and anticoagulant therapies, is associated with a reduction the COVID-19 disease MESHD worsening and mortality. The humanized antibody SERO itolizumab emerges as a therapeutic alternative for patients with COVID-19 and suggests its possible use in patients with cytokine release syndrome MESHD from other pathologies.

    Corticosteroid Use in Severely Hypoxemic COVID-19 Patients: An Observational Cohort Analysis of Dosing Patterns and Outcomes in the Early Phase of the Pandemic

    Authors: Omar Rahman; Russel A Trigonis; Mitchell K Craft; Rachel M Kruer; Emily M Miller; Colin L Terry; Sarah A Persaud; Rajat Kapoor

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164277 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    INTRODUCTION Hypoxemia HP in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD due to Novel Coronavirus of 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) is mediated by severe inflammation MESHD that may be mitigated by corticosteroids. We evaluated pattern and effects of corticosteroid use in these patients during an early surge of the pandemic. METHODS Observational study of 136 SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted to the Intensive care Unit between March 1 and April 27, 2020 at a tertiary care hospital in Indianapolis, USA. Statistical comparison between cohorts and dosing pattern analysis was done. Outcome measures included number of patients requiring intubation, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay and inpatient mortality. RESULTS: Of 136 patients, 72 (53%) received corticosteroids. Groups demographics: Age TRANS (60.5 vs. 65; p .083), sex (47% male TRANS vs. 39% female TRANS; p .338) and comorbidities were similar. Corticosteroid group had increased severity of illness: PaO2/FiO2 (113 vs. 130; p .014) and SOFA (8 vs. 5.5; p < .001). Overall mortality (21% vs. 30%; p .234) or proportion of patients intubated (78 vs. 64%; p .078) was similar. Mortality was similar among mechanically ventilated (27% vs. 15%; p .151) however there were no deaths MESHD among patients who were not mechanically ventilated and received corticosteroids (0% vs. 57%; p

    Clinical characteristics of neonates with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review

    Authors: Yuan Hu; Jing Xiong; Yuan Shi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50795/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    This study aimed to summarize the existing literature on severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in newborns to clarify the clinical features and outcomes of neonates with COVID-19. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and VIP databases from January 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020. The references of relevant studies were also searched. A descriptive summary was organized by aspects of clinical presentations (symptoms, laboratory examinations, and imaging) and outcomes. We identified 14 studies reporting 18 newborns with COVID-19. The most common clinical manifestations were fever MESHD fever HP (62.5%), shortness of breath (50.0%), diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP/ vomiting MESHD vomiting HP/feeding intolerance(43.8%), cough MESHD cough HP (37.5%), dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP (25.0%), and nasal congestion/runny nose/ sneeze MESHD sneeze HP(25.0%). Atypical symptoms included jaundice MESHD jaundice HP and convulsion. Lymphocyte numbers decreased in 5 cases, and radiographic findings were likely to show pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. All newborns recovered and discharged from the hospital, and there was no death MESHD.Conclusion: Clinical symptoms of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are atypical, most of them are mild. Up to now, the prognosis of newborns is good, and there is no death MESHD. Intrauterine vertical transmission TRANS is possible, but confirmed evidence is still lacking. The Long-term follow-up of potential influences of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on neonates need further exploration.

    Mathematical Modelling the Impact Evaluation ofLockdown on Infection MESHD Dynamics of COVID-19 inItaly.

    Authors: Daniyar Yergesh; Shirali Kadyrov; Hayot Saydaliev; Alibek Orynbassar

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20162537 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2), the cause of the coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19), within months of emergence from Wuhan, China, has rapidly spread, exacting a devastating human toll across around the world reaching the pandemic stage at the the beginning of March 2020. Thus, COVID-19s daily increasing cases and deaths MESHD have led to worldwide lockdown, quarantine and some restrictions. Covid-19 epidemic in Italy started as a small wave of 2 infected cases on January 31. It was followed by a bigger wave mainly from local transmissions TRANS reported in 6387 cases on March 8. It caused the government to impose a lockdown on 8 March to the whole country as a way to suppress the pandemic. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the lockdown and awareness dynamics on infection MESHD in Italy over the period of January 31 to July 17 and how the impact varies across different lockdown scenarios in both periods before and after implementation of the lockdown policy. The findings SEIR reveal that implementation lockdown has minimised the social distancing flattening the curve. The infections MESHD associated with COVID-19 decreases with quarantine initially then easing lockdown will not cause further increasing transmission TRANS until a certain period which is explained by public high awareness. Completely removing lockdown may lead to sharp transmission TRANS second wave. Policy implementation and limitation of the study were evaluated at the end of the paper. Keywords COVID-19 - Lockdown - Epidemic model - SEIR - Awareness - Dynamical systems.

    Changes in Cause-of- Death MESHD Attribution During the Covid-19 Pandemic: Association with Hospital Quality Metrics and Implications for Future Research

    Authors: Kathleen A. Fairman; Kellie J. Goodlet; James D. Rucker

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.20162198 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is often comorbid with conditions subject to quality metrics (QM) used for hospital performance SERO assessment and rate-setting. Although diagnostic coding change in response to financial incentives is well documented, no study has examined the association of QM with SARS-CoV-2 cause-of- death MESHD attribution (CODA). Calculations of excess all-cause deaths MESHD overlook the importance of accurate CODA and of distinguishing policy-related from virus-related mortality. Objective: Examine CODA, overall and for QM and non-QM diagnoses, in 3 pandemic periods: awareness (January 19-March 14), height (March 15-May 16), and late (May 17-June 20). Methods: Retrospective analysis of publicly available national weekly COD data, adjusted for population growth and reporting lags, October 2014-June 20, 2020. CODA in 5 pre-pandemic influenza seasons was compared with 2019-20. Suitability of the data to distinguish policy-related from virus-related effects was assessed. Results: Following federal guidance permitting SARS-CoV-2 CODA without laboratory testing, mortality from the QM diagnoses cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease MESHD declined steadily relative to prior-season means, reaching 4.4% less and 12.1% less, respectively, in late pandemic. Deaths MESHD for non-QM diagnoses increased, by 21.0% for Alzheimers disease MESHD Alzheimers disease HP and 29.0% for diabetes during pandemic height. Increases in competing CODs over historical experience, suggesting SARS-CoV-2 underreporting, more than offset declines during pandemic height. However, in the late-pandemic period, declines slightly numerically exceeded increases, suggesting SARS-CoV-2 overreporting. In pandemic-height and late-pandemic periods, respectively, only 83.5% and 69.7% of increases in all-cause deaths MESHD were explained by changes in the reported CODs, including SARS-CoV-2, preventing assessment of policy-related mortality or of factors contributing to increased all-cause deaths MESHD. Conclusions: Substitution of SARS-CoV-2 for competing CODs may have occurred, particularly for QM diagnoses and late in the pandemic. Continued monitoring of these trends, qualitative research on pandemic CODA, and the addition of place-of- death MESHD data and psychiatric CODs to the file would facilitate assessment of policy-related and virus-related effects on mortality.

    Longitudinal COVID-19 Surveillance and Characterization in the Workplace with Public Health and Diagnostic Endpoints

    Authors: Manjula Gunawardana; Jessica Breslin; John M Cortez; Sofia Rivera; Simon Webster; F Javier Ibarrondo; Otto O Yang; Richard B Pyles; Christina M Ramirez; Amy P Adler; Peter A Anton; Marc M Baum

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.20160812 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the associated coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) have precipitated a global pandemic heavily challenging our social behavior, economy, and healthcare infrastructure. Public health practices currently represent the primary interventions for managing the spread of the pandemic. We hypothesized that frequent, longitudinal workplace disease MESHD surveillance would represent an effective approach to controlling SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS among employees and their household members, reducing potential economic consequences and loss of productivity of standard isolation methods, while providing new insights into viral-host dynamics. Methodology and Findings On March 23, 2020 a clinical study (OCIS-05) was initiated at a small Southern California organization. Results from the first 3 months of the ongoing study are presented here. Study participants (27 employees and 27 household members) consented to provide frequent nasal or oral swab samples that were analyzed by RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using CDC protocols. Only participants testing negative were allowed to enter the "safe zone" workplace facility. Optional blood SERO samples were collected at baseline and throughout the 3-month study. Serum SERO virus-specific antibody SERO concentrations (IgG, IgM, and IgA) were measured using a selective, sensitive, and quantitative ELISA assay SERO developed in house. A COVID-19 infection MESHD model, based on traditional SEIR compartmental models combined with Bayesian non-linear mixed models and modern machine learning, was used to predict the number of employees and household members who would have become infected in the absence of workplace surveillance. Two study participants were found to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the study. One subject, a household member, tested positive clinically by RT-qPCR prior to enrollment and experienced typical COVID-19 symptoms that did not require hospitalization. While on study, the participant was SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive for at least 71 days and had elevated virus-specific antibody SERO concentrations (medians: IgM, 9.83 ug mL-1; IgG, 11.5 ug mL-1; IgA, 1.29 ug mL-1) in serum samples SERO collected at three timepoints. A single, unrelated employee became positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA over the course of the study, but remained asymptomatic TRANS with low associated viral RNA copy numbers. The participant did not have detectable serum SERO IgM and IgG concentrations, and IgA concentrations decayed rapidly (half-life: 1.3 d). The employee was not allowed entry to the safe zone workplace until testing negative three consecutive times over 7 d. No other employees or household members contracted COVID-19 over the course of the study. Our model predicted that under the current prevalence SERO in Los Angeles County without surveillance intervention, up to 7 employees (95% CI = 3-10) would have become infected with at most 1 of them requiring hospitalizations and 0 deaths MESHD. Conclusions Our clinical study met its primary objectives by using intense longitudinal testing to provide a safe work environment during the COVID-19 pandemic, and elucidating SARS-CoV-2 dynamics in recovering and asymptomatic TRANS participants. The surveillance plan outlined here is scalable and transferrable. The study represents a powerful example on how an innovative public health initiative can be dovetailed with scientific discovery.

    Why (and how) COVID-19 could move us closer to the "health information for all" goal

    Authors: Marco Capocasa; Giovanni Destro Bisol; Paolo Anagnostou

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20160481 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    In this manuscript, we present an analysis of open access (OA) rates of papers concerning COVID-19 and other important human diseases MESHD, whose results helped develop an evidence-based scalable strategy aimed at increasing the full and timely access to medical literature. We show that COVID-19 papers are much more openly available (OA rate of 89.5%) than those concerning the four most recent viral outbreaks (Avian influenza, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Severe Acute MESHD Respiratory Syndrome MESHD, Swine influenza; OA rates (from 26.2% to 51.3%) and the ten non COVID-19 disease MESHD categories responsible for the highest number of deaths MESHD worldwide (OA rates from 44.0% for Maternal and neonatal disorders to 58.9% for Respiratory infections MESHD and tuberculosis MESHD). This evidence confronts us with an inevitable question: how can we bridge the gap between OA rates for COVID-19 and other high-impact human diseases MESHD? Based on empirical data and projections, we show that it is possible to increase substantially immediate OA to publicly-funded research and complement more demanding initiatives for access to medical literature in developing countries working on the sharing of post-prints at individual, group and multi stakeholder partnership level. However, to make our plan effective in bringing us closer to the health information for all goal a more widespread culture of cooperation is fundamental. We argue that the lesson taught by COVID-19 is a unique opportunity to raise awareness among researchers and stakeholders about the importance of open science for human health and to demonstrate that a real change is now possible.

    Time is of the essence: containment of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Switzerland from February to May 2020

    Authors: Christian L Althaus; Daniel Probst; Anthony Hauser; Julien L Riou

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20158014 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    AIM: In late February and early March 2020, Switzerland experienced rapid growth of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections MESHD with 30,243 confirmed cases TRANS and 1,860 deaths MESHD as of 10 May 2020. The sequential introduction of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) resulted in successful containment of the epidemic. A better understanding of how the timing of implementing NPIs influences the dynamics and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 epidemics will be crucial for the management of a potential resurgence in Switzerland. METHODS: We developed a dynamic transmission TRANS model that describes infection MESHD, hospitalization, recovery and death MESHD due to SARS-CoV-2 in Switzerland. Using a maximum likelihood framework, we fitted the model to aggregated daily numbers of hospitalized patients, ICU occupancy and death MESHD from 25 February to 10 May 2020. We estimated critical parameters of SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS in Switzerland and explored counterfactual scenarios of an earlier and later implementation of NPIs. RESULTS: We estimated the basic reproduction number TRANS R0 TRANS = 2.61 (95% compatibility interval, CI: 2.51-2.71) during the early exponential phase of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Switzerland. After the implementation of NPIs, the effective reproduction number TRANS approached Re = 0.64 (95% CI: 0.61-0.66). Based on the observed doubling times of the epidemic before and after the implementation of NPIs, we estimated that one week of early exponential spread required 3.1 weeks (95% CI: 2.8-3.3 weeks) of 'lockdown' to reduce the number of infections MESHD to the same level. Introducing the same sequence of NPIs one week earlier or later would have resulted in substantially lower (399, 95% prediction interval, PI: 347-458) and higher (8,683, 95% PI: 8,038-9,453) numbers of deaths MESHD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of NPIs in March 2020 prevented thousands of SARS-CoV-2-related deaths MESHD in Switzerland. Early implementation of NPIs during SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks can reduce the number of deaths MESHD and the necessary duration of strict control measures considerably.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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