Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 733
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    HIV infection MESHD and COVID-19 death MESHD: population-based cohort analysis of UK primary care data and linked national death MESHD registrations within the OpenSAFELY platform

    Authors: Krishnan Bhaskaran; Christopher T Rentsch; Brian MacKenna; Anna Schultz; Amir Mehrkar; Chris Bates; Rosalind M Eggo; Caroline E Morton; Seb Bacon; Peter Inglesby; Ian J Douglas; Alex J Walker; Helen I McDonald; Jonathan Cockburn; Elizabeth J Williamson; David Evans; Harriet J Forbes; Helen J Curtis; William Hulme; John Parry; Frank Hester; Sam Harper; Stephen JW Evans; Liam Smeeth; Ben Goldacre

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20169490 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: It is unclear whether HIV infection MESHD is associated with risk of COVID-19 death MESHD. We aimed to investigate this in a large-scale population-based study in England. Methods: Working on behalf of NHS England, we used the OpenSAFELY platform to analyse routinely collected electronic primary care data linked to national death MESHD registrations. People with a primary care record for HIV infection MESHD were compared to people without HIV. COVID-19 death MESHD was defined by ICD-10 codes U07.1 or U07.2 anywhere on the death MESHD certificate. Cox regression models were used to estimate the association between HIV infection MESHD and COVID-19 death MESHD, initially adjusted for age TRANS and sex, then adding adjustment for index of multiple deprivation and ethnicity, and finally for a broad range of comorbidities. Interaction terms were added to assess effect modification by age TRANS, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities and calendar time. Results: 17.3 million adults TRANS were included, of whom 27,480 (0.16%) had HIV recorded. People living with HIV were more likely to be male TRANS, of black ethnicity, and from a more deprived geographical area than the general population. There were 14,882 COVID-19 deaths MESHD during the study period, with 25 among people with HIV. People living with HIV had nearly three-fold higher risk of COVID-19 death MESHD than those without HIV after adjusting for age TRANS and sex (HR=2.90, 95% CI 1.96-4.30). The association was attenuated but risk remained substantially raised, after adjustment for deprivation and ethnicity (adjusted HR=2.52, 1.70-3.73) and further adjustment for comorbidities (HR=2.30, 1.55-3.41). There was some evidence that the association was larger among people of black ethnicity (HR = 3.80, 2.15-6.74, compared to 1.64, 0.92-2.90 in non-black individuals, p-interaction=0.045) Interpretation: HIV infection MESHD was associated with a markedly raised risk of COVID-19 death MESHD in a country with high levels of antiretroviral therapy coverage and viral suppression; the association was larger in people of black ethnicity.

    Age TRANS disaggregation of crude excess deaths MESHD during the 2020 spring COVID-19 outbreak in Spain and Netherlands

    Authors: Jose Maria Martin-Olalla

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169326 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Spanish and Dutch official records of mortality and population during the 21st century are analyzed to determine the age TRANS specific crude death MESHD rate in the 2020 spring COVID-19 outbreak. Excess death MESHD rate increases exponentially with age TRANS showing a doubling time [5.0,5.6]a (Spain) and [3.9,6.7]a (Netherlands), roughing doubling every five years of increase in age TRANS.The effective infection MESHD fatality rate in Spain also shows this doubling time. Statistically significant mortality increase is noted above 45a (Spain) and 60a (Netherlands). A statistically significant increase of mortality is also noted in Spain for the youngest age group TRANS.

    SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD fatality risk in a nationwide seroepidemiological study

    Authors: Roberto Pastor-Barriuso; Beatriz Perez-Gomez; Miguel A Hernan; Mayte Perez-Olmeda; Raquel Yotti; Jesus Oteo; Jose Luis Sanmartin; Inmaculada Leon-Gomez; Aurora Fernandez-Garcia; Pablo Fernandez-Navarro; Israel Cruz; Mariano Martin; Concepcion Delgado-Sanz; Nerea Fernandez de Larrea; Jose Leon Paniagua; Juan Fernando Munoz-Montalvo; Faustino Blanco; Amparo Larrauri; Marina Pollan; Marina Pollan

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169722 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    The magnitude of the infection MESHD fatality risk (IFR) of SARS-CoV-2 remains under debate. Because the IFR is the number of deaths MESHD divided by the number of infected, serological studies are needed to identify asymptomatic TRANS and mild cases. Also, because ascertainment of deaths MESHD attributable to COVID-19 is often incomplete, the calculation of the IFR needs to be complemented with data on excess mortality. We used data from a nation-wide seroepidemiological study and two sources of mortality information - deaths MESHD among laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and excess deaths MESHD- to estimate the range of IFR, both overall and by age TRANS and sex, in Spain. The overall IFR ranged between 1.1% and 1.4% in men and 0.58% to 0.77% in women. The IFR increased sharply after age TRANS 50, ranging between 11.6% and 16.4% in men [≥]80 years and between 4.6% and 6.5% in women [≥]80 years. Our IFR estimates for SARS-CoV-2 are substantially greater than IFR estimators for seasonal influenza, justifying the implementation of special public health measures.

    Genetic and Phenotypic Evidence for the Causal Relationship Between Aging and COVID-19

    Authors: Kejun Ying; Ranran Zhai; Timothy V Pyrkov; Marco Mariotti; Peter O Fedichev; Xia Shen; Vadim N Gladyshev

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169854 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that the elderly TRANS and those with co-morbidities are most susceptible to COVID-19. To understand the genetic link between aging and the risk of COVID-19, we conducted a multi-instrument Mendelian randomization analysis and found that the genetic variation that leads to a longer lifespan is significantly associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 infection MESHD. The odds ratio is 0.32 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.57; P = 1.3 x 10-4) per additional 10 years of life, and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.51 to 0.77; P = 7.2 x 10-6) per unit higher log odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age TRANS. On the other hand, there was no association between COVID-19 susceptibility and healthspan (the lifespan free of the top seven age TRANS-related morbidities). To examine the relationship at the phenotypic level, we applied various biological aging clock models and detected an association between the biological age TRANS acceleration and future incidence and severity of COVID-19 infection MESHD for all subjects as well as for the individuals free of chronic disease MESHD. Biological age TRANS acceleration was also significantly associated with the risk of death MESHD in COVID-19 patients. Our findings suggest a causal relationship between aging and COVID-19, defined by genetic variance, the rate of aging, and the burden of chronic diseases MESHD.

    Characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to Swedish intensive care units for COVID-19 during the first 60 days of the 2020 pandemic: a registry-based, multicenter, observational study.

    Authors: Michelle S Chew; Patrik Blixt; Rasmus Ahman; Lars Engerstrom; Henrik Andersson; Ritva Kiiski Berggren; Anders Tegnell; Sarah McIntyre

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169599 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background The mortality of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 is unclear due to variable censoring and substantial proportions of undischarged patients at follow-up. Nationwide data have not been previously reported. We studied the outcomes of Swedish patients at 30 days after ICU admission. Methods We conducted a registry-based cohort study of all adult TRANS patients admitted to Swedish ICUs from 6 March-6 May, 2020 with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 disease MESHD and complete 30-day follow-up. Data including baseline characteristics, comorbidities, intensive care treatments, organ failures and outcomes were collected. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. A multivariable model was used to determine the independent association between potential predictor variables and the primary outcome. Results A total of 1563 patients were identified. Median ICU length of stay was 12 (5-21) days, and fifteen patients remained in ICU at the time of follow-up. Median age TRANS was 61 (52-69), median Simplified Acute Physiology Score III (SAPS III) was 53 (46-59), and 66.8% had at least one comorbidity. Median PaO2/FiO2 on admission was 97.5 (75.0-140.6) mmHg, 74.7% suffered from moderate to severe acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS). The 30-day all-cause mortality was 26.7%. The majority of deaths MESHD occurred during ICU admission. Age TRANS, male TRANS sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.5 [1.1-2.1]), SAPS III score (aOR 1.3 [1.2-1.4]), severe ARDS (aOR 3.1 [2.0-4.8], specific COVID-19 pharmacotherapy (aOR 1.4 [1.0-1.9]), and CRRT (aOR 2.2 [1.6-3.0]), were associated with increased mortality. With the exception of chronic lung disease HP lung disease MESHD, the presence of comorbidities was not independently associated with mortality. Conclusions Thirty-day mortality rate in COVID-19 patients admitted to Swedish intensive care units is generally lower than previously reported. Mortality appears to be driven by age TRANS, baseline disease MESHD severity, the degree of organ failure and ICU treatment, rather than preexisting comorbidities.

    Pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders and risk of COVID-19: a cohort analysis in the UK Biobank

    Authors: Huazhen Yang; Wenwen Chen; Yao Hu; Yilong Chen; Yu Zeng; Yajing Sun; Zhiye Ying; Junhui He; Yuanyuan Qu; Donghao Lu; Fang Fang; Unnur A Valdimarsdóttir; Huan Song

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20169847 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To determine the association between pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders and the risk of COVID-19. Design Community-based prospective cohort study. Setting UK Biobank population. Participants 421,048 participants who were recruited in England and alive by January 31st 2020, i.e., the start of COVID-19 outbreak in the UK. 50,815 individuals with psychiatric disorders recorded in the UK Biobank inpatient hospital data before the outbreak were included in the exposed group, while 370,233 participants without such conditions were in the unexposed group. Measurements We obtained information on positive results of COVID-19 test as registered in the Public Health England, COVID-19 related hospitalizations in the UK Biobank inpatient hospital data, and COIVD-19 related deaths MESHD from the death MESHD registers. We also identified individuals who was hospitalized for infections MESHD other than COVID-19 during the follow-up. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), controlling for multiple confounders. Results The mean age TRANS at outbreak was 67.8 years and around 43% of the study participants were male TRANS. We observed an elevated risk of COVID-19 among individuals with pre-pandemic psychiatric disorder, compared with those without such diagnoses. The fully adjusted ORs were 1.44 (95%CI 1.27 to 1.64), 1.67 (1.42 to 1.98), and 2.03 (1.56 to 2.63) for any COVID-19, inpatient COVID-19, COVID-19 related death MESHD, respectively. The excess risk was observed across all levels of somatic comorbidities and subtypes of pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders, while further increased with greater number of pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders. We also observed an association between pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders and increased risk of hospitalization for other infections MESHD (1.85 [1.65 to 2.07]). Conclusions Pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk of COVID-19, especially severe and fatal COVID-19. The similar association observed for hospitalization for other infections MESHD suggests a shared pathway between psychiatric disorders and different infections MESHD, including altered immune responses.

    Association of mental disorders with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe health outcomes: a nationwide cohort study

    Authors: Ha-Lim Jeon; Jun Soo Kwon; So-Hee Park; Ju-Young Shin

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20169201 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: No epidemiological data exists for the association between mental disorders and the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) severity. Aims: To evaluate the association between mental disorders and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe outcomes following COVID-19. Methods: We performed a cohort study using the Korean COVID-19 patient database based on the national health insurance data. Each patient with a mental or behavioral disorder (diagnosed during six months prior to the first SARS-CoV-2 test) was matched by age TRANS, sex, and Charlson comorbidity index with up to four patients without mental disorders. SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk and risk of death MESHD or severe events (intensive care unit admission, use of mechanical ventilation, and acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD) post- infection MESHD were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 230,565 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2, 33,653 (14.6%) had mental disorders, 928/33,653 (2.76%) tested positive, and 56/928 (6.03%) died. In multivariate analysis with the matched cohort, there was no association between mental disorders and SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.12); however, a higher risk was associated with schizophrenia HP-related disorders (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81). Among confirmed cases TRANS, mortality risk significantly increased in patients with mental disorders (OR, 1.84, 95% CI, 1.07-3.15). Conclusion: Mental disorders are likely contributing factors of mortality following COVID-19. Although the infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk did not increase in overall mental disorders, patients with schizophrenia HP-related disorders were more vulnerable to the infection MESHD.

    SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in decedents in a large, urban medical examiner's office

    Authors: Andrew F. Brouwer; Jeffrey L Myers; Emily T Martin; Kristine E Konopka; Adam S Lauring; Marisa C Eisenberg; Paul R Lephart; Teresa Nguyen; Andrea Jaworski; Carl J Schmidt

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20162883 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic. Given the challenges in implementing widespread SARS-CoV-2 testing, there is increasing interest in alternative surveillance strategies. Methods: We tested nasopharyngeal swabs from 821 decedents in the Wayne County Medical Examiner's office for SARS-CoV-2. All decedents were assessed by a COVID-19 checklist, and decedents flagged by the checklist (237) were preferentially tested. A random sample of decedents not flagged by the checklist were also tested (584). We statistically analyzed the characteristics of decedents ( age TRANS, sex, race, and manner of death MESHD), differentiating between those flagged by the checklist and not and between those SARS-CoV-2 positive and not. Results: Decedents were more likely to be male TRANS (70% vs 48%) and Black (55% vs 36%) than the catchment population. Seven-day average percent positivity among flagged decedents closely matched the trajectory of percent positivity in the catchment population, particularly during the peak of the outbreak (March and April). After a lull in May to mid-June, new positive tests in late June coincided with increased case detection in the catchment. We found large racial disparities in test results: despite no statistical difference in the racial distribution between those flagged and not, SARS-CoV-2 positive decedents were substantially more likely to be Black (89% vs 51%). SARS-CoV-2 positive decedents were also more likely to be older and to have died of natural causes, including of COVID-19 disease MESHD. Conclusions: Disease MESHD surveillance through medical examiners and coroners could supplement other forms of surveillance and may serve as a possible early outbreak warning sign.

    Epidemiology of Reopening in the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States, Europe and Asia

    Authors: Weiqi Zhang; Alina Oltean; Scott Nichols; Fuad Odeh; Fei Zhong

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168757 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Since the discovery of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19 has become a global healthcare and economic crisis. The United States (US) and Europe exhibited wide impacts from the virus with more than six million cases by the time of our analysis. To inhibit spread, stay-at-home orders and other non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were instituted. Beginning late April 2020, some US states, European, and Asian countries lifted restrictions and started the reopening phases. In this study, the changes of confirmed cases TRANS, hospitalizations, and deaths MESHD were analyzed after reopening for 11 countries and 40 US states using an interrupted time series analysis. Additionally, the distribution of these categories was further analyzed by age TRANS due to the known increased risk in elderly TRANS patients. Reopening had varied effects on COVID-19 cases depending on the region. Recent increases in cases did not fully translate into increased deaths MESHD. Eight countries had increased cases after reopening while only two countries showed the same trend in deaths MESHD. In the US, 30 states had observed increases in cases while only seven observed increased deaths MESHD. In addition, we found that states with later reopening dates were more likely to have significant decreases in cases, hospitalizations, and deaths MESHD. Furthermore, age TRANS distributions through time were analyzed in relation to COVID-19 in the US. Younger age groups TRANS typically had an increased share of cases after reopening.

    Insights into the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: Lessons learned from a high-risk country

    Authors: Md. Hasanul Banna Siam; Md Mahbub Hasan; Enayetur Raheem; Md. Hasinur rahaman Khan; Mahbubul H Siddiqee; Mohammad Sorowar Hossain

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168674 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background South Asian countries including Bangladesh have been struggling to control the COVID-19 pandemic despite imposing months of lockdown and other public health measures (as of June 30, 2020). In-depth epidemiological information from these countries is lacking. From the perspective of Bangladesh, this study aims to understand the epidemiological features and gaps in public health preparedness. Method This study used publicly available data (8 March-30 June 2020) from the respective health departments of Bangladesh and Johns Hopkins University Coronavirus Resource Centre. Descriptive statistics was used to report the incidence, case fatality rates (CFR), and trend analysis. Spatial distribution maps were created using ArcGIS Desktop. Infection MESHD dynamics were analyzed via SIR models. Findings In 66 days of nationwide lockdown and other public health efforts, a total of 47,153 cases and 650 deaths MESHD were reported. However, the incidence was increased by around 50% within a week after relaxing the lockdown. Males TRANS were disproportionately affected in terms of infections MESHD (71%) and deaths MESHD (77%) than females TRANS. The CFR for males TRANS was higher than females TRANS (1.38% vs 1.01%). Over 50% of infected cases were reported among young adults TRANS (20-40-year age group TRANS). Geospatial analysis between 7 June 2020 and 20 June 2020 showed that the incidences increased 4 to 10-fold in 12 administrative districts while it decreased in the epicenter. As compared to the EU and USA, trends of the cumulative incidence were slower in South Asia with lower mortality. Conclusion Our findings on gaps in public health preparedness and epidemiological characteristics would contribute to facilitating better public health decisions for managing current and future pandemics like COVID-19 in the settings of developing countries.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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