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MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Cardiometabolic Risk Factors for COVID-19 Susceptibility and Severity: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    Authors: Aaron Leong; Joanne Cole; Laura N. Brenner; James B. Meigs; Jose C. Florez; Josep M. Mercader; Fernando Bozza; Carlo Palmieri; Daniel Munblit; Jan Cato Holter; Anders Benjamin Kildal; Clark D Russell; Antonia Ho; Lance Turtle; Thomas M Drake; Anna Beltrame; Katrina Hann; Ibrahim Richard Bangura; Rob Fowler; Sulaiman Lakoh; Colin Berry; David J Lowe; Joanne McPeake; Madiha Hashmi; Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise; Chloe Donohue; Daniel R Plotkin; Hayley Hardwick; Natalie Elkheir; Nazir Lone; Annemarie B Docherty; Ewen M Harrison; Kenneth J Baille; Gail Carson; Malcolm G Semple; Janet T Scott

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.20182709 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Early epidemiological studies report associations of diverse cardiometabolic conditions especially body mass index (BMI), with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity, but causality has not been established. Identifying causal risk factors is critical to inform preventive strategies aimed at modifying disease risk. Objective: We sought to evaluate the causal associations of cardiometabolic conditions with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Design: Two-sample Mendelian Randomization (MR) Study. Setting: Population-based cohorts that contributed to the genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis by the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative. Participants: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 diagnosed by RNA PCR, serologic testing SERO, or clinician diagnosis. Population controls defined as anyone who was not a case in the cohorts. Exposures: Selected genetic variants associated with 17 cardiometabolic diseases MESHD, including diabetes MESHD, coronary artery disease MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, and BMI, at p<5 x 10-8 from published largescale GWAS. Main outcomes: We performed an inverse-variance weighted averages of variant-specific causal estimates for susceptibility, defined as people who tested positive for COVID-19 vs. population controls, and severity, defined as patients hospitalized with COVID-19 vs. population controls, and repeated the analysis for BMI using effect estimates from UKBB. To estimate direct and indirect causal effects of BMI through obesity HP obesity MESHD-related cardiometabolic diseases, we performed pairwise multivariable MR. We used p<0.05/17 exposure/2 outcomes=0.0015 to declare statistical significance. Results: Genetically increased BMI was causally associated with testing positive for COVID-19 [6,696 cases / 1,073,072 controls; p=6.7 x 10-4, odds ratio and 95% confidence interval 1.08 (1.03, 1.13) per kg/m2] and a higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization [3,199 cases/897,488 controls; p=8.7 x 10-4, 1.12 (1.04, 1.21) per kg/m2]. In the multivariable MR, the direct effect of BMI was abolished upon conditioning on the effect on type 2 diabetes MESHD but persisted when conditioning on the effects on coronary artery disease MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, and c-reactive protein. No other cardiometabolic exposures tested were associated with a higher risk of poorer COVID-19 outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Genetic evidence supports BMI as a causal risk factor for COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. This relationship may be mediated via type 2 diabetes MESHD. Obesity HP may have amplified the disease burden of the COVID-19 pandemic either single-handedly or through its metabolic consequences.

    A phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) of COVID-19 outcomes by race using the electronic health records data in Michigan Medicine

    Authors: Maxwell Salvatore; Tian Gu; Jasmine A. Mack; Swaraaj Prabhu Sankar; Snehal Patil; Thomas S. Valley; Karandeep Singh; Brahmajee K. Nallamothu; Sachin Kheterpal; Lynda Lisabeth; Lars G. Fritsche; Bhramar Mukherjee

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.29.20141564 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: medRxiv

    Blacks/African Americans are overrepresented in the number of hospitalizations and deaths from COVID-19 in the United States, which could be explained through differences in the prevalence SERO of existing comorbidities. We performed a disease-disease MESHD phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) using data representing 5,698 COVID-19 patients from a large academic medical center, stratified by race. We explore the association of 1,043 pre-occurring conditions with several COVID-19 outcomes: testing positive, hospitalization, ICU admission, and mortality. Obesity HP Obesity MESHD, iron deficiency anemia HP iron deficiency anemia MESHD and type II diabetes were associated with susceptibility in the full cohort, while ill-defined descriptions/complications of heart disease MESHD and stage III chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD were associated among non-Hispanic White (NHW) and non-Hispanic Black/African American (NHAA) patients, respectively. The top phenotype hits in the full, NHW, and NHAA cohorts for hospitalization were acute renal failure MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, and insufficiency/arrest respiratory failure MESHD arrest respiratory HP failure, respectively. Suggestive relationships between respiratory issues and COVID-19-related ICU admission and mortality were observed, while circulatory system diseases showed stronger association in NHAA patients. We were able to replicate some known comorbidities related to COVID-19 outcomes while discovering potentially unknown associations, such as endocrine/metabolic conditions related to hospitalization and mental disorders MESHD related to mortality, for future validation. We provide interactive PheWAS visualization for broader exploration.

    Risk and protective factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD - Meta-regression of data from worldwide nations

    Authors: Hisato Takagi; Toshiki Kuno; Yujiro Yokoyama; Hiroki Ueyama; Takuya Matsushiro; Yosuke Hari; Tomo Ando

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.06.20124016 Date: 2020-06-07 Source: medRxiv

    Although it has been reported that coexistent chronic diseases MESHD are strongly associated with COVID-19 severity, investigations of predictors for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD itself have been seldom performed. To screen potential risk and protective factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, meta-regression of data from worldwide nations were herein conducted. We extracted total confirmed COVID-19 cases in worldwide 180 nations (May 31, 2020), nation total population, population ages TRANS 0-14/65 and above, GDP/GNI per capita, PPP, life expectancy at birth, medical-doctor and nursing/midwifery-personnel density, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD/ obesity HP obesity MESHD/ diabetes MESHD prevalence SERO, annual PM2.5 concentrations, daily ultraviolet radiation, population using safely-managed drinking-water/sanitation services and hand-washing facility with soap/water, inbound tourism, and bachelor's MESHD or equivalent (ISCED 6). Restricted maximum-likelihood meta-regression in the random-effects model was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 3. To adjust for other covariates, we conducted the hierarchical multivariate models. A slope (coefficient) of the meta-regression line for the COVID-19 prevalence SERO was significantly negative for population ages TRANS 0-14 (-0.0636; P = .0021) and positive for obesity HP obesity MESHD prevalence SERO (0.0411; P = .0099) and annual PM2.5 concentrations in urban areas (0.0158; P = .0454), which would indicate that the COVID-19 prevalence SERO decreases significantly as children TRANS increase and that the COVID-19 prevalence SERO increases significantly as the obese MESHD and PM2.5 increase. In conclusion, children TRANS (negatively) and obesity HP obesity MESHD/PM2.5 (positively) may be independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Predicting mortality attributable to SARS-CoV-2: A mechanistic score relating obesity HP obesity MESHD and diabetes MESHD to COVID-19 outcomes in Mexico

    Authors: Omar Yaxmehen Bello-Chavolla; Jessica Paola Bahena-Lopez; Neftali E. Antonio-Villa; Arsenio Vargas-Vázquez; Armando González-Díaz; Alejandro Márquez-Salinas; Carlos A. Fermín-Martínez; J Jesús Naveja; Carlos A. Aguilar-Salinas

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.20.20072223 Date: 2020-04-24 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak poses challenge to healthcare systems due to high complication rates in patients with cardiometabolic diseases MESHD. Here, we identify risk factors and propose a clinical score to predict COVID-19 lethality, including specific factors for diabetes MESHD and obesity HP obesity MESHD and its role in improving risk prediction. METHODS: We obtained data of confirmed and negative COVID-19 cases and their demographic and health characteristics from the General Directorate of Epidemiology of Mexican Ministry of Health. We investigated specific risk factors associated to COVID-19 positivity and mortality and explored the impact of diabetes MESHD and obesity HP obesity MESHD on modifying COVID-19 related lethality. Finally, we built a clinical score to predict COVID-19 lethality. RESULTS: Among 71,103 subjects at April 27th, 2020, we observed 15,529 subjects with SARS-CoV-2 and 1,434 deaths. Risk factors for lethality in COVID-19 includes early-onset diabetes obesity MESHD obesity HP, COPD MESHD, advanced age TRANS, immunosuppression, and CKD; we observed that obesity HP obesity MESHD mediates 45.5% of the effect of diabetes MESHD on COVID-19 lethality. Early-onset diabetes MESHD conferred an increased risk of hospitalization and obesity HP obesity MESHD conferred an increased risk for ICU admission and intubation. Our predictive score for COVID-19 lethality included age TRANS [≥]65 years, diabetes MESHD, early-onset diabetes MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, age TRANS <40 years, CKD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, pregnancy and immunosuppression and significantly discriminates lethal from non-lethal COVID-19 cases (c-statistic=0.830). RESULTS: Here, we propose a mechanistic approach to evaluate risk for complications and lethality attributable to COVID-19 considering the effect of obesity HP obesity MESHD and diabetes MESHD in Mexico. Our score offers a clinical tool for quick determination of high-risk susceptibility patients in a first contact scenario.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).
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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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