Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 462
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    K18-hACE2 Mice for Studies of COVID-19 Treatments and Pathogenesis Including Anosmia HP

    Authors: Stanley Perlman; Jian Zheng; LOK YIN ROY WONG; Kun Li; Abhishek K Verma; Miguel E Ortiz Bezara; Christine Wohlford-Lenane; Mariah R. Leidinger; Michael C. Kundson; David K. Meyerholz; Paul B McCray Jr.

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.242073 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: bioRxiv

    The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. While much has been learned in the first months of the pandemic, many features of COVID-19 pathogenesis remain to be determined. For example, anosmia HP is a common presentation and many patients with this finding show no or only minor respiratory signs. Studies in animals experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, provide opportunities to study aspects of the disease MESHD not easily investigated in human patients. COVID-19 severity ranges from asymptomatic TRANS to lethal. Most experimental infections MESHD provide insights into mild disease MESHD. Here, using K18-hACE2 mice that we originally developed for SARS studies, we show that infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 causes severe disease in the lung MESHD, and in some mice, the brain. Evidence of thrombosis MESHD and vasculitis MESHD vasculitis HP was detected in mice with severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Further, we show that infusion of convalescent plasma SERO (CP) from a recovered COVID-19 patient provided protection against lethal disease MESHD. Mice developed anosmia HP at early times after infection MESHD. Notably, while treatment with CP prevented significant clinical disease MESHD, it did not prevent anosmia HP. Thus K18-hACE2 mice provide a useful model for studying the pathological underpinnings of both mild and lethal COVID-19 and for assessing therapeutic interventions.

    Clinical and intestinal histopathological findings in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 patients with hematochezia HP

    Authors: Margaret Cho; Weiguo Liu; Sophie Balzora; Yvelisse Suarez; Deepthi Hoskoppal; Neil D Theise; Wenqing Cao; Suparna A Sarkar

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164558 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 in the form of anorexia MESHD anorexia HP, nausea MESHD nausea, vomiting HP, vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP are usually preceeded by respiratory manifestations and are associated with a poor prognosis. Hematochezia HP is an uncommon clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease MESHD and we hypothesize that older patients with significant comorbidites ( obesity MESHD obesity HP and cardiovascular) and prolonged hospitalization are suspectible to ischemic injury to the bowel. We reviewed the clinical course, key laboratory data including acute phase reactants, drug/medication history in two elderly TRANS male TRANS patients admitted for COVID-19 respiratory failure HP. Both patients had a complicated clinical course and suffered from hematochezia HP and acute blood SERO loss anemia MESHD anemia HP requiring blood SERO transfusion around day 40 of their hospitalization. Colonoscopic impressions were correlated with the histopathological findings in the colonic biopies and changes compatible with ischemia MESHD to nonspecific acute inflammation MESHD, edema MESHD edema HP and increased eosinophils in the lamina propria were noted.Both patients were on anticoagulants, multiple antibiotics and antifungal agents due to respiratory infections MESHD at the time of lower GI bleeding. Hematochezia HP resolved spontaneously with supportive care. Both patients eventually recovered and were discharged. Elderly TRANS patients with significant comorbid conditions are uniquely at risk for ischemic injury to the bowel. Hypoxic conditions due to COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and respiratory failure HP, compounded by preexisting cardiovascular complications, and/or cytokine storm orchestrated by the viral infection MESHD leading to alteration in coagulation profile and/or drug/medication injury can be difficult to distinguish in these critically ill patients. Presentation of hematochezia HP may further increase the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 patients, and prompt consultation and management by gastroenterology is therefore warranted.

    MultiCheXNet: A Multi-Task Learning Deep Network For Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP-like Diseases MESHD Diagnosis From X-ray Scans

    Authors: Abdullah Tarek Farag; Ahmed Raafat Abd El-Wahab; Mahmoud Nada; Mohamed Yasser Abd El-Hakeem; Omar Sayed Mahmoud; Reem Khaled Rashwan; Ahmad El Sallab

    id:2008.01973v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: arXiv

    We present MultiCheXNet, an end-to-end Multi-task learning model, that is able to take advantage of different X-rays data sets of Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP-like diseases MESHD in one neural architecture, performing three tasks at the same time; diagnosis, segmentation and localization. The common encoder in our architecture can capture useful common features present in the different tasks. The common encoder has another advantage of efficient computations, which speeds up the inference time compared to separate models. The specialized decoders heads can then capture the task-specific features. We employ teacher forcing to address the issue of negative samples that hurt the segmentation and localization performance SERO. Finally,we employ transfer learning to fine tune the classifier on unseen pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP-like diseases MESHD. The MTL architecture can be trained on joint or dis-joint labeled data sets. The training of the architecture follows a carefully designed protocol, that pre trains different sub-models on specialized datasets, before being integrated in the joint MTL model. Our experimental setup involves variety of data sets, where the baseline performance SERO of the 3 tasks is compared to the MTL architecture performance SERO. Moreover, we evaluate the transfer learning mode to COVID-19 data set,both from individual classifier model, and from MTL architecture classification head.

    Concurrent cavitary pulmonary tuberculosisand COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP with in vitro immune cell anergy:a case report.

    Authors: Maria Musso; Francesco Di Gennaro; Gina Gualano; Silvia Mosti; Carlotta Cerva; Saeid Najafi Fard; Raffaella Libertone; Virginia Di Bari; Massimo Cristofaro; Roberto Tonnarini; Delia Goletti; Fabrizio Palmieri

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-54297/v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Tuberculosis MESHD (TB) is top infectious disease MESHD killer caused by a single organismresponsible for 1.5 million deaths MESHD in 2018. Both COVID 19 and the pandemic responseare risking to affect control measures for TB and continuity of essential services forpeople affected by this infection MESHD in western countries and even more in developingcountries. Knowledges about concomitant pulmonary TB and COVID-19 are extremelylimited. The double burden of these two diseases MESHD can have devastating effects. Herewe describe from both the clinical and the immunological point of view a case of apatient with in vitro immune cell anergy affected by bilateral cavitary pulmonary TB andsubsequent COVID-19-associated pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP with a worst outcome. COVID-19 can bea precipitating factor in TB respiratory failure HP and, during ongoing SARS COV 2 pandemic, clinicians must be aware of this possible coinfection MESHD in differential diagnosisof patients with active TB and new or worsening chest imaging

    Characteristics of 24,516 Patients Diagnosed with COVID-19 Illness in a National Clinical Research Network: Results from PCORnet

    Authors: Jason P Block; Keith A. Marsolo; Kshema Nagavedu; L Charles Bailey; Henry Cruz; Christopher B. Forrest; Kevin Haynes; Adrian F. Hernandez; Rainu Kaushal; Abel Kho; Kathleen M. McTigue; Vinit P. Nair; Richard Platt; Jon Puro; Russell L. Rothman; Elizabeth Shenkman; Lemuel Russell Waitman; Mark G. Weiner; Neely Williams; Thomas W. Carton

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20163733 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: National data from diverse institutions across the United States are critical for guiding policymakers as well as clinical and public health leaders. This study characterized a large national cohort of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the U.S., compared to patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and influenza. Methods and Findings: We captured cross-sectional information from 36 large healthcare systems in 29 U.S. states, participating in PCORnet, the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network. Patients included were those diagnosed with COVID-19, viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and influenza in any care setting, starting from January 1, 2020. Using distributed queries executed at each participating institution, we acquired information for patients on care setting (any, ambulatory, inpatient or emergency MESHD department, mechanical ventilator), age TRANS, sex, race, state, comorbidities (assessed with diagnostic codes), and medications used for treatment of COVID-19 (hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin; corticosteroids, anti-interleukin-6 agents). During this time period, 24,516 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, with 42% in an emergency MESHD department or inpatient hospital setting; 79,639 were diagnosed with viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (53% inpatient/ED) and 163,984 with influenza (41% inpatient/ED). Among COVID-19 patients, 68% were 20 to <65 years of age TRANS, with more of the hospitalized/ED patients in older age TRANS ranges (23% 65+ years vs. 12% for COVID-19 patients in the ambulatory setting). Patients with viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were of a similar age TRANS, and patients with influenza were much younger. Comorbidities were common, especially for patients with COVID-19 and viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, with hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (32% for COVID-19 and 46% for viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP), arrhythmias HP (20% and 35%), and pulmonary disease MESHD (19% and 40%) the most common. Hydroxychloroquine was used in treatment for 33% and tocilizumab for 11% of COVID-19 patients on mechanical ventilators (25% received azithromycin as well). Conclusion and Relevance: PCORnet leverages existing data to capture information on one of the largest U.S. cohorts to date of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 compared to patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and influenza.

    COVID-19 in CXR: from Detection and Severity Scoring to Patient Disease MESHD Monitoring

    Authors: Rula Amer; Maayan Frid-Adar; Ophir Gozes; Jannette Nassar; Hayit Greenspan

    id:2008.02150v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: arXiv

    In this work, we estimate the severity of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19 patients and conduct a longitudinal study of disease progression MESHD. To achieve this goal, we developed a deep learning model for simultaneous detection and segmentation of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in chest Xray (CXR) images and generalized to COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. The segmentations were utilized to calculate a " Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP Ratio" which indicates the disease MESHD severity. The measurement of disease MESHD severity enables to build a disease MESHD extent profile over time for hospitalized patients. To validate the model relevance to the patient monitoring task, we developed a validation strategy which involves a synthesis of Digital Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs - synthetic Xray) from serial CT scans; we then compared the disease progression MESHD profiles that were generated from the DRRs to those that were generated from CT volumes.

    Clinical course and severity outcome indicators among COVID 19 hospitalized patients in relation to comorbidities distribution Mexican cohort

    Authors: Genny Carrillo; Nina Mendez Dominguez; Kassandra D Santos Zaldivar; Andrea Rochel Perez; Mario Azuela Morales; Osman Cuevas Koh; Alberto Alvarez Baeza

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165480 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: COVID-19 affected worldwide, causing to date, around 500,000 deaths MESHD. In Mexico, by April 29, the general case fatality was 6.52%, with 11.1% confirmed case TRANS mortality and hospital recovery rate around 72%. Once hospitalized, the odds for recovery and hospital death MESHD rates depend mainly on the patients' comorbidities and age TRANS. In Mexico, triage guidelines use algorithms and risk estimation tools for severity assessment and decision-making. The study's objective is to analyze the underlying conditions of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Mexico concerning four severity outcomes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort based on registries of all laboratory-confirmed patients with the COVID-19 infection MESHD that required hospitalization in Mexico. Independent variables were comorbidities and clinical manifestations. Dependent variables were four possible severity outcomes: (a) pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, (b) mechanical ventilation (c) intensive care unit, and (d) death MESHD; all of them were coded as binary Results: We included 69,334 hospitalizations of laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized patients to June 30, 2020. Patients were 55.29 years, and 62.61% were male TRANS. Hospital mortality among patients aged TRANS<15 was 9.11%, 51.99% of those aged TRANS >65 died. Male TRANS gender TRANS and increasing age TRANS predicted every severity outcome. Diabetes and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP predicted every severity outcome significantly. Obesity MESHD Obesity HP did not predict mortality, but CKD, respiratory diseases MESHD, cardiopathies were significant predictors. Conclusion: Obesity MESHD Obesity HP increased the risk for pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care admittance, but it was not a predictor of in-hospital death MESHD. Patients with respiratory diseases MESHD were less prone to develop pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, to receive mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit assistance, but they were at higher risk of in-hospital death MESHD.

    The Lebanese Cohort for COVID-19; A Challenge for the ABO Blood SERO Group System

    Authors: Athar Khalil; Mahmoud Hassoun; Rita Feghali

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166785 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    A sudden outbreak of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread all over the world facilitating the declaration of the resultant disease MESHD as a pandemic in March,2020. In Lebanon, the fast action of announcing a state of emergency MESHD with strict measures was among the factors that helped in achieving a successful containment of the disease MESHD in the country. Predisposing factors for acquiring COVID-19 and for developing a severe form of this disease MESHD were postulated to be related to epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as the genomics signature of a given population or its environment. Biological markers such as the ABO blood SERO group system was amongst those factors that were proposed to be linked to the variability in the disease MESHD course and/or the prevalence SERO of this infection MESHD among different groups. We therefore conducted the first retrospective case-control study in the Middle-East and North Africa that tackles the association between the blood SERO group types and the susceptibility as well as the severity of SARS-CoV2 infection MESHD. Opposing to the current acknowledged hypothesis, our results have challenged the association significance of this system with COVID-19. Herein, we highlighted the importance of studying larger cohorts using more rigorous approaches to diminish the potential confounding effect of some underlying comorbidities and genetic variants that are known to be associated with the ABO blood SERO group system.

    Clinical Characteristics and Severity of COVID-19 Disease MESHD in Patients from Boston Area Hospitals

    Authors: Hesamaddin Torabi Dashti; David Bates; Julie M Fiskio; Elise C Roche; Samia Mora; Olga Demler

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20163071 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    We summarize key demographic, clinical, and medical characteristics of patients with respect to the severity of COVID-19 disease MESHD using Electronic Health Records Data of 4,140 SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects from several large Boston Area Hospitals. We found that prior use of antihypertensive medications as well as lipid lowering and other cardiovascular drugs (such as direct oral anticoagulants and antiplatelets) all track with increased severity of COVID-19 and should be further investigated with appropriate adjustment for confounders such as age TRANS and frailty MESHD. The three most common prior comorbidities are hyperlipidemia MESHD hyperlipidemia HP, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, and prior pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, all associated with increased severity.

    Evaluation of Convalescent Plasma SERO versus Standard of Care for the Treatment of COVID-19 in Hospitalazed Patients: study protocol for a phase 2 randomized, open-label, controlled, multicenter trial

    Authors: Elena Diago-Sempere; Jose Luis Bueno; Aranzazu Sancho-Lopez; Elena Munez-Rubio; Ferran Torres; Rosa Malo de Molina; Ana Fernandez-Cruz; Isabel Salcedo De Diego; Ana Velasco-Iglesias; Concepcion Payares Herrera; Inmaculada Casas Flecha; Cristina Avendano-Sola; Rafael Duarte Palomino; Antonio Ramos-Martinez; Belen Ruiz-Antoran

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165720 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 is a respiratory disease MESHD caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and causes substantial morbidity and mortality. At the time this clinical trial was planned, there were no available vaccine or therapeutic agents with proven efficacy, but the severity of the condition prompted the use of several pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. It has long been hypothesized that the use of convalescent plasma SERO (CP) from infected patients who have developed an effective immune response is likely to be an option for the treatment of patients with a variety of severe acute respiratory infections MESHD (SARI) of viral etiology. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of convalescent plasma SERO in adult TRANS patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Methods/Design: The ConPlas-19 study is a multicenter, randomized, open-label controlled trial. The protocol has been prepared in accordance with the SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) guidelines. The study has been planned to include 278 adult TRANS patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 infection MESHD not requiring mechanical ventilation (invasive or non-invasive). Subjects are randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio (139 per treatment arm), stratified by center, to receive intravenously administered CP (single infusion) plus SOC or SOC alone, and are to be followed for 30 days. The primary endpoint of the study is the proportion of patients that progress to categories 5, 6 or 7 (on the 7-point ordinal scale proposed by the WHO) at day 15. Interim analyses for efficacy and/or futility will be conducted once 20%, 40%, and 60% of the planned sample size are enrolled and complete D15 assessment. Discussion: This clinical trial is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of passive immunotherapy with convalescent plasma SERO for the treatment of adult TRANS patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The results of this study are expected to contribute to establishing the potential place of CP in the therapeutics for a new viral disease MESHD. Trial registration: Trial registration at clinicaltrials.gov; Registration Number: NCT04345523; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04345523; Registered on 30 March, 2020. First posted date: April 14, 2020. Keywords: COVID-19, randomized, controlled trial, protocol, convalescent plasma SERO (CP), antibodies SERO.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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