Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (429)

Fever (319)

Cough (252)

Hypertension (191)

Respiratory distress (107)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 4215
    records per page




    COVID-19: Role of the Interferons

    Authors: Claudio G. Gallo; Sirio Fiorino; Giovanni Posabella; Donato Antonacci; Antonio Tropeano; Emanuele Pausini; Carlotta Pausini; Tommaso Guarniero; Marco Zancanaro

    id:202008.0018/v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: Preprints.org

    COVID-19 disease MESHD, caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus, is a potentially fatal disease MESHD that represents a serious public health and economic problem worldwide. The SARS-CoV2 virus infects the lower respiratory tract and can cause pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in humans. ARDS is the leading cause of death MESHD in COVID-19 disease MESHD. One of the main characteristics of ARDS is the cytokine storm, an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response resulting from the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and growth factors, by immune cells. The other important aspect of the disease MESHD is represented by the involvement of the vascular organ that undergoes endothelitis. Hyperinflammation and endothelitis contribute in various ways to trigger coagulation disorders with diffuse micro thrombotic and thromboembolic phenomena. Lastly, multiple organ failure MESHD may occur (MOF). Since so far there is no approved treatment, there is an urgent need to reposition known treatments, considered safe, to be included in trials. Naturally produced interferons represent the body's first line of defense against viruses. Pharmacological forms, obtained by means of genetic recombination techniques, have long been approved and used to treat numerous pathologies. Interferons are divided into three families, within which some subfamilies are distinguishable. Only IFN-II comprises a single isoform which has completely different aspects and functions. The IFN I and III, however, each comprise different subfamilies (17 subfamilies the IFN-I and 4 subfamilies the IFN-III), share many aspects, representing the body's first antiviral response, but play different roles. The use of IFNs has been studied in two severe hCoV (Human Coronavirus) diseases MESHD, closely related to COVID-19 disease MESHD, such as SARS and MERS. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have been conducted, often in combination with other antivirals. The results have been controversial. The positive results in vitro and in experimental animals were often not replicable in humans. The possible positioning of these molecules in the right window of therapeutic opportunity requires that the complex dialogue between IFN, inflammasome, cytokines, pro-inflammatory chemokines, growth factors and barrier function be shed light.

    HIV and Human Coronavirus Coinfections MESHD: A Historical Perspective

    Authors: Palesa Makoti; Burtram C. Fielding

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0032.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: Preprints.org

    Seven human coronaviruses are known to infect humans. The most recent one, SARS-CoV-2, was isolated and identified in January 2020 from a patient presenting with severe respiratory illness in Wuhan, China. Even though viral coinfections MESHD have the potential to influence the resultant disease MESHD pattern in the host, very few studies have looked at the disease MESHD outcomes in patients infected with both HIV and hCoVs. Groups are now reporting that even though HIV-positive patients can be infected with hCoVs, the likelihood of developing severe CoV-related diseases MESHD in these patients is often similar to what is seen in the general population. This review aimed to summarize the current knowledge of coinfections MESHD reported for the HIV and hCoVs. Also, based on the available data, this review aimed to theorize why HIV-positive patients do not frequently develop severe CoV-related diseases MESHD.

    Covid-19 mortality rates in Northamptonshire UK: initial sub-regional comparisons and provisional SEIR model of disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread

    Authors: Nick Petford; Jackie Campbell

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165399 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    We analysed mortality rates in a non-metropolitan UK subregion (Northamptonshire) to understand SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD fatalities at sub 1000000 population levels. A numerical (SEIR) model was then developed to predict the spread of Covid-19 in Northamptonshire. A combined approach using statistically-weighted data to fit the start of the epidemic to the mortality record. Parameter estimates were then derived for the transmission TRANS rate and basic reproduction number TRANS. Age TRANS standardised mortality rates are highest in Northampton (urban) and lowest in semi-rural districts. Northamptonshire has a statistically higher Covid-19 mortality rate than for the East Midlands and England as a whole. Model outputs suggest the number of infected individuals exceed official estimates, meaning less than 40 percent of the population may require immunisation. Combining published (sub-regional) mortality rate data with deterministic models on disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread has the potential to help public health practitioners develop bespoke mitigations, guided by local population demographics.

    Temporal and Spatial Heterogeneity of Host Response to SARS-CoV-2 Pulmonary Infection MESHD

    Authors: Niyati Desai; Azfar Neyaz; Annamaria Szabolcs; Angela R Shih; Jonathan H Chen; Vishal Thapar; Linda T Nieman; Alexander Solovyov; Arnav Mehta; David J Lieb; Anupriya S Kulkarni; Christopher Jaicks; Christopher J Pinto; Dejan Juric; Ivan Chebib; Robert B Colvin; Arthur Y Kim; Robert Monroe; Sarah E Warren; Patrick Danaher; Jason W Reeves; Jingjing Gong; Erroll H Rueckert; Benjamin D Greenbaum; Nir Hacohen; Stephen M Lagana; Miguel N Rivera; Lynette M Sholl; James R Stone; David T Ting; Vikram Deshpande

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165241 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    The relationship of SARS-CoV-2 lung infection MESHD and severity of pulmonary disease MESHD is not fully understood. We analyzed autopsy specimens from 24 patients who succumbed to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD using a combination of different RNA and protein analytical platforms to characterize inter- and intra- patient heterogeneity of pulmonary virus infection MESHD. There was a spectrum of high and low virus cases that was associated with duration of disease MESHD and activation of interferon pathway genes. Using a digital spatial profiling platform, the virus corresponded to distinct spatial expression of interferon response genes and immune checkpoint genes demonstrating the intra-pulmonary heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    COVID-19: Knowledge, Perceptions and Attitudes of Residents in the Northern Region of Ghana, West Africa

    Authors: Courage Kosi Setsoafia Saba; Joseph Nzeh; Francis Addy; Akosua Bonsu Karikari

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0060.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: Preprints.org

    Africa is gradually becoming an epicentre for the COVID-19 pandemic. From the current trends of the disease MESHD, Africa might be the last hardest hit continent. While scientific investigations are ongoing to develop effective management through medications and vaccines, existing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes could be harnessed to develop an effective strategy to curb community transmission TRANS of the COVID-19. The present study assessed the awareness level, perceptions and attitudes of people living in rural, peri-urban and urban communities in Northern Ghana and their preparedness for the prevention and containment of COVID-19. We conducted a face-to-face interview and administered 553 semi-structured questionnaires in eighteen (18) rural and peri-urban/urban communities under Tolon District, Kumbungu Districts, Sagnarigu Municipality, Savelugu Municipality and Tamale Metropolis from 23rd of April to 8th of June 2020. The percentage of male TRANS to female TRANS among the respondents was 56.8% and 43.2%, respectively. Nearly half (41%) of the respondents had no formal education and 91.3% of them were Muslims. Most of the respondents (85%) held the view that COVID-19 is a punishment from God. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the time rural and peri-urban/urban communities first heard of COVID-19. Majority (63%) of the rural respondents depended on radio, while the peri-urban/urban respondents (51%) relied on television for information on COVID-19. All respondents were aware of COVID-19 and 91.7% could mention at least two symptoms of the disease MESHD but 18% believed there was no COVID-19 in Ghana. Most of the respondents (69.6%) believed they will not contract the virus. Our findings may provide useful data to government and other stakeholders in the COVID-19 fight.

    Household Representative Sample Strategy for COVID-19 Large-Scale Population Screening

    Authors: John Takyi-Williams

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0030.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: Preprints.org

    In the advent of COVID-19 pandemic, testing is highly essential to be able to isolate, treat infected persons, and finally curb transmission TRANS of this infectious respiratory disease MESHD. Group testing has been used previously for various infectious diseases MESHD and recently reported for large-scale population testing of COVID-19. However, possible sample dilution as a result of large pool sizes has been reported, limiting testing methods’ detection sensitivity SERO. Moreover, the need to sample all individuals prior to pooling overburden the limited resources such as test kits. An alternative proposed strategy where test is performed on pooled samples from individuals representing different households is presented here. This strategy intends to improve group testing method through the reduction in the number of samples collected and pooled during large-scale population testing. Moreover, it introduces database system which enables continuous monitoring of the population’s virus exposure for better decision making.

    Impact of tocilizumab administration on mortality in severe COVID-19

    Authors: Andrew Tsai; Oumou Diawara; Ronald G Nahass; Luigi Brunetti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20114959 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic has placed a significant burden on hospitals and healthcare providers. The immune response to this disease MESHD is thought to lead to a cytokine storm, which contributes to the severity of illness. There is an urgent need to confirm whether the use of tocilizumab provides a benefit in individuals with COVID-19. Methods A single-center propensity-score matched cohort study, including all consecutive COVID-19 patients, admitted to the medical center who were either discharged from the medical center or expired between March 1, 2020, and May 5, 2020, was performed. Patients were stratified according to the receipt of tocilizumab for cytokine storm and matched to controls using propensity scores. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 132 patients were included in the matched dataset (tocilizumab=66; standard of care=66). Approximately 73% of the patients were male TRANS. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP (55%), diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (31%), and chronic pulmonary disease MESHD (15%) were the most common comorbidities present. There were 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the tocilizumab group and 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the standard of care group (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.465 - 2.151; p=1.00). Advanced age TRANS, history of myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP, dementia MESHD dementia HP, chronic pulmonary disease, heart MESHD failure, and malignancy were significantly more common in patients who died. Interpretation The current analysis does not support the use of tocilizumab for the management of cytokine storm in patients with COVID-19. Use of this therapeutic agent should be limited to the context of a clinical trial until more evidence is available.

    A New Model of SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD Based on (Hydroxy)Chloroquine Activity

    Authors: Robert J. Sheaff

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.232892 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: bioRxiv

    Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine [(H)CQ] are well known anti-malarial drugs, while their use against COVID-19 is more controversial. (H)CQ activity was examined in tissue culture cells to determine if their anti-viral benefits or adverse effects might be due to altering host cell pathways. Metabolic analysis revealed (H)CQ inhibit oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, likely by sequestering protons needed to drive ATP synthase. This activity could cause cardiotoxicity MESHD because heart muscle relies on beta oxidation of fatty acids. However, it might also explain their therapeutic benefit against COVID-19. A new model of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD postulates virus enters host cell mitochondria and uses its protons for genome release. Oxidative phosphorylation is eventually compromised, so glycolysis is upregulated to maintain ATP levels. (H)CQ could prevent viral infection MESHD and/or slow its replication by sequestering these protons. In support of this model other potential COVID-19 therapeutics also targeted mitochondria, as did tobacco smoke, which may underlie smokers protection. The mitochondria of young people are naturally more adaptable and resilient, providing a rationale for their resistance to disease MESHD progression. Conversely, obesity MESHD obesity HP and diabetes could exacerbate disease MESHD severity by providing extra glucose to infected cells dependent on glycolysis. The description of (H)CQ function presented here, together with its implications for understanding SARS-CO-V2 infection MESHD, makes testable predictions about disease progression MESHD and identifies new approaches for treating COVID-19.

    Kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO Avidity Maturation and Association with Disease MESHD Severity

    Authors: Yiqi Ruben Luo; Indrani Chakraborty; Cassandra Yun; Alan H.B. Wu; Kara Lake Lynch

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165522 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    The kinetics of immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity maturation during severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD was studied. The IgG avidity assay used a novel label-free immunoassay SERO technology to test IgG against the virus spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). The technology, thin-film interferometry (TFI), is able to sense the formation of immune complex on a sensing probe without attaching a reporter (enzyme, fluorophore, etc.). It was found that there was a strong correlation between IgG antibody SERO avidity and days since symptom onset TRANS (p < 0.0001). In addition, peak readings were significantly higher for specimens from ICU than non-ICU patients for the first month after symptom onset TRANS (1-4 weeks) and thereafter (p<0.0001). The findings are consistent for what has been reported for SARS-CoV. Given that SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG avidity is strong in ICU patients after 1 month, this suggests that antibody SERO-mediated immune enhancement triggered by suboptimal antibodies SERO may not play a role in COVID-19 disease progression MESHD and severity.

    Data-driven modeling and forecasting of COVID-19 outbreak for public policy making

    Authors: Agus Hasan; Endah Putri; Hadi Susanto; Nuning Nuraini

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165555 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    This paper presents a data-driven approach for COVID-19 outbreak modeling and forecasting, which can be used by public policy and decision makers to control the outbreak through Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPI). First, we apply an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to a discrete-time stochastic augmented compartmental model to estimate the time-varying effective reproduction number TRANS Rt. We use daily confirmed cases TRANS, active cases, recovered cases, deceased cases, Case-Fatality-Rate (CFR), and infectious time as inputs for the model. Furthermore, we define a Transmission TRANS Index (TI) as a ratio between the instantaneous and the maximum value of the effective reproduction number TRANS. The value of TI shows the disease MESHD transmission TRANS in a contact between a susceptible and an infectious individual due to current measures such as physical distancing and lock-down relative to a normal condition. Based on the value of TI, we forecast different scenarios to see the effect of relaxing and tightening public measures. Case studies in three countries are provided to show the practicability of our approach.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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