Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Disease (1050)

Infections (482)

Death (307)

Coronavirus Infections (298)

Fever (176)


Human Phenotype

Fever (176)

Pneumonia (165)

Hypertension (146)

Cough (132)

Fatigue (62)


Transmission

age categories (1055)

gender (393)

Transmission (195)

fomite (114)

asymptotic cases (96)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 1063
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    SARS-CoV-2 neutralization and serology testing of COVID-19 convalescent plasma SERO from donors with non-severe disease MESHD

    Authors: Thomas J. Gniadek; Joshua M. Thiede; William E. Matchett; Abigail R. Gress; Kathryn A. Pape; Marc K. Jenkins; Vineet D Menachery; Ryan A. Langlois; Tyler D. Bold

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.242271 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: bioRxiv

    We determined the antigen binding activity of convalescent plasma SERO units from 47 individuals with a history of non-severe COVID-19 using three clinical diagnostic serology assays (Beckman, DiaSorin, and Roche) with different SARS-CoV-2 targets. We compared these results with functional neutralization activity using a fluorescent reporter strain of SARS-CoV-2 in a microwell assay. This revealed positive correlations of varying strength (Spearman r = 0.37-0.52) between binding and neutralization. Donors age TRANS 48-75 had the highest neutralization activity. Units in the highest tertile of binding activity for each assay were enriched (75-82%) for those with the highest levels of neutralization.

    Characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to Swedish intensive care units for COVID-19 during the first 60 days of the 2020 pandemic: a registry-based, multicenter, observational study.

    Authors: Michelle S Chew; Patrik Blixt; Rasmus Ahman; Lars Engerstrom; Henrik Andersson; Ritva Kiiski Berggren; Anders Tegnell; Sarah McIntyre

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169599 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background The mortality of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 is unclear due to variable censoring and substantial proportions of undischarged patients at follow-up. Nationwide data have not been previously reported. We studied the outcomes of Swedish patients at 30 days after ICU admission. Methods We conducted a registry-based cohort study of all adult TRANS patients admitted to Swedish ICUs from 6 March-6 May, 2020 with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 disease MESHD and complete 30-day follow-up. Data including baseline characteristics, comorbidities, intensive care treatments, organ failures and outcomes were collected. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. A multivariable model was used to determine the independent association between potential predictor variables and the primary outcome. Results A total of 1563 patients were identified. Median ICU length of stay was 12 (5-21) days, and fifteen patients remained in ICU at the time of follow-up. Median age TRANS was 61 (52-69), median Simplified Acute Physiology Score III (SAPS III) was 53 (46-59), and 66.8% had at least one comorbidity. Median PaO2/FiO2 on admission was 97.5 (75.0-140.6) mmHg, 74.7% suffered from moderate to severe acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS). The 30-day all-cause mortality was 26.7%. The majority of deaths MESHD occurred during ICU admission. Age TRANS, male TRANS sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.5 [1.1-2.1]), SAPS III score (aOR 1.3 [1.2-1.4]), severe ARDS (aOR 3.1 [2.0-4.8], specific COVID-19 pharmacotherapy (aOR 1.4 [1.0-1.9]), and CRRT (aOR 2.2 [1.6-3.0]), were associated with increased mortality. With the exception of chronic lung disease HP lung disease MESHD, the presence of comorbidities was not independently associated with mortality. Conclusions Thirty-day mortality rate in COVID-19 patients admitted to Swedish intensive care units is generally lower than previously reported. Mortality appears to be driven by age TRANS, baseline disease MESHD severity, the degree of organ failure and ICU treatment, rather than preexisting comorbidities.

    Clinical and intestinal histopathological findings in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 patients with hematochezia HP

    Authors: Margaret Cho; Weiguo Liu; Sophie Balzora; Yvelisse Suarez; Deepthi Hoskoppal; Neil D Theise; Wenqing Cao; Suparna A Sarkar

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164558 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 in the form of anorexia MESHD anorexia HP, nausea MESHD nausea, vomiting HP, vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP are usually preceeded by respiratory manifestations and are associated with a poor prognosis. Hematochezia HP is an uncommon clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease MESHD and we hypothesize that older patients with significant comorbidites ( obesity MESHD obesity HP and cardiovascular) and prolonged hospitalization are suspectible to ischemic injury to the bowel. We reviewed the clinical course, key laboratory data including acute phase reactants, drug/medication history in two elderly TRANS male TRANS patients admitted for COVID-19 respiratory failure HP. Both patients had a complicated clinical course and suffered from hematochezia HP and acute blood SERO loss anemia MESHD anemia HP requiring blood SERO transfusion around day 40 of their hospitalization. Colonoscopic impressions were correlated with the histopathological findings in the colonic biopies and changes compatible with ischemia MESHD to nonspecific acute inflammation MESHD, edema MESHD edema HP and increased eosinophils in the lamina propria were noted.Both patients were on anticoagulants, multiple antibiotics and antifungal agents due to respiratory infections MESHD at the time of lower GI bleeding. Hematochezia HP resolved spontaneously with supportive care. Both patients eventually recovered and were discharged. Elderly TRANS patients with significant comorbid conditions are uniquely at risk for ischemic injury to the bowel. Hypoxic conditions due to COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and respiratory failure HP, compounded by preexisting cardiovascular complications, and/or cytokine storm orchestrated by the viral infection MESHD leading to alteration in coagulation profile and/or drug/medication injury can be difficult to distinguish in these critically ill patients. Presentation of hematochezia HP may further increase the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 patients, and prompt consultation and management by gastroenterology is therefore warranted.

    Public perceptions and preventive behaviours during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparative study between Hong Kong and the United Kingdom

    Authors: Leigh Bowman; Kin On Kwok; Rozlyn Redd; Yuanyuan Yi; Helen Ward; Wan In Wei; Christina J Atchison; Samuel Yeung Shan Wong

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169409 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In the absence of treatments and vaccines, the mitigation of COVID-19 relies on population engagement in non-pharmaceutical interventions, which is driven by their risk perception, anxiety HP level and knowledge. There may also be regional discrepancies in these drivers due to different historical exposure to disease MESHD outbreaks, government responses and cultures. As such, this study compared psycho-behavioral responses in two regions during the early phase of the pandemic. Methods: Comparable cross-sectional surveys were administered among adults TRANS in Hong Kong (HK) and the United Kingdom (UK) during the early phase of each respective epidemic. Explanatory variables included demographics, risk perception and knowledge of COVID-19, anxiety HP level and preventive behaviors. Responses were weighted according to census data. Logistic regression models, including interaction terms to quantify regional differences, were used to assess the association between explanatory variables and the adoption of social-distancing measures. Results: Data of 3431 complete responses (HK:1663; UK:1768) were analysed. Perceived severity differed by region (HK: 97.5%; UK: 20.7%). A large proportion of respondents were abnormally/borderline anxious (HK:64.8%; UK:45.9%) and regarded direct contact with infected individuals as the transmission TRANS route of COVID-19 (HK:94.0-98.5%; UK:69.2-93.5%), with HK identifying additional routes. HK reported high levels of adoption of social-distancing (HK:32.4-93.7%; UK:17.6-59.0%) and mask-wearing (HK:98.8%; UK:3.1%). The impact of perceived severity and perceived ease of transmission TRANS on the adoption of social-distancing varied by region. In HK, they had no impact, whereas in the UK, those who perceived severity as 'high' were more likely to adopt social-distancing (aOR:1.58-3.01), and those who perceived transmission TRANS as 'easy' were prone to both general social-distancing (aOR:2.00, 95% CI:1.57, 2.55) and contact avoidance (aOR:1.80, 95% CI: 1.41, 2.30). The impact of anxiety HP on adopting social-distancing did not vary by region. Discussion: These results suggest that health officials should ascertain and consider baseline levels of risk perception and knowledge in the populations, as well as prior sensitisation to infectious disease MESHD outbreaks, during the development of mitigation strategies. Risk communication should be done through suitable media channels - and trust should be maintained - while early intervention remains the cornerstone of effective outbreak response.

    SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in decedents in a large, urban medical examiner's office

    Authors: Andrew F. Brouwer; Jeffrey L Myers; Emily T Martin; Kristine E Konopka; Adam S Lauring; Marisa C Eisenberg; Paul R Lephart; Teresa Nguyen; Andrea Jaworski; Carl J Schmidt

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20162883 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic. Given the challenges in implementing widespread SARS-CoV-2 testing, there is increasing interest in alternative surveillance strategies. Methods: We tested nasopharyngeal swabs from 821 decedents in the Wayne County Medical Examiner's office for SARS-CoV-2. All decedents were assessed by a COVID-19 checklist, and decedents flagged by the checklist (237) were preferentially tested. A random sample of decedents not flagged by the checklist were also tested (584). We statistically analyzed the characteristics of decedents ( age TRANS, sex, race, and manner of death MESHD), differentiating between those flagged by the checklist and not and between those SARS-CoV-2 positive and not. Results: Decedents were more likely to be male TRANS (70% vs 48%) and Black (55% vs 36%) than the catchment population. Seven-day average percent positivity among flagged decedents closely matched the trajectory of percent positivity in the catchment population, particularly during the peak of the outbreak (March and April). After a lull in May to mid-June, new positive tests in late June coincided with increased case detection in the catchment. We found large racial disparities in test results: despite no statistical difference in the racial distribution between those flagged and not, SARS-CoV-2 positive decedents were substantially more likely to be Black (89% vs 51%). SARS-CoV-2 positive decedents were also more likely to be older and to have died of natural causes, including of COVID-19 disease MESHD. Conclusions: Disease MESHD surveillance through medical examiners and coroners could supplement other forms of surveillance and may serve as a possible early outbreak warning sign.

    CRISPR-based and RT-qPCR surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic TRANS individuals uncovers a shift in viral prevalence SERO among a university population

    Authors: Jennifer N Rauch; Eric Valois; Jose Carlos Ponce-Rojas; Zach Aralis; Ryan L Lach; Francesca Zappa; Morgane Audouard; Sabrina C Solley; Chinmay Vaidya; Michael Costello; Holly Smith; Ali Javanbakht; Betsy Malear; Laura Polito; Stewart Comer; Katherine Arn; Kenneth S Kosik; Diego Acosta-Alvear; Maxwell Z Wilson; Lynn Fitzgibbons; Carolina Arias

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169771 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The progress of the COVID-19 pandemic profoundly impacts the health of communities around the world, with unique impacts on colleges and universities. Transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 by asymptomatic TRANS people is thought to be the underlying cause of a large proportion of new infections MESHD. However, the local prevalence SERO of asymptomatic TRANS and pre-symptomatic carriers TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 is influenced by local public health restrictions and the community setting. Objectives: This study has three main objectives. First, we looked to establish the prevalence SERO of asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on a university campus in California. Second, we sought to assess the changes in viral prevalence SERO associated with the shifting community conditions related to non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Third, we aimed to compare the performance SERO of CRISPR- and PCR-based assays for large-scale virus surveillance sampling in COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS persons. Methods: We enrolled 1,808 asymptomatic TRANS persons for self-collection of oropharyngeal (OP) samples to undergo SARS-CoV-2 testing. We compared viral prevalence SERO in samples obtained in two time periods: May 28th-June 11th; June 23rd-July 2nd. We detected viral genomes in these samples using two assays: CREST, a CRISPR-based method recently developed at UCSB, and the RT-qPCR test recommended by US Centers for Disease MESHD Control and Prevention (CDC). Results: Of the 1,808 participants, 1,805 were affiliates of the University of California, Santa Barbara, and 1,306 were students. None of the tests performed on the 732 samples collected between late May to early June were positive. In contrast, tests performed on the 1076 samples collected between late June to early July, revealed nine positive cases. This change in prevalence SERO met statistical significance, p = 0.013. One sample was positive by RT-qPCR at the threshold of detection, but negative by both CREST and CLIA-confirmation testing. With this single exception, there was perfect concordance in both positive and negative results obtained by RT-qPCR and CREST. The estimated prevalence SERO of the virus, calculated using the confirmed cases TRANS, was 0.74%. The average age TRANS of our sample population was 28.33 (18-75) years, and the average age TRANS of the positive cases was 21.7 years (19-30). Conclusions: Our study revealed that there were no COVID-19 cases in our study population in May/June. Using the same methods, we demonstrated a substantial shift in prevalence SERO approximately one month later, which coincided with changes in community restrictions and public interactions. This increase in prevalence SERO, in a young and asymptomatic TRANS population which would not have otherwise accessed COVID-19 testing, indicated the leading wave of a local outbreak, and coincided with rising case counts in the surrounding county and the state of California. Our results substantiate that large, population-level asymptomatic TRANS screening using self-collection may be a feasible and instructive aspect of the public health approach within large campus communities, and the almost perfect concordance between CRISPR- and PCR-based assays indicate expanded options for surveillance testing

    Need for Assessing the Inhalation of Micro(nano)plastic Debris Shed from Masks, Respirators, and Home-Made Face Coverings During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Authors: Jie Han; Shanshan He

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12751718.v1 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: ChemRxiv

    This urgent need, as we point out in the manuscript title, stems from the fact that a regulatory gap widely exists in current quality standards and regulations on masks and respirators. By surveying the relevant ASTM, NOISH, EU, China, and ISO standards, as listed in the manuscript, we found no regulation or recommendation pertinent to this type of respirable hazard. Non-medical substitutes, such as face coverings, are also subject to such risks if made with improper household materials. There are numerous studies on assessing the filtration efficiency of masks, respirators, and recently, cloth face coverings (ACS Nano, 2020, 14, 6339; Nano Lett, 2020, 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c02211). This particular issue, however, has been widely neglected by the scientific community. Studies on masks and respirators as a source of respirable debris were found to be anecdotal (Ann. Occup. Hyg. 1986, 20, 131−133). Recent discussions on disposable masks and respirators focused on their widespread use during the current pandemic and disposal into the environment (Sci Total Environ 2020, 737:140279; Waste Manage 2020, 108, 202-205). By putting several top-selling medical face masks and N95 respirators under microscopes, we found plenty of micro(nano)plastic debris on their inner facings, with some appearing to be loosely attached while others still connected to their structural fibers. The two types of debris often appear in the same cluster with similar morphology and texture. Figure 1 in the manuscript shows examples of these, and we have submitted a file containing additional images with methods and QA/QC as further evidence. With the novel coronavirus still looming in our communities, there is a strong ongoing demand for personal respiratory protection devices. Supported by the latest guidance from WHO, many regulatory bodies have made these a compulsory requirement for the public when using public transport, or in certain settings where it is difficult to maintain adequate physical distancing. Respirable hazards such as micro(nano)plastics in these, if pervasively exist, may pose a public health concern. Children TRANS, the elderly TRANS, and individuals having chronic respiratory diseases MESHD may be particularly sensitive to this type of inhalable contaminants. With a growing body of evidence on their adverse effects, micro(nano)plastics is an active research domain with a quickly expanding scope. Researchers studying their inhalation, via atmospheric or other anthropogenic sources, are now facing the reality that there is a piece of plastic garment on top of the mouth and nose of millions of people every day. With these becoming a necessity for many in their daily life and work, questions must be raised over this apparent regulatory gap concerning their long-term use safety. The current pandemic, if anything, should bring this particular issue under scrutiny.

    IFN signaling and neutrophil degranulation transcriptional signatures are induced during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Bruce A. Rosa; Mushtaq Ahmed; Dhiraj K. Singh; Jose Alberto Choreno-Parra; Journey Cole; Luis Armando Jimenez-Alvarez; Tatiana Sofia Rodriguez-Reyna; Bindu Singh; Olga Golzalez; Ricardo Carrion; Larry S. Schlesinger; John Martin; Joaquin Zuniga; Makedonka Mitreva; Shabaana A Khader; Deepak Kaushal

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.239798 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: bioRxiv

    The novel virus SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 14 million people worldwide resulting in the Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Limited information on the underlying immune mechanisms that drive disease MESHD or protection during COVID-19 severely hamper development of therapeutics and vaccines. Thus, the establishment of relevant animal models that mimic the pathobiology of the disease MESHD is urgent. Rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibit disease MESHD pathobiology similar to human COVID-19, thus serving as a relevant animal model. In the current study, we have characterized the transcriptional signatures induced in the lungs of juvenile and old rhesus macaques following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. We show that genes associated with Interferon (IFN) signaling, neutrophil degranulation and innate immune pathways are significantly induced in macaque infected lungs, while pathways associated with collagen formation are downregulated. In COVID-19, increasing age TRANS is a significant risk factor for poor prognosis and increased mortality. We demonstrate that Type I IFN and Notch signaling pathways are significantly upregulated in lungs of juvenile infected macaques when compared with old infected macaques. These results are corroborated with increased peripheral neutrophil counts and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio in older individuals with COVID-19 disease MESHD. In contrast, pathways involving VEGF are downregulated in lungs of old infected macaques. Using samples from humans with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and COVID-19, we validate a subset of our findings. Finally, neutrophil degranulation, innate immune system and IFN gamma signaling pathways are upregulated in both tuberculosis MESHD and COVID-19, two pulmonary diseases MESHD where neutrophils are associated with increased severity. Together, our transcriptomic studies have delineated disease MESHD pathways to improve our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 to facilitate the design of new therapeutics for COVID-19.

    An improved methodology for estimating the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Virag Patel; Catherine McCarthy; Rachel A Taylor; Ruth Moir; Louise A Kelly; Emma L Snary

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168187 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Since the identification of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China in December 2019, there have been more than 17 million cases of the disease MESHD in 216 countries worldwide. Comparisons of prevalence SERO estimates between different communities can inform policy decisions regarding safe travel TRANS between countries, help to assess when to implement (or remove) disease MESHD control measures and identify the risk of over-burdening healthcare providers. Estimating the true prevalence SERO can, however, be challenging because officially reported figures are likely to be significant underestimates of the true burden of COVID-19 within a community. Previous methods for estimating the prevalence SERO fail to incorporate differences between populations (such as younger populations having higher rates of asymptomatic TRANS cases) and so comparisons between, for example, countries, can be misleading. Here, we present an improved methodology for estimating COVID-19 prevalence SERO. We take the reported number of cases and deaths MESHD (together with population size) as raw prevalence SERO for the population. We then apply an age TRANS-adjustment to this which allows the age TRANS-distribution of that population to influence the case-fatality rate and the proportion of asymptomatic TRANS cases. Finally, we calculate the likely underreporting factor for the population and use this to adjust our prevalence SERO estimate further. We use our method to estimate the prevalence SERO for 166 countries (or the states of the United States of America, hereafter referred to as US state) where sufficient data were available. Our estimates show that as of the 30th July 2020, the top three countries with the highest estimated prevalence SERO are Brazil (1.26%, 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.37), Kyrgyzstan (1.10%, 95% CI: 0.82 - 1.19) and Suriname (0.58%, 95% CI: 0.44 - 0.63). Brazil is predicted to have the largest proportion of all the current global cases (30.41%, 95%CI: 27.52 - 30.84), followed by the USA (14.52%, 95%CI: 14.26 - 16.34) and India (11.23%, 95%CI: 11.11 - 11.24). Amongst the US states, the highest prevalence SERO is predicted to be in Louisiana (1.07%, 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.12), Florida (0.90%, 95% CI: 0.86 - 0.94) and Mississippi (0.77%, 95% CI: 0.74 - 0.81) whereas amongst European countries, the highest prevalence SERO is predicted to be in Montenegro (0.47%, 95% CI: 0.42 - 0.50), Kosovo (0.35%, 95% CI: 0.29 - 0.37) and Moldova (0.28%, 95% CI: 0.23 - 0.30). Our results suggest that Kyrgyzstan (0.04 tests per predicted case), Brazil (0.04 tests per predicted case) and Suriname (0.29 tests per predicted case) have the highest underreporting out of the countries in the top 25 prevalence SERO. In comparison, Israel (34.19 tests per predicted case), Bahrain (19.82 per predicted case) and Palestine (9.81 tests per predicted case) have the least underreporting. The results of this study may be used to understand the risk between different geographical areas and highlight regions where the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 is increasing most rapidly. The method described is quick and easy to implement. Prevalence SERO estimates should be updated on a regular basis to allow for rapid fluctuations in disease MESHD patterns.

    General public Knowledge of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) at early stages of the pandemic: results of a random online survey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Authors: Ali Alqahtani; V Krishnaraju; Mona Alqarni; Mohammed Al-Sheikh Hassan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-54864/v1 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    AbstractBackground: A novel coronavirus was identified at the end of 2019 in Wuhan City, China. Later, the World Health Organization (WHO) named the disease MESHD caused by the virus coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and declared a pandemic in March 2020. Saudi and global health agencies have provided various COVID-19 knowledge tools and facts to the general public. Therefore, this study aims to assess COVID-19 knowledge among the general public in Saudi Arabia at the early stages of the pandemic, including knowledge of prevention practices, home quarantine measures, and compliance with governmental restrictions.Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. The study included 1006 participants who responded to a random online COVID-19 public knowledge questionnaire that included five sections: demographic characteristics, general knowledge, prevention practices, home quarantine measures, and knowledge of governmental restrictions. Data were collected from a random sample recruited through the circulation of the questionnaire on social media platforms and were then analysed by descriptive statistical methods. Three levels of knowledge were established: excellent, intermediate, and poor. Differences in the percentages of participants with different knowledge levels by the demographic variables were analysed using the chi-square test.Results: Regarding overall general knowledge of COVID-19, 75%, 24%, and 1% of the participants had excellent, intermediate, and poor knowledge levels, respectively. Knowledge levels were significantly different by nationality and age TRANS (P=0.027 and 0.008, respectively). The majority of participants (98.4%) reported excellent knowledge of prevention practices, with no statistically significant differences among groups (P>0.005). Older age groups TRANS reported higher knowledge of home quarantine measures (86.6% and 86.4% of the 51-60 and older than 60 age groups TRANS, respectively, P=0.001). Approximately 50% of Saudis reported excellent knowledge of the restrictions imposed by the Saudi government to control the spread of COVID-19, while approximately 45% of non-Saudis had an excellent level of knowledge (P= 0.009).Conclusion and recommendations: High levels of knowledge about the virus, including prevention practices, are essential. The provision of COVID-19 facts and knowledge tools should be focused on younger generations to enhance compliance with the governmental restrictions required to stop the spread of COVID-19.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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