Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Disease (485)

Infections (209)

Coronavirus Infections (153)

Death (128)

Fever (99)

Human Phenotype

Fever (99)

Hypertension (83)

Cough (80)

Pneumonia (75)

Fatigue (37)


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 489
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    COVID-19: Knowledge, Perceptions and Attitudes of Residents in the Northern Region of Ghana, West Africa

    Authors: Courage Kosi Setsoafia Saba; Joseph Nzeh; Francis Addy; Akosua Bonsu Karikari

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0060.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source:

    Africa is gradually becoming an epicentre for the COVID-19 pandemic. From the current trends of the disease MESHD, Africa might be the last hardest hit continent. While scientific investigations are ongoing to develop effective management through medications and vaccines, existing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes could be harnessed to develop an effective strategy to curb community transmission TRANS of the COVID-19. The present study assessed the awareness level, perceptions and attitudes of people living in rural, peri-urban and urban communities in Northern Ghana and their preparedness for the prevention and containment of COVID-19. We conducted a face-to-face interview and administered 553 semi-structured questionnaires in eighteen (18) rural and peri-urban/urban communities under Tolon District, Kumbungu Districts, Sagnarigu Municipality, Savelugu Municipality and Tamale Metropolis from 23rd of April to 8th of June 2020. The percentage of male TRANS to female TRANS among the respondents was 56.8% and 43.2%, respectively. Nearly half (41%) of the respondents had no formal education and 91.3% of them were Muslims. Most of the respondents (85%) held the view that COVID-19 is a punishment from God. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the time rural and peri-urban/urban communities first heard of COVID-19. Majority (63%) of the rural respondents depended on radio, while the peri-urban/urban respondents (51%) relied on television for information on COVID-19. All respondents were aware of COVID-19 and 91.7% could mention at least two symptoms of the disease MESHD but 18% believed there was no COVID-19 in Ghana. Most of the respondents (69.6%) believed they will not contract the virus. Our findings may provide useful data to government and other stakeholders in the COVID-19 fight.

    Impact of tocilizumab administration on mortality in severe COVID-19

    Authors: Andrew Tsai; Oumou Diawara; Ronald G Nahass; Luigi Brunetti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20114959 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic has placed a significant burden on hospitals and healthcare providers. The immune response to this disease MESHD is thought to lead to a cytokine storm, which contributes to the severity of illness. There is an urgent need to confirm whether the use of tocilizumab provides a benefit in individuals with COVID-19. Methods A single-center propensity-score matched cohort study, including all consecutive COVID-19 patients, admitted to the medical center who were either discharged from the medical center or expired between March 1, 2020, and May 5, 2020, was performed. Patients were stratified according to the receipt of tocilizumab for cytokine storm and matched to controls using propensity scores. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 132 patients were included in the matched dataset (tocilizumab=66; standard of care=66). Approximately 73% of the patients were male TRANS. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP (55%), diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (31%), and chronic pulmonary disease MESHD (15%) were the most common comorbidities present. There were 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the tocilizumab group and 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the standard of care group (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.465 - 2.151; p=1.00). Advanced age TRANS, history of myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP, dementia MESHD dementia HP, chronic pulmonary disease, heart MESHD failure, and malignancy were significantly more common in patients who died. Interpretation The current analysis does not support the use of tocilizumab for the management of cytokine storm in patients with COVID-19. Use of this therapeutic agent should be limited to the context of a clinical trial until more evidence is available.

    Microbial contamination of powered air purifying respirators (PAPR) used during the COVID-19 pandemic: an in situ microbiological study

    Authors: Abhijoy Chakladar; Claire Gabrielle Jones; Jimmy Siu; Mohammed Osman Hassan-Ibrahim; Mansoor Khan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165423 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether internal components of powered air purifying respirators (PAPR) used during the Corona virus 2019 disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic are contaminated with bacteria, fungi and/or any viral material. DESIGN In situ microbiological study. SETTING Single NHS Trust, UK. OUTCOME MEASURES Growth of any bacteria or fungi, or positive polymerase chain reaction results for common respiratory viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RESULTS 25 PAPR hoods were swabbed; ten (40%) returned positive results. Bacterial growth was detected on six hoods (bacillus simplex, kocuria rhizophilia, bacillus weihenstephensis, microcccus luteus and staphylococcus epidermidis); five of the hoods were positive for fungal growth (non-sporulating environmental mould, NSEM); all sampled hoods tested negative for both SARS-CoV-2 and an expanded panel of respiratory viruses. There was wide variation in the storage of cleaned hoods. CONCLUSION Despite following recommended cleaning procedures, bacteria and fungi can remain on the internal components of PAPR hoods, at levels significant enough to be swabbed and cultured. PAPR hoods have the potential to cross-infect wearers and patients and are used primarily by clinicians who fail to fit disposable FFP3 respirators; the female TRANS sex and non-Caucasian people are less likely to fit FFP3 respirators. The hoods tested cannot be adequately cleaned for use in high risk healthcare environments, PAPR hoods and tubes can act as fomites, and there are evident shortcomings in their provision.

    Estrogen and COVID-19 symptoms: associations in women from the COVID Symptom Study

    Authors: Ricardo Costeira; Karla A Lee; Benjamin Murray; Colette Christiansen; Juan Castillo-Fernandez; Mary Ni Lochlainn; Joan Capdevila Pujol; Iain Buchan; Louise C Kenny; Jonathan Wolf; Sebastien Ourselin; Claire Steves; Timothy Spector; Louise Newson; Jordana Bell

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164921 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Men and older women have been shown to be at higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Animal model studies of SARS-CoV and MERS suggest that the age TRANS and sex difference in COVID-19 symptom severity may be due to a protective effect of the female TRANS sex hormone estrogen. Females TRANS have shown an ability to mount a stronger immune response to a variety of viral infections MESHD because of more robust humoral and cellular immune responses. Objectives: We sought to determine whether COVID-19 positivity increases in women entering menopause. We also aimed to identify whether premenopausal women taking exogenous hormones in the form of the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) and post-menopausal women taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have lower predicted rates of COVID-19, using our published symptom-based model. Design: The COVID Symptom Study developed by Kings College London and Zoe Global Limited was launched in the UK on 24th March 2020. It captured self-reported information related to COVID-19 symptoms. Data used for this study included records collected between 7th May - 15th June 2020. Main outcome measures: We investigated links between COVID-19 rates and 1) menopausal status, 2) COCP use and 3) HRT use, using symptom-based predicted COVID-19, tested COVID-19, and disease MESHD severity based on requirement for hospital attendance or respiratory support. Participants: Female TRANS users of the COVID Symptom Tracker Application in the UK, including 152,637 women for menopause status, 295,689 for COCP use, and 151,193 for HRT use. Analyses were adjusted for age TRANS, smoking and BMI. Results: Post-menopausal women aged TRANS 40-60 years had a higher rate of predicted COVID (P=0.003) and a corresponding range of symptoms, with consistent, but not significant trends observed for tested COVID-19 and disease MESHD severity. Women aged TRANS 18-45 years taking COCP had a significantly lower predicted COVID-19 (P=8.03E-05), with a reduction in hospital attendance (P=0.023). Post-menopausal women using HRT or hormonal therapies did not exhibit consistent associations, including increased rates of predicted COVID-19 (P=2.22E-05) for HRT users alone. Conclusions: Our findings support a protective effect of estrogen on COVID-19, based on positive association between predicted COVID-19 and menopausal status, and a negative association with COCP use. HRT use was positively associated with COVID-19 symptoms; however, the results should be considered with caution due to lack of data on HRT type, route of administration, duration of treatment, and potential comorbidities. Trial registration: The App Ethics has been approved by KCL ethics Committee REMAS ID 18210, review reference LRS-19/20-18210

    Regional now- and forecasting for data reported with delay: A case study in COVID-19 infections MESHD

    Authors: Giacomo De Nicola; Marc Schneble; Göran Kauermann; Ursula Berger

    id:2007.16058v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: arXiv

    Governments around the world continue to act to contain and mitigate the spread of COVID-19. The rapidly evolving situation compels officials and executives to continuously adapt policies and social distancing measures depending on the current state of the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD. In this context, it is crucial for policymakers to have a firm grasp on what the current state of the pandemic is as well as to have an idea of how the infective situation is going to unfold in the next days. However, as in many other situations of compulsorily-notifiable diseases MESHD and beyond, cases are reported with delay to a central register, with this delay deferring an up-to-date view of the state of things. We provide a stable tool for monitoring current infection MESHD levels as well as predicting infection MESHD numbers in the immediate future at the regional level. We accomplish this through nowcasting of cases that have not yet been reported as well as through forecasting of future infections MESHD. The two steps are also combined in forenowcasting. We apply our model to German data, for which our focus lies in explaining and predicting infectious behaviour by district, age group TRANS and gender TRANS.

    Nicotine-replacement therapy, as a surrogate of smoking, and the risk of hospitalization with Covid-19 and all-cause mortality: a nationwide, observational cohort study in France

    Authors: Mahmoud Zureik; Berangere Baricault; Celementine Vabre; Laura SEMENZATO; Jerome Drouin; Francois cuenot; Laetitia penso; Philippe Herlemont; Emilie Sbidian; Alain Weill; Mathieu Molimard; Rosemary Dray-Spira; Jeremie Botton

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20160630 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Introduction Several studies have reported an unexpectedly low prevalence SERO of current smoking among hospitalized patients with Covid-19. However, these studies mostly compared observed to expected rates of smoking without direct comparison with individual controls. Objective To examine the association of nicotine-replacement therapy, as a surrogate of smoking, with hospitalization and all-cause mortality during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in France. Methods We conducted a nationwide matched exposed/unexposed cohort study using information from the French national health data system which covers the entire French population. We conducted two separate analyses, the first in individuals exposed to nicotine-replacement therapy without major smoking-related diseases MESHD (cancer, cardiovascular and/or respiratory diseases MESHD) and the second in those presenting these conditions. We included all individuals, aged TRANS between 18 and 75 years, who had been reimbursed at least one nicotine-replacement therapy between November 15, 2019, and February 15, 2020. For each exposed individual, we randomly selected, from the entire Metropolitan French population, up to two non-exposed individuals (1:2) matched for the following variables: age TRANS (same year of birth), sex, department of residence (n=96 in Metropolitan France), and complementary universal health insurance (CMU-C). The three end points were a hospitalization with Covid-19, a death MESHD or an intubation in hospitalized patients with Covid-19, and all-cause mortality. We compared outcomes in individuals who were exposed to nicotine-replacement therapy with those in individuals who were not, using a multivariable Cox model with inverse probability weighting according to the propensity score. Results In the first analysis, 297,070 individuals without major smoking-related diseases MESHD exposed to nicotine-replacement therapy were matched with 558,228 unexposed individuals without major smoking-related diseases MESHD. Individuals were aged TRANS on average 45.6 years (standard deviation: 12.7) and 48.8% were male TRANS. From February 15, 2020 to June 7, 2020, hospitalization with Covid-19 occurred in 647 patients (151 patients in the nicotine-replacement therapy group and 496 patients in the unexposed group). In the main multivariable analysis, nicotine-replacement therapy was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization with Covid-19 compared with unexposed individuals (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.61). Nicotine-replacement therapy exposure was also associated with a decreased risk of intubation or death MESHD in hospitalized individuals with Covid-19 (13 vs. 73 patients, hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.57) but with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (251 vs. 231 deaths MESHD, hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.80). In the second analysis, 128,768 individuals with major smoking-related diseases MESHD exposed to nicotine-replacement therapy were matched with 243,793 unexposed individuals. Individuals were aged TRANS on average 55.3 years (standard deviation: 11.4) and 53.3% were male TRANS. In the main multivariable analysis, nicotine-replacement therapy exposure was neither associated with risk of hospitalization with Covid-19 (240 patients in the nicotine-replacement therapy group and 398 patients in the unexposed group, hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.38) nor with risk of death MESHD or an intubation in hospitalized individuals with Covid-19 (48 vs. 61 patients, hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.54). All-cause mortality was higher in the nicotine-replacement therapy group (1040 vs. 366 deaths MESHD, hazard ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 3.41 to 4.31). Conclusions This large-scale observational study suggests that smoking, measured by exposure to nicotine-replacement therapy, was associated with an increased risk of overall mortality during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in France, although it was associated with a lower risk of severe Covid-19 in individuals without major related-smoking diseases MESHD. Experimental and clinical studies are needed to disentangle the potential mechanisms of nicotine and/or smoking in Covid-19 risk. Whatever the nature of these associations, the global impact of smoking is harmful for health even over a short epidemic period.

    Early Clinical Factors Predicting the Development of Critical Disease MESHD in Japanese Patients with COVID-19: A Single-Center Retrospective, Observational Study

    Authors: Takatoshi Higuchi; Tsutomu Nishida; Hiromi Iwahashi; Osamu Morimura; Yasushi Otani; Yukiyoshi Okauchi; Masaru Yokoe; Norihiro Suzuki; Masami Inada; Kinya Abe

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20159442 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Insufficient evidence of factors predicting the COVID-19 progression from mild to moderate to critical has been established. We retrospectively evaluated risk factors for critical progression in Japanese COVID-19 patients. Method: Seventy-four laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were hospitalized in our hospital between February 20, 2020, and June 10, 2020. We excluded asymptomatic TRANS, non-Japanese, and child TRANS patients. We divided patients into the stable group (SG) and the progression group (PG) (patients requiring mechanical ventilation). We compared the clinical factors in both groups. We established the cutoff values (COVs) for significantly different factors via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and evaluated risk factors by univariate regression. Results: We enrolled 57 COVID-19 patients (median age TRANS 52 years, 56.1% male TRANS). The median progression time from symptom onset TRANS was eight days. Seven patients developed critical disease MESHD (PG: 12.2%), two (3.5%) of whom died; 50 had stable disease MESHD. Univariate logistic analysis identified elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (COV: 309 U/l), decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (COV: 68 ml/min), lymphocytopenia (COV: 980/l), and statin use as significantly associated with disease progression MESHD. However, in Cox proportional hazards analysis, lymphocytopenia at symptom onset TRANS was not significant. Conclusions: We identified three candidate risk factors for adult TRANS Japanese patients with mild to moderate COVID-19: statin use, elevated LDH level, and decreased eGFR.

    Patient’s perspective regarding the elective surgical procedure during Covid 19 pandemic.

    Authors: Dr. Mayank Badkur; Dr Ashok Puranik; Dr Naveen Sharma; Dr. Suruthi Baskaran

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction: The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and the subsequent nationwide lockdown, has impacted all aspects of society including medical profession. In hospitals, the focus has mainly shifted to prevention and treatment of Covid-19 infection MESHD. Owing to this, all elective surgeries were postponed and only emergent surgeries were performed. This has affected the patients differently depending on the progression of disease MESHD and development of complications.Materials and Methods: A well-structured telephonic scripted questionnaire was administered to all patients who were given appointment for any elective surgery. Data was collected regarding the status of disease MESHD including complications and the patient’s perspective on method of treatment. Patients who developed complications or underwent emergency MESHD surgery or surgery elsewhere were excluded.Results: The male TRANS to female TRANS ratio was 2.3:1. Mean age TRANS of patients was 41.16 years. A total of 86 patients were included in the study. Almost all (98.8%) were aware that the lockdown and withholding of elective surgeries was to prevent spread of coronavirus infection MESHD. Among 34 patients with complications, 88.2% were willing to undergo surgical procedure and 73.5% were willing to visit hospital within a week or two. Among patients without complications, 71.2% were willing to continue treatment on wait and watch policy, for a period of 2 months or more (45.7%). 93.5% of patients avoided visit to hospital due to risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD.Discussion: Patient’s attitude towards the choice of treatment (wait and watch Vs surgery) mainly depended on the progression of disease MESHD. It is critical, during these tough times of Covid-19 pandemic, that risks are weighed against benefits to decide the line of management for patients waiting for elective surgeries. 

    Estimates of the rate of infection and asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 disease MESHD in a population sample from SE England

    Authors: Philippa M Wells; Katie M Doores; Simon Couvreur; Rocio Martin Martinez; Jeffrey Seow; Carl Graham; Sam Acors; Neophytos Kouphou; Stuart Neil; Richard Tedder; Pedro Matos; Kate Poulton; Maria Jose Lista; Ruth Dickenson; Helin Sertkaya; Thomas Maguire; Edward Scourfield; Ruth Bowyer; Deborah Hart; Aoife O'Byrne; Kathryn Steele; Oliver Hemmings; Carolina Rosadas; Myra McClure; Joan Capedevila-Pujol; Jonathan wolf; Sebastien Ourseilin; Matthew Brown; Michael Malim; Timothy Spector; Claire Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20162701 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Understanding of the true asymptomatic TRANS rate of infection MESHD of SARS-CoV-2 is currently limited, as is understanding of the population-based seroprevalence SERO after the first wave of COVID-19 within the UK. The majority of data thus far come from hospitalised patients, with little focus on general population cases, or their symptoms. Methods: We undertook enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO characterisation of IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein of 431 unselected general-population participants of the TwinsUK cohort from South-East England, aged TRANS 19-86 (median age TRANS 48; 85% female TRANS). 382 participants completed prospective logging of 14 COVID-19 related symptoms via the COVID Symptom Study App, allowing consideration of serology alongside individual symptoms, and a predictive algorithm for estimated COVID-19 previously modelled on PCR positive individuals from a dataset of over 2 million. Findings: We demonstrated a seroprevalence SERO of 12% (51participants of 431). Of 48 seropositive individuals with full symptom data, nine (19%) were fully asymptomatic TRANS, and 16 (27%) were asymptomatic TRANS for core COVID-19 symptoms: fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP or anosmia HP. Specificity of anosmia HP for seropositivity was 95%, compared to 88% for fever MESHD fever HP cough MESHD cough HP and anosmia HP combined. 34 individuals in the cohort were predicted to be Covid-19 positive using the App algorithm, and of those, 18 (52%) were seropositive. Interpretation: Seroprevalence SERO amongst adults TRANS from London and South-East England was 12%, and 19% of seropositive individuals with prospective symptom logging were fully asymptomatic TRANS throughout the study. Anosmia HP demonstrated the highest symptom specificity for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO response. Funding: NIHR BRC, CDRF, ZOE global LTD, RST-UKRI/MRC

    Frequency and severity of Covid-19 in patients treated with biological Disease MESHD Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (bDMARDs) for inflammatory rheumatic disease MESHD. A case-control study

    Authors: Dr. Anne LOHSE; Dr. Marie BOSSERT; Dr. Ana-Maria BOZGAN; Charlotte BOURGOIN; Dr. Aline CHARPENTIER; Dr. Cerise GUILLOCHON; Dr. Julie KESSLER; Dr. Jean-Charles BALBLANC; Dr. Thierry CONROZIER

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact (frequency and severity) of Covid-19 on patients treated with biological Disease MESHD Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (bDMARDs) for inflammatory rheumatic disease MESHD and to compare it to a control group consisting of patients with musculoskeletal conditions not treated with bDMARDs.Patients and methods:A case control study in 200 outpatients with musculoskeletal conditions. 100 consecutive patients who have been treated with bDMARDs and 100 other consecutive patients who did not take bDMARDs were asked to complete a 15-item standardized questionnaire regarding demographic data. The following information was recorded: gender TRANS, age TRANS, weight, height, body mass index, professional activity, family status, total number of children TRANS and number of children TRANS under 18, rheumatic disease MESHD diagnosis, current treatment for rheumatism, type of containment, close contact TRANS with Covid-19 patients, Covid-19 symptoms, Covid-19 test result and hospitalization for Covid-19.Results:bDMARD patients mostly suffered from rheumatoid arthritis MESHD rheumatoid arthritis HP, or RA, (47%) and ankylosing spondylitis MESHD (42%). The most prescribed bDMARDs were TNFα inhibitors (57%), IL-6 blockers (12%) and JAK inhibitors (11%). The mean duration of the current biological treatment was 38.6 months. Patients from the control group were suffering chiefly from osteoarthritis MESHD osteoarthritis HP (45%) and RA (21%). Compared to the control group, patients treated with bDMARDs were 10 years younger (p<0.001), fewer were retired (56% versus 31%) and more were on sick or incapacity leave (6% versus 18%). During lockdown, they were more likely to be working from home or working short term (27% versus 9%). 18 patients from the bDMARDs group stopped biological treatment: one because of Covid-19 evidenced by PCR, 11 because of symptoms suggesting Covid- 19 and only six from fear of contracting the disease MESHD. 12 patients, including the one Sars-CoV-2 +, resumed their treatment after a few weeks of interruption. There was no severe Covid-19 infection MESHD in the bDMARDs group. Among the three patients from the control group who had contracted Covid-19, one developed a very severe disease MESHD.Conclusion :This case-control study did not show an increase in the frequency or severity of Covid-19 in subjects suffering from chronic inflammatory rheumatism treated with biotherapies. Larger-scale studies are necessary before affirming that biologics do not expose patients to an increased risk of disease MESHD and complications.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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