Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Cough (265)

Infections (260)

Fever (220)

Disease (130)

Coronavirus Infections (81)


Human Phenotype

Cough (265)

Fever (220)

Fatigue (66)

Pneumonia (65)

Dyspnea (41)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 265
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    Turbulence dictates the fate of virus-containing liquid droplets in violent expiratory events

    Authors: Marco E. Rosti; Mattia Cavaiola; Stefano Olivieri; Agnese Seminara; Andrea Mazzino

    id:2008.05119v1 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: arXiv

    Violent expiratory events, such as coughing MESHD coughing HP and sneezing MESHD sneezing HP, are highly nontrivial examples of two-phase mixture of liquid droplets dispersed into an unsteady humid turbulent fluid phase. Understanding the physical mechanisms determining the fate of droplets is becoming a priority given the global COVID-19 emergency MESHD caused by the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. By means of state-of-the-art fully resolved direct numerical simulations we contribute to solve this issue by identifying the key role of turbulence on the fate of exhaled droplets. Our results impact the current notion of social distance.

    Extended lifetime of respiratory droplets in a turbulent vapour puff and its implications on airborne disease MESHD transmission TRANS

    Authors: Kai Leong Chong; Chong Shen Ng; Naoki Hori; Rui Yang; Roberto Verzicco; Detlef Lohse

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168468 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    To mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic, it is key to slow down the spreading of the life-threatening coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). This spreading mainly occurs through virus-laden droplets expelled at speaking, screaming, shouting, singing, coughing MESHD coughing HP, sneezing MESHD sneezing HP, or even breathing [1-7]. To reduce infections MESHD through such respiratory droplets, authorities all over the world have introduced the so-called "2-meter distance rule" or "6-foot rule". However, there is increasing empirical evidence, e.g. through the analysis of super-spreading events [6, 8-11], that airborne transmission TRANS of the coronavirus over much larger distances plays a major role [1-3, 7, 12-15], with tremendous implications for the risk assessment of coronavirus transmission TRANS. It is key to better and fundamentally understand the environmental ambient conditions under which airborne transmission TRANS of the coronavirus is likely to occur, in order to be able to control and adapt them. Here we employ direct numerical simulations of a typical respiratory aerosol in a turbulent jet of the respiratory event within a Lagrangian-Eulerian approach [16-18] with 5000 droplets, coupled to the ambient velocity, temperature, and humidity fields to allow for exchange of mass and heat [19] and to realistically account for the droplet evaporation under different ambient conditions. We found that for an ambient relative humidity of 50% the lifetime of the smallest droplets of our study with initial diameter of 10 m gets extended by a factor of more than 30 as compared to what is suggested by the classical picture of Wells [20, 21], due to collective effects during droplet evaporation and the role of the respiratory humidity [22], while the larger droplets basically behave ballistically. With increasing ambient relative humidity the extension of the lifetimes of the small droplets further increases and goes up to 150 times for 90% relative humidity, implying more than two meters advection range of the respiratory droplets within one second. Smaller droplets live even longer and travel TRANS further. Our results may explain why COVID-19 superspreading events can occur for large ambient relative humidity such as in cooled-down meat-processing plants [10] or in pubs with poor ventilation. We anticipate our tool and approach to be starting points for larger parameter studies and for optimizing ventilation and indoor humidity controlling concepts, which in the upcoming autumn and winter both will be key in mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Testing for SARS-CoV-2 in care home staff and residents in English care homes: A service evaluation

    Authors: Emma Smith; Clare F Aldus; Julii Brainard; Sharon Dunham; Paul R Hunter; Nicholas Steel; Paul Everden

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20165928 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background COVID-19 has especially affected care home residents. Aim To evaluate a nurse-led Enhanced Care Home Team (ECHT) enhanced SARS-CoV-2 testing strategy. Design and setting Service evaluation in care homes in Norfolk UK. Method Residents and staff received nose and throat swab tests (7 April to 29 June 2020). Resident test results were linked with symptoms on days 0-14 after test and mortality to 13 July 2020. Results Residents (n=518) in 44 homes and staff (n=340) in 10 care homes were tested. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was identified in 103 residents in 14 homes and 49 staff in seven homes. Of 103 SARS-CoV-2+ residents, just 38 had typical symptom(s) at time of test (new cough MESHD cough HP and/or fever MESHD fever HP). Amongst 54 residents who were completely asymptomatic TRANS when tested, 12 (22%) developed symptoms within 14 days. Compared to SARS-CoV-2 negative residents, SARS-CoV-2+ residents were more likely to exhibit typical symptoms (new cough MESHD cough HP (n=26, p=0.001); fever MESHD fever HP (n=24, p=<0.001)) or as generally-unwell (n=18, p=0.001). Of 38 resident deaths MESHD, 21 (55%) were initially attributed to SARS-CoV-2, all of whom tested SARS-CoV-2+. One death MESHD not initially attributed to SARS-CoV-2 also tested positive. Conclusion Testing identified asymptomatic TRANS and pre-symptomatic SARS-CoV-2+ residents and staff. Being generally-unwell was common amongst symptomatic residents and may indicate SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in older people in the absence of more typical symptoms. Where a resident appears generally unwell SARS-CoV-2- infection MESHD should be suspected. Protocols for testing involved integrated health and social care teams.

    SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence SERO Across a Diverse Cohort of Healthcare Workers

    Authors: Joseph Ebinger; Gregory J. Botwin; Christine M. Albert; Mona Alotaibi; Moshe Arditi; Anders H. Berg; Aleksandra Binek; Patrick G. Botting; Justyna Fert-Bober; Jane C. Figueiredo; Jonathan D. Grein; Wohaib Hasan; Mir Henglin; Shehnaz K. Hussain; Mohit Jain; Sandy Joung; Michael Karin; Elizabeth H Kim; Dalin Li; Yunxian Liu; Eric Luong; Dermot P.B. McGovern; Akil Merchant; Noah M. Merin; Peggy B. Miles; Margo Minissian; Trevor-Trung Nguyen; Koen Raedschelders; Mohamad A. Rashid; Celine E. Riera; Richard V. Riggs; Sonia Sharma; Sarah Sternbach; Nancy Sun; Warren G. Tourtellotte; Jennifer E. Van Eyk; Kimia Sobhani; Jonathan G. Braun; Susan Cheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20163055 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Antibody testing SERO is important for understanding patterns of exposure and potential immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Prior data on seroprevalence SERO have been subject to variations in selection of individuals and nature as well as timing of testing in relation to exposures. Objective: We sought to determine the extent of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalance and the factors associated with seroprevelance across a diverse cohort of healthcare workers. Design: Observational cohort study of healthcare workers, including SARS-CoV-2 serology testing and participant questionaires. Participants: A diverse and unselected population of adults TRANS (n=6,062) employed in a multi-site healthcare delivery system located in Los Angeles County, including individuals with direct patient contact and others with non-patient-oriented work functions. Exposure: Exposure and infection MESHD with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, as determined by seropositivity. Main Outcomes: Using Bayesian and multi-variate analyses, we estimated seroprevalence SERO and factors associated with seropositivity and antibody SERO titers, including pre-existing demographic and clinical characteristics; potential Covid-19 illness related exposures; and, symptoms consistent with Covid-19 infection MESHD. Results: We observed a seroprevalence SERO rate of 4.1%, with anosmia HP as the most prominently associated self-reported symptom in addition to fever MESHD fever HP, dry cough MESHD cough HP, anorexia MESHD anorexia HP, and myalgias MESHD myalgias HP. After adjusting for potential confounders, pre-existing medical conditions were not associated with antibody SERO positivity. However, seroprevalence SERO was associated with younger age TRANS, Hispanic ethnicity, and African-American race, as well as presence of either a personal or household member having a prior diagnosis of Covid-19. Importantly, African American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with antibody SERO positivity even after adjusting for personal Covid-19 diagnosis status, suggesting the contribution of unmeasured structural or societally factors. Notably, number of people, or children TRANS, in the home was not associated with antibody SERO positivity. Conclusion and Relevance: The demographic factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO among our healthcare workers underscore the importance of exposure sources beyond the workplace. The size and diversity of our study population, combined with robust survey and modeling techniques, provide a vibrant picture of the demographic factors, exposures, and symptoms that can identify individuals with susceptibility as well as potential to mount an immune response to Covid-19.

    Risk stratification as a tool to rationalize quarantine among health care workers exposed to COVID-19 cases - Evidence from a tertiary healthcare centre in India

    Authors: Ravneet Kaur; Shashi Kant; Mohan Bairwa; Arvind Kumar; Shivram Dhakad; Vignesh Dwarakanathan; Aftab Ahmad; Pooja Pandey; Arti Kapil; Rakesh Lodha; Naveet Wig

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166264 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Quarantine of healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to COVID 19 confirmed cases TRANS is a well known strategy for limiting the transmission TRANS of infection MESHD. However, there is a need for evidence-based guidelines for the quarantine of HCWs in COVID 19. Methods: We describe our experience of contact tracing TRANS and risk stratification of 3853 HCWs who were exposed to confirmed COVID-19 cases in a tertiary health care institution in India. We developed an algorithm, on the basis of risk stratification, to rationalize quarantine among HCWs. Risk stratification was based on the duration of exposure, distance from the patient, and appropriateness of personal protection equipment (PPE) usage. Only high-risk contacts were quarantined for 14 days. They underwent testing for COVID 19 after five days of exposure, while low risk contacts continued their work with adherence to physical distancing, hand hygiene, and appropriate use of PPE. The low-risk contacts were encouraged to monitor for symptoms and report for COVID 19 screening if fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, or shortness of breath occurred. We followed up all contacts for 14 days from the last exposure and observed for symptoms of COVID 19 and test positivity. Results and interpretation: Out of total 3853 contacts, 560 (14.5%) were categorized as high-risk contacts, and 40 of them were detected positive for COVID 19, with a test positivity rate of 7.1% (95% CI = 5.2, 9.6). Overall, 118 (3.1%) of all contacts tested positive. Our strategy prevented 3215 HCWs from being quarantined and saved 45,010 person-days of health workforce until June 8, 2020, in the institution. We conclude that exposure-based risk stratification and quarantine of HCWs is a viable strategy to prevent unnecessary quarantine, in a healthcare institution.

    COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates by Identification of B and T Cell Multi-Epitopes Against SARS-COV-2

    Authors: Suresh Kumar; Sarmilah Mathavan; Wee Jia Jin; Nur Azznira Bt Azman; Devindren Subramanaiam; Nur Afiqah Binti Zainalabidin; Dhivashini Lingadaran; Zainah Binti Abdul Sattar; Danniya Lakshmi Manickam; Priscilla Sheba Anbananthan; Johan Ahmad Taqiyuddin; Yuvapriya Thevarajan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0092.v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: Preprints.org

    Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is a new discovered strain where WHO officially declares the disease MESHD as COVID-19 while the virus responsible for it called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2. The incubation period TRANS of this disease MESHD is between 14 days. Ordinary clinical symptoms that reported around the world include fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, diarrhoea and vomiting MESHD vomiting HP as well as asymptomatic TRANS for certain people. Infection MESHD is spread mainly through broad droplets. In early March 2020, WHO again has announced that COVID-19 is a pandemic with currently no specific treatment. The potential use of SARS-COV-2 proteome as a vaccine candidate by analysing through B-cell and T-cell antigenicity by using a immunoinformatics approach as a vaccine development early stage. In this study, we used consensus sequence for SARS-COV-2 proteome that was retrieved from NCBI database. VaxiJen 2.0 was mainly used to identify the antigenic property of SARS-COV-2 proteins. IEDB then used to analyse the B-cell epitope, the presence of T cell immunogenic epitope in SARS-COV-2 proteins was obtained by using compromise method of MHC class I and II tools that accessible respectively using ProPred-1 server and MHC II Binding Prediction in IEDB database. The best epitopes of B and T-cell epitopes were predicted with high antigencity and the information is disseminated through web-based database resource (https://covid-19.omicstutorials.com/epitopes/). This study will be useful to find a new epitope-based candidate for SARS-COV-2. However, further study needs to be done for the next stages of vaccine development.

    Extended lifetime of respiratory droplets in a turbulent vapour puff and its implications on airborne disease MESHD transmission TRANS

    Authors: Kai Leong Chong; Chong Shen Ng; Naoki Hori; Rui Yang; Roberto Verzicco; Detlef Lohse

    id:2008.01841v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: arXiv

    To mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic, it is key to slow down the spreading of the life-threatening coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). This spreading mainly occurs through virus-laden droplets expelled at speaking, coughing MESHD coughing HP, sneezing MESHD sneezing HP, or even breathing. To reduce infections MESHD through such respiratory droplets, authorities all over the world have introduced the so-called "2-meter distance rule" or "6-foot rule". However, there is increasing empirical evidence, e.g. through the analysis of super-spreading events, that airborne transmission TRANS of the coronavirus over much larger distances plays a major role with tremendous implications for the risk assessment of coronavirus transmission TRANS. Here we employ direct numerical simulations of a typical respiratory aerosol in a turbulent jet of the respiratory event within a Lagrangian-Eulerian approach with 5000 droplets, coupled to the ambient velocity, temperature, and humidity fields to allow for exchange of mass and heat and to realistically account for the droplet evaporation under different ambient conditions. We found that for an ambient relative humidity RH of 50% the lifetime of the smallest droplets of our study with initial diameter of 10 um gets extended by a factor of more than 30 as compared to what is suggested by the classical picture of Wells, due to collective effects during droplet evaporation and the role of the respiratory humidity, while the larger droplets basically behave ballistically. With increasing ambient RH the extension of the lifetimes of the small droplets further increases and goes up to 150 times for 90% RH, implying more than two meters advection range of the respiratory droplets within one second. Smaller droplets live even longer and travel TRANS further. Our results may explain why COVID-19 superspreading events can occur for large ambient RH such as in cooled-down meat-processing plants or in pubs with poor ventilation.

    Clinical Course and Management of 73 Hospitalized Moderate Patients with COVID-19 Outside Wuhan

    Authors: Xiaojuan Peng; Qi Liu; Zhaolin Chen; Guiyan Wen; Qing Li; Yanfang Chen; Jie Xiong; Xinzhou Meng; Yuanjin Ding; Ying Shi; Shaohui Tang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52239/v1 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Moderate cases account for the majority in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and can also progress to severe/critical condition. Here, we investigated the clinical course and management of hospitalized moderate SARS-CoV-2 patients.Methods: The medical records and follow-up data were analyzed from the SARS-CoV-2 patients outside Wuhan.Results: A total of 73 moderate patients (38 men, 35 women) were included, with median age TRANS of 47.0 (38.5-57.5) years. Among them, only one patient (1.4%) died using active treatment to improve symptoms. The median duration of the four main symptoms cough MESHD cough HP, fever MESHD fever HP, chest tightness HP, and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP were about 1-2 weeks; the median duration of the positive nucleic acid test (NAT) results for SARS-CoV-2 was slightly more than 2 weeks; the median hospitalization time was almost four weeks in 72 moderate survivors. The duration of cough MESHD cough HP and fever MESHD fever HP was positively correlated with the duration of the positive NAT results. On admission, 50% had lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP; less than 30% had abnormal blood SERO biochemistry findings involving hyperglycemia MESHD hyperglycemia HP, liver function and myocardial enzymes. At discharge, the laboratory indexes were substantially improved. Two weeks after discharge, 5.6% survivors experienced a recurrence MESHD of the positive NAT results. Conclusions: Moderate SARS-CoV-2 patients have a good prognosis by the active treatment. After discharge, it is necessary that moderate survivors undergo at least a 2-week collective medical observation in quarantine places, which can identify and treat a proportion of patients with re-positive NAT results and to prevent the spread of the potential sources of infection MESHD.

    Impact of Corticosteroids and Immunosuppressive Therapies on Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD in a Large Cohort of Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Arthritis MESHD Arthritis HP

    Authors: Ennio Giulio Favalli; Serena Bugatti; Catherine Klersy; Martina Biggioggero; Silvia Rossi; Orazio De Lucia; Francesca Bobbio-Pallavicini; Antonella Murgo; Silvia Balduzzi; Roberto Caporali; Carlomaurizio Montecucco

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51667/v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Prevalence SERO and outcomes of Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID)-19 in relation to immunomodulatory medications are still unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents on COVID-19 in a large cohort of patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis MESHD arthritis HP.Methods: The study was conducted in the arthritis MESHD arthritis HP outpatient clinic at two large Academic Hospitals in the COVID-19 most endemic area of Northern Italy (Lombardy). We circulated a cross-sectional survey exploring the prevalence SERO of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD-Coronavirus-2 nasopharyngeal swab positivity and the occurrence of acute respiratory illness ( fever MESHD fever HP and/or cough MESHD cough HP and/or dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP), administered face-to-face or by phone to consecutive patients from 25th February to 20th April 2020. COVID-19 cases were defined as confirmed or highly suspicious according to the World Health Organization criteria. The impact of medications on COVID-19 incidence was evaluated. Results: The study population included 2050 adults TRANS with chronic inflammatory arthritis MESHD arthritis HP receiving glucocorticoids, conventional-synthetic (cs), or targeted-synthetic/biological (ts/b) disease MESHD-modifying drugs (DMARDs). Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and highly suspicious infection MESHD were recorded in 1.1% and 1.4% of the population, respectively. Treatment with glucocorticoids was independently associated with increased risk of COVID-19 (adjusted OR [95% CI] ranging from 1.23 [1.04-1.44] to 3.20 [1.97-5.18] depending on the definition used). Conversely, patients treated with ts/bDMARDs were at reduced risk (adjusted OR ranging from 0.46 [0.18-1.21] to 0.47 [0.46-0.48]). No independent effects of csDMARDs were observed.Conclusions: During the COVID-19 outbreak, treatment with immunomodulatory medications appears safe. Conversely, glucocorticoids, even at low-dose, may confer increased risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD.Trial registration:  retrospectively registered

    Determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Italian healthcare workers: a multicenter study

    Authors: Paolo Boffetta; Francesco Violante; Paolo Durando; Giuseppe De Palma; Enrico Pira; Luigi Vimercati; Alfonso Cristaudo; Giancarlo Icardi; Emma Sala; Maurizio Coggiola; Silvio Tafuri; Vittorio Gattini; Pietro Apostoli; Giovanna Spatari; - Working Group on SARS-CoV-2 infection in Italian healthcare workers

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20158717 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Healthcare workers (HCW) are at increased risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, yet limited information is available on risk factors of infection MESHD. Methods. We pooled data on occupational surveillance of 10,654 HCW who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in six Italian centers. Information was available on demographics, job title, department of employment, source of exposure, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and COVID-19-related symptoms. We fitted multivariable logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Findings. The prevalence SERO of infection MESHD varied across centers and ranged from 3.0% to 22.0%, being strongly correlated with that of the respective areas. Women were at lower risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD compared to men. Fever MESHD Fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP and malaise were the symptoms most strongly associated with infection MESHD, together with anosmia HP and ageusia MESHD. No differences in the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD were detected between job titles, or working in a COVID-19 designated department. Reported contact with a patient inside or outside the workplace was a risk factor. Use of a mask was strongly protective against risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD as was use of gloves. The use of a mask by the source of exposure (patient or colleague) had an independent effect in reducing infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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