Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Infections (1129)

Disease (495)

Death (315)

Coronavirus Infections (254)

Fever (152)

Human Phenotype

Fever (153)

Pneumonia (144)

Cough (121)

Hypertension (106)

Respiratory distress (50)


age categories (1158)

gender (380)

Transmission (227)

asymptotic cases (138)

fomite (135)

    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 1167
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    Kinetics of viral clearance and antibody SERO production across age groups TRANS in SARS-CoV-2 infected children TRANS

    Authors: Burak Bahar; Cyril Jacquot; Yunchuan Delores Mo; Roberta DeBiasi; Meghan Delaney

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20162446 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To improve understanding of transition from viral infection MESHD to viral clearance, and antibody SERO response in pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Study design: This retrospective analysis of children TRANS tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR and IgG antibody SERO at a quaternary-care, free-standing pediatric hospital between March 13th, 2020 to June 21st, 2020 included 6369 patients who underwent PCR testing and 215 patients who underwent antibody testing SERO. During the initial study period, testing focused primarily on symptomatic children TRANS; the later study period included asymptomatic TRANS patients who underwent testing as preadmission or preprocedural screening. We report the proportion of positive and negative tests, time to viral clearance, and time to seropositivity. Results: The rate of positivity varied over time due to viral circulation in the community and transition from targeted testing of symptomatic patients to more universal screening of hospitalized patients. Median duration of viral shedding (RT-PCR positivity) was 19.5 days and RT-PCR negativity from positivity was 25 days. Of note, patients aged TRANS 6 to 15 years demonstrated a longer period of RT-PCR negativity from positivity, compared to patients aged TRANS 16 to 22 years (median=32 versus 18 days, p=0.015). Median time to seropositivity from RT-PCR positivity was 18 days while median time to reach adequate levels of neutralizing antibodies SERO (defined as equivalent to 160 titer) was 36 days. Conclusions: The majority of patients demonstrated a prolonged period of viral shedding after infection MESHD with SARS CoV-2. Whether this correlates with persistent infectivity is unknown. Only 17 of 33 patients demonstrated neutralizing antibodies SERO, suggesting that some patients may not mount significant immune responses to infection MESHD. It remains unknown if IgG antibody SERO production correlates with immunity and how long measurable antibodies SERO persist and protect against future infection MESHD.

    The effect of school closures and reopening strategies on COVID-19 infection MESHD dynamics in the San Francisco Bay Area: a cross-sectional survey and modeling analysis

    Authors: Jennifer R Head; Kristin Andrejko; Qu Cheng; Philip A Collender; Sophie Phillips; Anna Boser; Alexandra K Heaney; Christopher M Hoover; Sean L Wu; Graham R Northrup; Karen Click; Robert Harrison; Joseph A Lewnard; Justin V Remais

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169797 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background Large-scale school closures have been implemented worldwide to curb the spread of COVID-19. However, the impact of school closures and re-opening on epidemic dynamics remains unclear. Methods We simulated COVID-19 transmission TRANS dynamics using an individual-based stochastic model, incorporating social- contact data TRANS of school- aged TRANS children TRANS during shelter-in-place orders derived from Bay Area (California) household surveys. We simulated transmission TRANS under observed conditions and counterfactual intervention scenarios between March 17-June 1, and evaluated various fall HP 2020 K-12 reopening strategies. Findings Between March 17-June 1, assuming children TRANS <10 were half as susceptible to infection MESHD as older children TRANS and adults TRANS, we estimated school closures averted a similar number of infections MESHD (13,842 cases; 95% CI: 6,290, 23,040) as workplace closures (15,813; 95% CI: 9,963, 22,617) and social distancing measures (7,030; 95% CI: 3,118, 11,676). School closure effects were driven by high school and middle school closures. Under assumptions of moderate community transmission TRANS, we estimate that fall HP 2020 school reopenings will increase symptomatic illness among high school teachers (an additional 40.7% expected to experience symptomatic infection MESHD, 95% CI: 1.9, 61.1), middle school teachers (37.2%, 95% CI: 4.6, 58.1), and elementary school teachers (4.1%, 95% CI: -1.7, 12.0). Results are highly dependent on uncertain parameters, notably the relative susceptibility and infectiousness of children TRANS, and extent of community transmission TRANS amid re-opening. The school-based interventions needed to reduce the risk to fewer than an additional 1% of teachers infected varies by grade level. A hybrid-learning approach with halved class sizes of 10 students may be needed in high schools, while maintaining small cohorts of 20 students may be needed for elementary schools. Interpretation Multiple in-school intervention strategies and community transmission TRANS reductions, beyond the extent achieved to date, will be necessary to avoid undue excess risk associated with school reopening. Policymakers must urgently enact policies that curb community transmission TRANS and implement within-school control measures to simultaneously address the tandem health crises posed by COVID-19 and adverse child TRANS health and development consequences of long-term school closures.

    Association of mental disorders with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe health outcomes: a nationwide cohort study

    Authors: Ha-Lim Jeon; Jun Soo Kwon; So-Hee Park; Ju-Young Shin

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20169201 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: No epidemiological data exists for the association between mental disorders and the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) severity. Aims: To evaluate the association between mental disorders and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe outcomes following COVID-19. Methods: We performed a cohort study using the Korean COVID-19 patient database based on the national health insurance data. Each patient with a mental or behavioral disorder (diagnosed during six months prior to the first SARS-CoV-2 test) was matched by age TRANS, sex, and Charlson comorbidity index with up to four patients without mental disorders. SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk and risk of death MESHD or severe events (intensive care unit admission, use of mechanical ventilation, and acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD) post- infection MESHD were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 230,565 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2, 33,653 (14.6%) had mental disorders, 928/33,653 (2.76%) tested positive, and 56/928 (6.03%) died. In multivariate analysis with the matched cohort, there was no association between mental disorders and SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.12); however, a higher risk was associated with schizophrenia HP-related disorders (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81). Among confirmed cases TRANS, mortality risk significantly increased in patients with mental disorders (OR, 1.84, 95% CI, 1.07-3.15). Conclusion: Mental disorders are likely contributing factors of mortality following COVID-19. Although the infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk did not increase in overall mental disorders, patients with schizophrenia HP-related disorders were more vulnerable to the infection MESHD.

    Genetic and Phenotypic Evidence for the Causal Relationship Between Aging and COVID-19

    Authors: Kejun Ying; Ranran Zhai; Timothy V Pyrkov; Marco Mariotti; Peter O Fedichev; Xia Shen; Vadim N Gladyshev

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169854 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that the elderly TRANS and those with co-morbidities are most susceptible to COVID-19. To understand the genetic link between aging and the risk of COVID-19, we conducted a multi-instrument Mendelian randomization analysis and found that the genetic variation that leads to a longer lifespan is significantly associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 infection MESHD. The odds ratio is 0.32 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.57; P = 1.3 x 10-4) per additional 10 years of life, and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.51 to 0.77; P = 7.2 x 10-6) per unit higher log odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age TRANS. On the other hand, there was no association between COVID-19 susceptibility and healthspan (the lifespan free of the top seven age TRANS-related morbidities). To examine the relationship at the phenotypic level, we applied various biological aging clock models and detected an association between the biological age TRANS acceleration and future incidence and severity of COVID-19 infection MESHD for all subjects as well as for the individuals free of chronic disease MESHD. Biological age TRANS acceleration was also significantly associated with the risk of death MESHD in COVID-19 patients. Our findings suggest a causal relationship between aging and COVID-19, defined by genetic variance, the rate of aging, and the burden of chronic diseases MESHD.

    Age TRANS disaggregation of crude excess deaths MESHD during the 2020 spring COVID-19 outbreak in Spain and Netherlands

    Authors: Jose Maria Martin-Olalla

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169326 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Spanish and Dutch official records of mortality and population during the 21st century are analyzed to determine the age TRANS specific crude death MESHD rate in the 2020 spring COVID-19 outbreak. Excess death MESHD rate increases exponentially with age TRANS showing a doubling time [5.0,5.6]a (Spain) and [3.9,6.7]a (Netherlands), roughing doubling every five years of increase in age TRANS.The effective infection MESHD fatality rate in Spain also shows this doubling time. Statistically significant mortality increase is noted above 45a (Spain) and 60a (Netherlands). A statistically significant increase of mortality is also noted in Spain for the youngest age group TRANS.

    Pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders and risk of COVID-19: a cohort analysis in the UK Biobank

    Authors: Huazhen Yang; Wenwen Chen; Yao Hu; Yilong Chen; Yu Zeng; Yajing Sun; Zhiye Ying; Junhui He; Yuanyuan Qu; Donghao Lu; Fang Fang; Unnur A Valdimarsdóttir; Huan Song

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20169847 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To determine the association between pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders and the risk of COVID-19. Design Community-based prospective cohort study. Setting UK Biobank population. Participants 421,048 participants who were recruited in England and alive by January 31st 2020, i.e., the start of COVID-19 outbreak in the UK. 50,815 individuals with psychiatric disorders recorded in the UK Biobank inpatient hospital data before the outbreak were included in the exposed group, while 370,233 participants without such conditions were in the unexposed group. Measurements We obtained information on positive results of COVID-19 test as registered in the Public Health England, COVID-19 related hospitalizations in the UK Biobank inpatient hospital data, and COIVD-19 related deaths MESHD from the death MESHD registers. We also identified individuals who was hospitalized for infections MESHD other than COVID-19 during the follow-up. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), controlling for multiple confounders. Results The mean age TRANS at outbreak was 67.8 years and around 43% of the study participants were male TRANS. We observed an elevated risk of COVID-19 among individuals with pre-pandemic psychiatric disorder, compared with those without such diagnoses. The fully adjusted ORs were 1.44 (95%CI 1.27 to 1.64), 1.67 (1.42 to 1.98), and 2.03 (1.56 to 2.63) for any COVID-19, inpatient COVID-19, COVID-19 related death MESHD, respectively. The excess risk was observed across all levels of somatic comorbidities and subtypes of pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders, while further increased with greater number of pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders. We also observed an association between pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders and increased risk of hospitalization for other infections MESHD (1.85 [1.65 to 2.07]). Conclusions Pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk of COVID-19, especially severe and fatal COVID-19. The similar association observed for hospitalization for other infections MESHD suggests a shared pathway between psychiatric disorders and different infections MESHD, including altered immune responses.

    Clinical and intestinal histopathological findings in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 patients with hematochezia HP

    Authors: Margaret Cho; Weiguo Liu; Sophie Balzora; Yvelisse Suarez; Deepthi Hoskoppal; Neil D Theise; Wenqing Cao; Suparna A Sarkar

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164558 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 in the form of anorexia MESHD anorexia HP, nausea MESHD nausea, vomiting HP, vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP are usually preceeded by respiratory manifestations and are associated with a poor prognosis. Hematochezia HP is an uncommon clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease MESHD and we hypothesize that older patients with significant comorbidites ( obesity MESHD obesity HP and cardiovascular) and prolonged hospitalization are suspectible to ischemic injury to the bowel. We reviewed the clinical course, key laboratory data including acute phase reactants, drug/medication history in two elderly TRANS male TRANS patients admitted for COVID-19 respiratory failure HP. Both patients had a complicated clinical course and suffered from hematochezia HP and acute blood SERO loss anemia MESHD anemia HP requiring blood SERO transfusion around day 40 of their hospitalization. Colonoscopic impressions were correlated with the histopathological findings in the colonic biopies and changes compatible with ischemia MESHD to nonspecific acute inflammation MESHD, edema MESHD edema HP and increased eosinophils in the lamina propria were noted.Both patients were on anticoagulants, multiple antibiotics and antifungal agents due to respiratory infections MESHD at the time of lower GI bleeding. Hematochezia HP resolved spontaneously with supportive care. Both patients eventually recovered and were discharged. Elderly TRANS patients with significant comorbid conditions are uniquely at risk for ischemic injury to the bowel. Hypoxic conditions due to COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and respiratory failure HP, compounded by preexisting cardiovascular complications, and/or cytokine storm orchestrated by the viral infection MESHD leading to alteration in coagulation profile and/or drug/medication injury can be difficult to distinguish in these critically ill patients. Presentation of hematochezia HP may further increase the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 patients, and prompt consultation and management by gastroenterology is therefore warranted.

    SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD fatality risk in a nationwide seroepidemiological study

    Authors: Roberto Pastor-Barriuso; Beatriz Perez-Gomez; Miguel A Hernan; Mayte Perez-Olmeda; Raquel Yotti; Jesus Oteo; Jose Luis Sanmartin; Inmaculada Leon-Gomez; Aurora Fernandez-Garcia; Pablo Fernandez-Navarro; Israel Cruz; Mariano Martin; Concepcion Delgado-Sanz; Nerea Fernandez de Larrea; Jose Leon Paniagua; Juan Fernando Munoz-Montalvo; Faustino Blanco; Amparo Larrauri; Marina Pollan; Marina Pollan

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169722 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    The magnitude of the infection MESHD fatality risk (IFR) of SARS-CoV-2 remains under debate. Because the IFR is the number of deaths MESHD divided by the number of infected, serological studies are needed to identify asymptomatic TRANS and mild cases. Also, because ascertainment of deaths MESHD attributable to COVID-19 is often incomplete, the calculation of the IFR needs to be complemented with data on excess mortality. We used data from a nation-wide seroepidemiological study and two sources of mortality information - deaths MESHD among laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and excess deaths MESHD- to estimate the range of IFR, both overall and by age TRANS and sex, in Spain. The overall IFR ranged between 1.1% and 1.4% in men and 0.58% to 0.77% in women. The IFR increased sharply after age TRANS 50, ranging between 11.6% and 16.4% in men [≥]80 years and between 4.6% and 6.5% in women [≥]80 years. Our IFR estimates for SARS-CoV-2 are substantially greater than IFR estimators for seasonal influenza, justifying the implementation of special public health measures.

    CRISPR-based and RT-qPCR surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic TRANS individuals uncovers a shift in viral prevalence SERO among a university population

    Authors: Jennifer N Rauch; Eric Valois; Jose Carlos Ponce-Rojas; Zach Aralis; Ryan L Lach; Francesca Zappa; Morgane Audouard; Sabrina C Solley; Chinmay Vaidya; Michael Costello; Holly Smith; Ali Javanbakht; Betsy Malear; Laura Polito; Stewart Comer; Katherine Arn; Kenneth S Kosik; Diego Acosta-Alvear; Maxwell Z Wilson; Lynn Fitzgibbons; Carolina Arias

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169771 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The progress of the COVID-19 pandemic profoundly impacts the health of communities around the world, with unique impacts on colleges and universities. Transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 by asymptomatic TRANS people is thought to be the underlying cause of a large proportion of new infections MESHD. However, the local prevalence SERO of asymptomatic TRANS and pre-symptomatic carriers TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 is influenced by local public health restrictions and the community setting. Objectives: This study has three main objectives. First, we looked to establish the prevalence SERO of asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on a university campus in California. Second, we sought to assess the changes in viral prevalence SERO associated with the shifting community conditions related to non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Third, we aimed to compare the performance SERO of CRISPR- and PCR-based assays for large-scale virus surveillance sampling in COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS persons. Methods: We enrolled 1,808 asymptomatic TRANS persons for self-collection of oropharyngeal (OP) samples to undergo SARS-CoV-2 testing. We compared viral prevalence SERO in samples obtained in two time periods: May 28th-June 11th; June 23rd-July 2nd. We detected viral genomes in these samples using two assays: CREST, a CRISPR-based method recently developed at UCSB, and the RT-qPCR test recommended by US Centers for Disease MESHD Control and Prevention (CDC). Results: Of the 1,808 participants, 1,805 were affiliates of the University of California, Santa Barbara, and 1,306 were students. None of the tests performed on the 732 samples collected between late May to early June were positive. In contrast, tests performed on the 1076 samples collected between late June to early July, revealed nine positive cases. This change in prevalence SERO met statistical significance, p = 0.013. One sample was positive by RT-qPCR at the threshold of detection, but negative by both CREST and CLIA-confirmation testing. With this single exception, there was perfect concordance in both positive and negative results obtained by RT-qPCR and CREST. The estimated prevalence SERO of the virus, calculated using the confirmed cases TRANS, was 0.74%. The average age TRANS of our sample population was 28.33 (18-75) years, and the average age TRANS of the positive cases was 21.7 years (19-30). Conclusions: Our study revealed that there were no COVID-19 cases in our study population in May/June. Using the same methods, we demonstrated a substantial shift in prevalence SERO approximately one month later, which coincided with changes in community restrictions and public interactions. This increase in prevalence SERO, in a young and asymptomatic TRANS population which would not have otherwise accessed COVID-19 testing, indicated the leading wave of a local outbreak, and coincided with rising case counts in the surrounding county and the state of California. Our results substantiate that large, population-level asymptomatic TRANS screening using self-collection may be a feasible and instructive aspect of the public health approach within large campus communities, and the almost perfect concordance between CRISPR- and PCR-based assays indicate expanded options for surveillance testing

    Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 among high-risk populations in Lomé (Togo) in 2020

    Authors: Wemboo Afiwa Halatoko; Yao Rodion KONU; Fifonsi Adjidossi Gbeasor-Komlanvi; Arnold Junior Sadio; Martin Kouame Tchankoni; Koffi Segbeaya Komlanvi; Mounerou Salou; Ameyo Monique Dorkenoo; Issaka Maman; Ametepe Agbobli; Majeste Ihou Wateba; Komi Seraphin Adjoh; Edem Goeh Akue; Yem-bla Kao; Innocent Kpeto; Paul Pana; Rebecca Kinde-Sossou; Agbeko Tamakloe; Josee Nayo-Apetsianyi; Simon-Pierre Hamadi Assane; Mireille Prince-David; Sossinou Marcel Awoussi; Mohaman Djibril; Moustafa Mijiyawa; Anoumou Claver Dagnra; Didier Koumavi Ekouevi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20163840 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: This survey aims at estimating the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in high risk populations in Lomé. Methods: From April 23rd to May 8th 2020, we recruited a sample of participants from five sectors: healthcare, air transport, police, road transport and informal. We collected oropharyngeal swab for direct detection through real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), and blood SERO for antibodies SERO detection by serological tests SERO. The overall prevalence SERO (current and past) of infection MESHD was defined by positivity for both tests. Results: A total of 955 participants with a median age TRANS of 36 (IQR 32-43) were included and 71.6% (n=684) were men. Around 22.1% (n=212) were from the air transport sector, 20.5% (n=196) in the police, and 38.7% (n=370) in the health sector. Seven participants (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.3-1.6%) had a positive rRT-PCR at the time of recruitment and nine (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.4-1.8%) were seropositive for IgM or IgG against SARS-CoV-2. We found an overall prevalence SERO of 1.6% (n=15), 95% CI: 0.9-2.6%. Conclusion: The prevalence SERO of the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among high-risk populations in Lomé was relatively low and could be explained by the various measures taken by the Togolese government. Therefore, we recommend targeted screening.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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