Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (459)

Disease (217)

Coronavirus Infections (120)

Death (102)

Fever (92)


Human Phenotype

Fever (92)

Cough (77)

Hypertension (64)

Pneumonia (64)

Fatigue (28)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 472
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    Estrogen and COVID-19 symptoms: associations in women from the COVID Symptom Study

    Authors: Ricardo Costeira; Karla A Lee; Benjamin Murray; Colette Christiansen; Juan Castillo-Fernandez; Mary Ni Lochlainn; Joan Capdevila Pujol; Iain Buchan; Louise C Kenny; Jonathan Wolf; Sebastien Ourselin; Claire Steves; Timothy Spector; Louise Newson; Jordana Bell

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164921 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Men and older women have been shown to be at higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Animal model studies of SARS-CoV and MERS suggest that the age TRANS and sex difference in COVID-19 symptom severity may be due to a protective effect of the female TRANS sex hormone estrogen. Females TRANS have shown an ability to mount a stronger immune response to a variety of viral infections MESHD because of more robust humoral and cellular immune responses. Objectives: We sought to determine whether COVID-19 positivity increases in women entering menopause. We also aimed to identify whether premenopausal women taking exogenous hormones in the form of the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) and post-menopausal women taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have lower predicted rates of COVID-19, using our published symptom-based model. Design: The COVID Symptom Study developed by Kings College London and Zoe Global Limited was launched in the UK on 24th March 2020. It captured self-reported information related to COVID-19 symptoms. Data used for this study included records collected between 7th May - 15th June 2020. Main outcome measures: We investigated links between COVID-19 rates and 1) menopausal status, 2) COCP use and 3) HRT use, using symptom-based predicted COVID-19, tested COVID-19, and disease MESHD severity based on requirement for hospital attendance or respiratory support. Participants: Female TRANS users of the COVID Symptom Tracker Application in the UK, including 152,637 women for menopause status, 295,689 for COCP use, and 151,193 for HRT use. Analyses were adjusted for age TRANS, smoking and BMI. Results: Post-menopausal women aged TRANS 40-60 years had a higher rate of predicted COVID (P=0.003) and a corresponding range of symptoms, with consistent, but not significant trends observed for tested COVID-19 and disease MESHD severity. Women aged TRANS 18-45 years taking COCP had a significantly lower predicted COVID-19 (P=8.03E-05), with a reduction in hospital attendance (P=0.023). Post-menopausal women using HRT or hormonal therapies did not exhibit consistent associations, including increased rates of predicted COVID-19 (P=2.22E-05) for HRT users alone. Conclusions: Our findings support a protective effect of estrogen on COVID-19, based on positive association between predicted COVID-19 and menopausal status, and a negative association with COCP use. HRT use was positively associated with COVID-19 symptoms; however, the results should be considered with caution due to lack of data on HRT type, route of administration, duration of treatment, and potential comorbidities. Trial registration: The App Ethics has been approved by KCL ethics Committee REMAS ID 18210, review reference LRS-19/20-18210

    Regional now- and forecasting for data reported with delay: A case study in COVID-19 infections MESHD

    Authors: Giacomo De Nicola; Marc Schneble; Göran Kauermann; Ursula Berger

    id:2007.16058v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: arXiv

    Governments around the world continue to act to contain and mitigate the spread of COVID-19. The rapidly evolving situation compels officials and executives to continuously adapt policies and social distancing measures depending on the current state of the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD. In this context, it is crucial for policymakers to have a firm grasp on what the current state of the pandemic is as well as to have an idea of how the infective situation is going to unfold in the next days. However, as in many other situations of compulsorily-notifiable diseases MESHD and beyond, cases are reported with delay to a central register, with this delay deferring an up-to-date view of the state of things. We provide a stable tool for monitoring current infection MESHD levels as well as predicting infection MESHD numbers in the immediate future at the regional level. We accomplish this through nowcasting of cases that have not yet been reported as well as through forecasting of future infections MESHD. The two steps are also combined in forenowcasting. We apply our model to German data, for which our focus lies in explaining and predicting infectious behaviour by district, age group TRANS and gender TRANS.

    Persistent fatigue MESHD fatigue HP following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is common and independent of severity of initial infection MESHD

    Authors: Liam Townsend; Adam H Dyer; Karen Jones; Jean Dunne; Rachel Kiersey; Fiona Gaffney; Laura O'Connor; Aoife Mooney; Deirdre Leavy; Katie Ridge; Catherine King; Fionnuala Cox; Kate O'Brien; Joanne Dowds; Jamie Sugrue; David Hopkins; Patricia Byrne; Tara Kingston; Cliona Ni Cheallaigh; Parthiban Nadarajan; Anne Marie McLaughlin; Nollaig M Bourke; Colm Bergin; Cliona O'Farrelly; Ciaran Bannan; Niall Conlon

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164293 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Fatigue MESHD Fatigue HP is a common symptom in those presenting with symptomatic COVID-19 infection MESHD. However, it is unknown if COVID-19 results in persistent fatigue MESHD fatigue HP in those recovered from acute infection MESHD. We examined the prevalence SERO of fatigue MESHD fatigue HP in individuals recovered from the acute phase of COVID-19 illness using the Chalder Fatigue MESHD Fatigue HP Score (CFQ-11). We further examined potential predictors of fatigue MESHD fatigue HP following COVID-19 infection MESHD, evaluating indicators of COVID-19 severity, markers of peripheral immune activation and circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Of 128 participants (49.5 {+/-} 15 years; 54% female TRANS), more than half reported persistent fatigue MESHD fatigue HP (52.3%; 45/128) at 10 weeks (median) after initial COVID-19 symptoms. There was no association between COVID-19 severity (need for inpatient admission, supplemental oxygen or critical care) and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP following COVID-19. Additionally, there was no association between routine laboratory markers of inflammation MESHD and cell turnover (leukocyte, neutrophil or lymphocyte counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein) or pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-6 or sCD25) and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP post COVID-19. Female TRANS gender TRANS and those with a pre-existing diagnosis of depression/ anxiety HP were over-represented in those with fatigue MESHD fatigue HP. Our findings demonstrate a significant burden of post-viral fatigue MESHD fatigue HP in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD after the acute phase of COVID-19 illness. This study highlights the importance of assessing those recovering from COVID-19 for symptoms of severe fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, irrespective of severity of initial illness, and may identify a group worthy of further study and early intervention.

    Performance SERO of Abbott Architect, Ortho Vitros, and Euroimmun Assays in Detecting Prior SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Shiwani Mahajan; Carrie A Redlich; Adam V Wisnewski; Louis E Fazen; Lokinendi V Rao; Karthik Kuppusamy; Albert I Ko; Harlan M Krumholz

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164343 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Several serological assays SERO have been developed to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO, but evidence about their comparative performance SERO is limited. We sought to assess the sensitivity SERO of four anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays SERO ( ELISA SERO) in individuals with evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods: We obtained sera from 36 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD between March and May 2020. We evaluated samples collected at around 21 days ({+/-}14 days) after their initial PCR test using 3 commercially available ELISA assays SERO, two anti-spike (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics Vitros, and Euroimmun) and one anti-nucleocapsid (Abbott Architect), and a Yale-developed anti-spike ELISA SERO test. We determined the sensitivity SERO of the tests and compared their results. The Euroimmun and Yale ELISA SERO had an equivocal and indeterminate category, which were considered as both negative and positive. Results: Among the 36 individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, mean age TRANS was 43 ({+/-}13) years and 19 (53%) were female TRANS. The sensitivities SERO of the tests were not significantly different (Abbott Architect, Ortho Vitros, Euroimmmun, and Yale assays: 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71-95), 94% (95% CI, 81-99), 86% (95% CI, 71-95), and 94% (95% CI, 81-99), respectively; p-value=0.464). The sensitivities SERO of the Euroimmun and Yale ELISA SERO tests increased when the equivocal/indeterminate results were considered positive (97% [95% CI, 85-100] and 100% [95% CI, 90-100], respectively), but were not significantly different from other tests (p=0.082). The cross-correlation coefficient ranged from 0.85-0.98 between three anti-spike protein assays (Ortho Vitros, Euroimmun, Yale) and was 0.58-0.71 between the three anti-spike protein assays and the anti-nucleocapsid assay (Abbott). Conclusion: The sensitivities SERO of four anti-SARS-CoV-2 protein assays did not significantly differ, although the sample size was small. Sensitivity SERO also depended on the interpretation of equivocal and indeterminate results. The strongest correlations were present for the three anti-spike proteins assays. These findings suggest that individual test characteristics and the correlation between different tests should be considered when comparing or aggregating data across different populations studies for serologic surveillance of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Patient’s perspective regarding the elective surgical procedure during Covid 19 pandemic.

    Authors: Dr. Mayank Badkur; Dr Ashok Puranik; Dr Naveen Sharma; Dr. Suruthi Baskaran

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51361/v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction: The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and the subsequent nationwide lockdown, has impacted all aspects of society including medical profession. In hospitals, the focus has mainly shifted to prevention and treatment of Covid-19 infection MESHD. Owing to this, all elective surgeries were postponed and only emergent surgeries were performed. This has affected the patients differently depending on the progression of disease MESHD and development of complications.Materials and Methods: A well-structured telephonic scripted questionnaire was administered to all patients who were given appointment for any elective surgery. Data was collected regarding the status of disease MESHD including complications and the patient’s perspective on method of treatment. Patients who developed complications or underwent emergency MESHD surgery or surgery elsewhere were excluded.Results: The male TRANS to female TRANS ratio was 2.3:1. Mean age TRANS of patients was 41.16 years. A total of 86 patients were included in the study. Almost all (98.8%) were aware that the lockdown and withholding of elective surgeries was to prevent spread of coronavirus infection MESHD. Among 34 patients with complications, 88.2% were willing to undergo surgical procedure and 73.5% were willing to visit hospital within a week or two. Among patients without complications, 71.2% were willing to continue treatment on wait and watch policy, for a period of 2 months or more (45.7%). 93.5% of patients avoided visit to hospital due to risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD.Discussion: Patient’s attitude towards the choice of treatment (wait and watch Vs surgery) mainly depended on the progression of disease MESHD. It is critical, during these tough times of Covid-19 pandemic, that risks are weighed against benefits to decide the line of management for patients waiting for elective surgeries. 

    Estimates of the rate of infection and asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 disease MESHD in a population sample from SE England

    Authors: Philippa M Wells; Katie M Doores; Simon Couvreur; Rocio Martin Martinez; Jeffrey Seow; Carl Graham; Sam Acors; Neophytos Kouphou; Stuart Neil; Richard Tedder; Pedro Matos; Kate Poulton; Maria Jose Lista; Ruth Dickenson; Helin Sertkaya; Thomas Maguire; Edward Scourfield; Ruth Bowyer; Deborah Hart; Aoife O'Byrne; Kathryn Steele; Oliver Hemmings; Carolina Rosadas; Myra McClure; Joan Capedevila-Pujol; Jonathan wolf; Sebastien Ourseilin; Matthew Brown; Michael Malim; Timothy Spector; Claire Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20162701 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Understanding of the true asymptomatic TRANS rate of infection MESHD of SARS-CoV-2 is currently limited, as is understanding of the population-based seroprevalence SERO after the first wave of COVID-19 within the UK. The majority of data thus far come from hospitalised patients, with little focus on general population cases, or their symptoms. Methods: We undertook enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO characterisation of IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein of 431 unselected general-population participants of the TwinsUK cohort from South-East England, aged TRANS 19-86 (median age TRANS 48; 85% female TRANS). 382 participants completed prospective logging of 14 COVID-19 related symptoms via the COVID Symptom Study App, allowing consideration of serology alongside individual symptoms, and a predictive algorithm for estimated COVID-19 previously modelled on PCR positive individuals from a dataset of over 2 million. Findings: We demonstrated a seroprevalence SERO of 12% (51participants of 431). Of 48 seropositive individuals with full symptom data, nine (19%) were fully asymptomatic TRANS, and 16 (27%) were asymptomatic TRANS for core COVID-19 symptoms: fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP or anosmia HP. Specificity of anosmia HP for seropositivity was 95%, compared to 88% for fever MESHD fever HP cough MESHD cough HP and anosmia HP combined. 34 individuals in the cohort were predicted to be Covid-19 positive using the App algorithm, and of those, 18 (52%) were seropositive. Interpretation: Seroprevalence SERO amongst adults TRANS from London and South-East England was 12%, and 19% of seropositive individuals with prospective symptom logging were fully asymptomatic TRANS throughout the study. Anosmia HP demonstrated the highest symptom specificity for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO response. Funding: NIHR BRC, CDRF, ZOE global LTD, RST-UKRI/MRC

    Structural and functional analysis of female TRANS sex hormones against SARS-Cov2 cell entry

    Authors: Jorge Aguilar Pineda; Mazen Albaghdadi; Wanlin Jiang; Karin Janneth Vera Lopez; Mark E Lindsay; Gonzalo Davila del-Carpio; Badhin Gomez Valdez; Rajeev Malhotra; Christian Lacks Lino Cardenas

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.227249 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: bioRxiv

    Emerging evidence suggests that males TRANS are more susceptible to severe infection HP infection MESHD by the SARS-CoV-2 virus than females TRANS. A variety of mechanisms may underlie the observed gender TRANS-related disparities including differences in sex hormones. However, the precise mechanisms by which female TRANS sex hormones may provide protection against SARS-CoV-2 infectivity remains unknown. Here we report new insights into the molecular basis of the interactions between the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and the human ACE2 receptor. We further observed that glycosylation of the ACE2 receptor enhances SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Importantly estrogens can disrupt glycan-glycan interactions and glycan-protein interactions between the human ACE2 and the SARS-CoV2 thereby blocking its entry into cells. In a mouse model, estrogens reduced ACE2 glycosylation and thereby alveolar uptake of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These results shed light on a putative mechanism whereby female TRANS sex hormones may provide protection from developing severe infection HP infection MESHD and could inform the development of future therapies against COVID-19.

    Serial population based serosurvey of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in a low and high transmission TRANS area of Karachi, Pakistan

    Authors: Muhammad Imran Nisar; Nadia Ansari; Mashal Amin; Farah Khalid; Aneeta Hotwani; Najeeb Rehman; Arjumand Rizvi; Arslan Memon; Zahoor Ahmed; Ashfaque Ahmed; Junaid Iqbal; Ali Faisal Saleem; Uzma Bashir Aamir; Daniel B Larremore; Bailey Fosdick; Fyezah Jehan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20163451 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background Pakistan is among the first low- and middle-income countries affected by COVID-19 pandemic. Monitoring progress through serial sero-surveys SERO, particularly at household level, in densely populated urban communities can provide insights in areas where testing is non-uniform. Methods Two serial cross-sectional household surveys were performed in April (phase 1) and June (phase 2) 2020 each in a low- (District Malir) and high- transmission TRANS (District East) area of Karachi, Pakistan. Household were selected using simple random sampling (Malir) and systematic random sampling (East). Individual participation rate from consented households was 82.3% (1000/1215 eligible) in phase 1 and 76.5% (1004/1312 eligible) in phase 2. All household members or their legal guardians answered questions related to symptoms of Covid-19 and provided blood SERO for testing with commercial Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO targeting combined IgG and IgM. Seroprevalence SERO estimates were computed for each area and time point independently. Given correlation among household seropositivity values, a Bayesian regression model accounting for household membership, age TRANS and gender TRANS was used to estimate seroprevalence SERO. These estimates by age TRANS and gender TRANS were then post-stratified to adjust for the demographic makeup of the respective district. The household conditional risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD was estimated for each district and its confidence interval were obtained using a non-parametric bootstrap of households. Findings Post-stratified seroprevalence SERO was estimated to be 0.2% (95% CI 0-0.7) in low-and 0.4% (95% CI 0 - 1.3) in high- transmission TRANS areas in phase 1 and 8.7% (95% CI 5.1-13.1) in low- and 15.1% (95% CI 9.4 -21.7) in high- transmission TRANS areas in phase 2, with no consistent patterns between prevalence SERO rates for males TRANS and females TRANS. Conditional risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD estimates (possible only for phase 2) were 0.31 (95% CI 0.16-0.47) in low- and 0.41(95% CI 0.28-0.52) in high- transmission TRANS areas. Of the 166 participants who tested positive, only 9(5.4%) gave a history of any symptoms. Interpretation A large increase in seroprevalence SERO to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is seen, even in areas where transmission TRANS is reported to be low. Mostly the population is still seronegative. A large majority of seropositives do not report any symptoms. The probability that an individual in a household is infected, given that another household member is infected is high in both the areas. These results emphasise the need to enhance surveillance activities of COVID-19 especially in low- transmission TRANS sites and provide insights to risks of household transmission TRANS in tightly knit neighbourhoods in urban LMIC settings.

    Mitigating Arrhythmia HP Risk in Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin Treated COVID-19 Patients using Arrhythmia HP Risk Management Plan

    Authors: Kazimieras Maneikis M.D.; Ugne Ringeleviciute M.D.; Justinas Bacevicius M.D.; Egle Dieninyte-Misiune M.D.; Emilija Burokaite M.D.; Gintare Kazbaraite M.D.; Marta Monika Janusaite M.D.; Austeja Dapkeviciute M.D.; Andrius Zucenka M.D.; Valdas Peceliunas M.D. Ph.D.; Lina Kryzauskaite M.D.; Vytautas Kasiulevicius M.D. Ph.D.; Donata Ringaitiene M.D. Ph.D.; Birute Zablockiene M.D. Ph.D.; Tadas Zvirblis; Germanas Marinskis M.D. Ph.D.; Ligita Jancoriene M.D. Ph.D.; Laimonas Griskevicius M.D. Ph.D.

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50501/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin use is associated with QT interval prolongation and arrhythmias HP. Despite ongoing multiple clinical trials for treatment of COVID19 infection MESHD, no definite cardiac safety protocols were proposed. The aim of our study was to assess cardiac safety in COVID-19 patients treated with the combination of Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin using close monitoring and arrhythmia HP risk management plan.Methods and results: We retrospectively examined arrhythmia HP safety of treatment with Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin in the setting of pre-defined cardiac arrhythmia MESHD arrhythmia HP risk management plan. 81 patients were included from March 23rd to May 10th 2020. The median age TRANS was 59 years, 58.0% were female TRANS. The majority of the study population (82.7%) had comorbidities, 98.8% had radiological signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. 7 patients (8.6%) had QTc prolongation of ≥500 ms. The treatment was discontinued in 4 patients (4.9%). 14 patients (17.3%) experienced QTc≥480 ms and 16 patients (19.8%) had an increase of QTc≥60 ms. None of the patients developed ventricular tachycardia MESHD ventricular tachycardia HP. The risk factors significantly associated with QTc≥500 ms were hypokalemia MESHD hypokalemia HP (p = 0.032) and use of diuretics during the treatment (p = 0.020). Three patients had a lethal outcome; none of them associated with ventricular arrhythmias HP.Conclusion: We recorded a low incidence of QTc prolongation ≥500 ms and no ventricular tachycardia MESHD ventricular tachycardia HP events in COVID-19 patients treated with Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin using cardiac arrhythmia MESHD arrhythmia HP risk management plan.

    Frequency and severity of Covid-19 in patients treated with biological Disease MESHD Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (bDMARDs) for inflammatory rheumatic disease MESHD. A case-control study

    Authors: Dr. Anne LOHSE; Dr. Marie BOSSERT; Dr. Ana-Maria BOZGAN; Charlotte BOURGOIN; Dr. Aline CHARPENTIER; Dr. Cerise GUILLOCHON; Dr. Julie KESSLER; Dr. Jean-Charles BALBLANC; Dr. Thierry CONROZIER

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50490/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact (frequency and severity) of Covid-19 on patients treated with biological Disease MESHD Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (bDMARDs) for inflammatory rheumatic disease MESHD and to compare it to a control group consisting of patients with musculoskeletal conditions not treated with bDMARDs.Patients and methods:A case control study in 200 outpatients with musculoskeletal conditions. 100 consecutive patients who have been treated with bDMARDs and 100 other consecutive patients who did not take bDMARDs were asked to complete a 15-item standardized questionnaire regarding demographic data. The following information was recorded: gender TRANS, age TRANS, weight, height, body mass index, professional activity, family status, total number of children TRANS and number of children TRANS under 18, rheumatic disease MESHD diagnosis, current treatment for rheumatism, type of containment, close contact TRANS with Covid-19 patients, Covid-19 symptoms, Covid-19 test result and hospitalization for Covid-19.Results:bDMARD patients mostly suffered from rheumatoid arthritis MESHD rheumatoid arthritis HP, or RA, (47%) and ankylosing spondylitis MESHD (42%). The most prescribed bDMARDs were TNFα inhibitors (57%), IL-6 blockers (12%) and JAK inhibitors (11%). The mean duration of the current biological treatment was 38.6 months. Patients from the control group were suffering chiefly from osteoarthritis MESHD osteoarthritis HP (45%) and RA (21%). Compared to the control group, patients treated with bDMARDs were 10 years younger (p<0.001), fewer were retired (56% versus 31%) and more were on sick or incapacity leave (6% versus 18%). During lockdown, they were more likely to be working from home or working short term (27% versus 9%). 18 patients from the bDMARDs group stopped biological treatment: one because of Covid-19 evidenced by PCR, 11 because of symptoms suggesting Covid- 19 and only six from fear of contracting the disease MESHD. 12 patients, including the one Sars-CoV-2 +, resumed their treatment after a few weeks of interruption. There was no severe Covid-19 infection MESHD in the bDMARDs group. Among the three patients from the control group who had contracted Covid-19, one developed a very severe disease MESHD.Conclusion :This case-control study did not show an increase in the frequency or severity of Covid-19 in subjects suffering from chronic inflammatory rheumatism treated with biotherapies. Larger-scale studies are necessary before affirming that biologics do not expose patients to an increased risk of disease MESHD and complications.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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