Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Association between corticosteroids and intubation or death MESHD among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in non-ICU settings: an observational study using of real-world data from 51 hospitals in France and Luxembourg

    Authors: Viet-Thi Tran; Matthieu Mahevas; Firouze Bani Sadr; Olivier Robineau; Thomas Perpoint; Elodie Perrodeau; Laure Gallay; Philippe Ravaud; Francois Goehringer; Xavier Lescure; - COCORICO; Jean-Christophe Lucet; Yazdan Yazdanpanah; Mickael Attia; Caroline Demeret; Thierry Rose; Julia A Bielicki; Patricia Bruijning-Verhagen; Herman Goossens; Diane Descamps; Sylvie van der Werf; Bruno Lina; Xavier Duval

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.16.20195750 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of corticosteroids on outcomes of patients with mild COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Methods We used routine care data from 51 hospitals in France and Luxembourg to assess the effectiveness of corticosteroids at 0.8 mg/kg/day eq. prednisone (CTC group) vs standard of care (no-CTC group) among patients [≤] 80 years old with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD requiring oxygen without mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was intubation or death at Day 28. Baseline characteristics of patients were balanced using propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighting. Results Among the 891 patients included in the analysis, 203 were assigned to the CTC group. At day 28, corticosteroids did not reduce the rate of the primary outcome (wHR 0.92, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.39) nor the cumulative death rate (wHR 1.03, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.98). Corticosteroids significantly reduced the rate of the primary outcome for patients requiring oxygen [≥] at 3L/min (wHR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.85) or C-Reactive Protein (CRP) [≥] 100mg/L (wHR 0.44, 95%CI 0.23 to 0.85). We found a higher number of hyperglycaemia events MESHD among patients who received corticosteroids, but number of infections MESHD were similar across the two groups. Conclusions We found no association between the use of corticosteroids and intubation or death MESHD in the broad population of patients [≤]80 years old with COVID-19 hospitalized in non-ICU settings. However, the treatment was beneficial for patients with [≥] 3L/min oxygen or CRP [≥] 100mg/L at baseline. These data support the need to confirm the right timing of corticosteroids for patients with mild COVID.

    Association of Initial Symptoms or Comorbidities With Pneumonia HP Pneumonia MESHD Lesions in COVID-19 Patients: Based on Artificial Intelligence-Enabled CT Quantitation

    Authors: Fangzhengyuan Yuan; Chuan Liu; Jie Yang; Hu Tan; Shizhu Bian; Xubin Gao; Jihang Zhang; Mingdong Hu; Renzheng Chen; Yang Shen; Jingbin Ke; Yuanqi Yang; Chunyan He; Ran Cheng; Lan Huang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-78075/v1 Date: 2020-09-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with a larger ratio of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD lesions are more likely to progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome and death MESHD. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of baseline parameters with pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD lesions on admission, as quantified by an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm using computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: This retrospective study quantitatively assessed lung lesions on CT using an AI algorithm in 1630 consecutive patients confirmed with COVID-19 on admission and classified the patients into none (0%), mild (>0–25%), intermediate (>25–50%), and severe (>50%) groups, according to the lesion ratio of the whole lung. A multivariate linear regression model was established to explore the relationship between the lesion ratio and laboratory parameters. The baseline parameters associated with lung lesions MESHD, including demographics, initial symptoms, and comorbidities, were determined using a multivariate ordinal regression model. Results: The 1630 patients confirmed with COVID-19 had a median whole lung lesion ratio of 4.1%, and the right lower lung lobe had the most lesions among the five lung lobes based on the evaluation of CT using AI algorithm. The whole lung lesion ratio was associated with the levels of plasma SERO fibrinogen (r=0.280, p<0.001), plasma SERO D-dimer (r=0.248, p<0.001), serum SERO α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (r=0.363, p<0.001), serum SERO albumin (r=-0.300, p<0.001), and peripheral blood SERO leukocyte count (r=0.194, p<0.001). Among the four patients groups categorised by whole lung lesion ratio, the highest frequency of cough HP (p<0.001) and shortness of breath MESHD (p<0.001) were found in the severe group, and the highest frequency of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (p<0.001), diabetes MESHD (p<0.001) and anemia HP anemia MESHD (p=0.039) were observed in the intermediate group. Based on baseline ordinal regression analysis, cough HP (p=0.009), shortness of breath MESHD (p<0.001), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (p=0.002), diabetes MESHD (p=0.005), and anemia HP anemia MESHD (p=0.006) were independent risk factors for more severe lung lesions MESHD. Conclusions: Based on AI-enabled CT quantitation, patients with initial symptoms of cough HP cough MESHD/ shortness of breath MESHD, or with comorbidities of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, or anemia HP anemia MESHD, had a higher risk for more severe lung lesions on admission in COVID-19 patients.

    Respiratory Rehabilitation After Blood SERO Transfusion in a COVID-19 Patient: A Case Report

    Authors: Mohammad Javad Mousavi; Narges Obeidi; Saeed keshmiri; Farzan Azodi; Jamile Kiyani; Farhad Abbasi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-78131/v1 Date: 2020-09-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified as the most crucial threat of the century. Due to severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD), the SARS-CoV-2 can cause shortness of breath MESHD, hypoxemia HP hypoxemia MESHD, and the need to mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) management, and eventual death MESHD. We have tried to use a non-invasive approach to prevent patient from needing respiratory support with invasive ventilation (IV). Here, for the first time, improvement of oxygen delivery and oxygen saturation levels were observed in a COVID-19 patient using packed red blood SERO cells (PRBCs) transfusion.Case presentation: A 63-year-old man with a history of smoking and addiction who came to our hospital facility with fever HP fever MESHD, shortness of breath MESHD and decreased blood SERO oxygen saturation. High-resolution chest CT revealed bilateral and multifocal ground-glass opacities consistent with COVID-19. Subsequently, the COVID-19 infection was confirmed TRANS infection was confirmed MESHD by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay of the upper respiratory tract. Conclusions: Oxygen delivery and oxygen saturation improvement were observed in the COVID-19 patient, after PRBCs transfusions.

    Predictors of Death Rate During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Authors: Ian Feinhandler; Benjamin Cilento; Brad Beauvais; Jordan Harrop; Lawrence Fulton

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0329.v2 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: Preprints.org

    COVID-19 is a potentially fatal viral infection MESHD. This study investigates geography, demography, socioeconomics, health conditions, hospital characteristics, and politics as potential explanatory variables for death MESHD rates at the state and county levels. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Census Bureau, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid, Definitive Healthcare, and USAfacts.org were used to evaluate regression models. Yearly pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and flu death MESHD rates (state level, 2014-2018) were evaluated as a function of the governors’ political party using repeated measures analysis. At the state and county level, spatial regression models were evaluated. At the county level, we discovered a statistically significant model that included geography, population density, racial and ethnic status, three health status variables along with a political factor. State level analysis identified health status, minority status, and the interaction between governors’ parties and health status as important variables. The political factor, however, did not appear in a subsequent analysis of 2014-2018 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and flu death MESHD rates. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 has greater and disproportionate effect within racial and ethnic minority groups, and the political influence on the reporting of COVID-19 mortality was statistically relevant at the county level and as an interaction term only at the state level.

    Prospective Time Periodic Geographical Covid-19 Surveillance in Ethiopia Using a Space-time Scan Statistics: Detecting and Evaluating Emerging Clusters

    Authors: Nuredin Nassir Azmach; Tesfay Gebremariam Tesfahannes; Samiya Abrar Abdulsemed; Temam Abrar Hamza

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-76052/v1 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: On December 31, 2019, multiple pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD cases, subsequently identified as coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), was reported for the first time in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province in China. At that time, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission had report 27 cases, of which seven are severely ill, and the remaining cases are stable and controllable. Since, then, the spread of COVID-19 has already taken on pandemic proportions, affecting over 100 countries in a matter of weeks. As of September 07, 2020, there had been more than 27 million confirmed cases TRANS and 889,000 total deaths MESHD, with an average mortality of about 3.3%, globally. In Ethiopia, 58,672 confirmed cases TRANS and 918 deaths MESHD and this number are likely to increase exponentially. It is critical to detect clusters of COVID-19 to better allocate resources and improve decision-making as the pandemics continue to grow.Methods: We have collected the individual-level information on patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 on daily bases from the official reports of the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH), regional, and city government of Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa health bureaus. Using the daily case data, we conducted a prospective space-time analysis with SaTScan version 9.6. We detect statistically significant space-time clusters of COVID-19 at the woreda and sub-city level in Ethiopia between March 13th-June 6th, 2020, and March 13th-June 24th, 2020.Results: The prospective space-time scan statistic detected “alive” and emerging clusters that are present at the end of our study periods; notably, nine more clusters were detected when adding the updated case data.Conclusions: These results can notify public health officials and decision-makers about where to improve the allocation of resources, testing areas; also, where to implement necessary isolation measures and travel TRANS bans. As more confirmed cases TRANS become available, the statistic can be rerun to support timely surveillance of COVID-19, demonstrated here. In Ethiopia, our research is the first geographic study that utilizes space-time statistics to monitor COVID-19.

    Tocilizumab in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 Pneumonia HP

    Authors: Ivan Rosas; Norbert Bräu; Michael Waters; Ronaldo C. Go; Bradley D. Hunter; Sanjay Bhagani; Daniel Skiest; Mariam S. Aziz; Nichola Cooper; Ivor S. Douglas; Sinisa Savic; Taryn Youngstein; Lorenzo Del Sorbo; Antonio Cubillo Gracian; David J. De La Zerda; Andrew Ustianowski; Min Bao; Sophie Dimonaco; Emily Graham; Balpreet Matharu; Helen Spotswood; Larry Tsai; Atul Malhotra

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.27.20183442 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND COVID-19 is associated with immune dysregulation HP dysregulation and hyperinflammation MESHD. Tocilizumab is an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody SERO. METHODS Patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD receiving standard care were randomized (2:1) to double-blinded intravenous tocilizumab 8 mg/kg or placebo. The primary outcome measure was clinical status on a 7-category ordinal scale at day 28 (1, discharged/ready for discharge; 7, death MESHD). RESULTS Overall, 452 patients were randomized; the modified-intention-to-treat population included 294 tocilizumab-treated and 144 placebo-treated patients. Clinical status at day 28 was not statistically significantly improved for tocilizumab versus placebo (P=0.36). Median (95% CI) ordinal scale values at day 28: 1.0 (1.0 to 1.0) for tocilizumab and 2.0 (1.0 to 4.0) for placebo (odds ratio, 1.19 [0.81 to 1.76]). There was no difference in mortality at day 28 between tocilizumab (19.7%) and placebo (19.4%) (difference, 0.3% [95% CI, -7.6 to 8.2]; nominal P=0.94). Median time to hospital discharge was 8 days shorter with tocilizumab than placebo (20.0 and 28.0, respectively; nominal P=0.037; hazard ratio 1.35 [95% CI 1.02 to 1.79]). Median duration of ICU stay was 5.8 days shorter with tocilizumab than placebo (9.8 and 15.5, respectively; nominal P=0.045). In the safety population, serious adverse events occurred in 34.9% of 295 patients in the tocilizumab arm and 38.5% of 143 in the placebo arm. CONCLUSIONS In this randomized placebo-controlled trial in hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD patients, tocilizumab did not improve clinical status or mortality. Potential benefits in time to hospital discharge and duration of ICU stay are being investigated in ongoing clinical trials.

    Untuned antiviral immunity in COVID-19 revealed by temporal type I/III interferon patterns and flu comparison

    Authors: Ioanna Evdokia Galani; Nikoletta Rovina; Vicky Lampropoulou; Vasiliki Triantafyllia; Maria Manioudaki; Eleftherios Pavlos; Evangelia Koukaki; Paraskevi C Fragkou; Vasiliki Panou; Vasiliki Rapti; Ourania Koltsida; Andreas Mentis; Nikolaos Koulouris; Sotirios Tsiodras; Antonia Koutsoukou; Evangelos Andreakos; Xiushan Yin; Vicent Pelechano; David Porteous; Elizabeth T Cirulli; Kelly M Schiabor Barrett; Stephen Riffle; Alexandre Bolze; Simon White; Francisco Tanudjaja; Xueqing Wang; Jimmy M Ramirez III; Yan Wei Lim; James T Lu; Nicole L Washington; Eco JC de Geus; Patrick Deelen; H Marike Boezen; Lude H Franke

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.21.20179291 Date: 2020-08-24 Source: medRxiv

    A central paradigm of immunity is that interferon (IFN) mediated antiviral responses precede the pro-inflammatory ones, optimizing host protection and minimizing collateral damage. Here, we report that for COVID-19 this does not apply. By investigating temporal IFN and inflammatory cytokine patterns in 32 COVID-19 patients hospitalized for pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and longitudinally followed for the development of respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD and death MESHD, we reveal that IFN-{lambda} and type I IFN production is both diminished and delayed, induced only in a fraction of patients as they become critically ill. On the contrary, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 are produced before IFNs, in all patients, and persist for a prolonged time. By comparison, in 16 flu patients hospitalized for pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD with similar clinicopathological characteristics to COVID-19 and 24 milder non-hospitalized flu patients IFN-{lambda} and type I IFN are robustly induced, earlier, at higher levels and independently of disease severity, while pro-inflammatory cytokines are only acutely and transiently produced. Notably, higher IFN-{lambda} levels in COVID-19 patients correlate with lower viral load in bronchial aspirates and faster viral clearance, and a higher IFN-{lambda}:type I IFN ratio with improved outcome of critically ill MESHD patients. Moreover, altered cytokine patterns in COVID-19 patients correlate with longer hospitalization time and higher incidence of critical disease MESHD and mortality compared to flu. These data point to an untuned antiviral response in COVID-19 contributing to persistent viral presence, hyperinflammation and respiratory failure MESHD respiratory failure HP.

    Predictors of Death Rate During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Authors: Ian Feinhandler; Benjamin Cilento; Brad Beauvais; Jordan Harrop; Lawrence Fulton

    id:202008.0329/v1 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: Preprints.org

    COVID-19 is a potentially fatal viral infection MESHD. This study investigates geography, demography, socioeconomics, health conditions, hospital characteristics, and politics as potential explanatory variables for death MESHD rates at the state and county levels. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Census Bureau, and other sources were used to evaluate spatial regression models. Yearly pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and flu death MESHD rates (state level, 2014-2018) were evaluated as a function of the governors’ political party using repeated measures analysis. Spatial regression at the county level discovered a statistically significant model that included only geography, racial and ethnic status along with a political factor. State level analysis was consistent with this finding. The political factor did not, however, appear in a subsequent analysis of 2014-2018 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and flu death MESHD rates. This study suggests racial/ethnic composition and geographic relationships with the outbreak are important considerations but do not fully explain death rates without inclusion of political factors. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 has greater and disproportionate effect within racial and ethnic minority groups. While population density was not found to be significant, political influence on the reporting of COVID-19 mortality was a significant finding.

    Clinical characteristics and post-intensive care outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD.

    Authors: Neil MD Cody; Samuel M Lakey; Sean M McMahon; Megan K Downey; Megan S Duncan; Julie-Anne Hewitt; Calum B Simpson; Martin J Duffy; Rosalind F O’Reilly; Paul Johnston; Jonathan A Silversides; Belfast COVID ICU Group

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-58685/v1 Date: 2020-08-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 can result in a severe viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, with high reported mortality rates in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. There is controversy as to whether established therapeutic approaches to acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome are optimal in this condition, and numerous novel therapies have been used, often outside the context of randomised trials. In addition, longer term quality of life outcomes associated with COVID-19 are as yet unknown. The aim of this case series is to describe demographic, physiological and outcome data of patients with COVID-19 admitted to our intensive care units who were treated according to evidence-based guidelines for acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients admitted to intensive care units in our institution with COVID-19 between March and June, 2020. Physiological and laboratory data were recorded at baseline and daily until intensive care discharge or death MESHD. Quality of life was assessed at a virtual post-intensive care follow-up clinic around 10 weeks after ICU discharge.Results: 45 patients with COVID-19 were included, 37 (82.2%) of whom were male TRANS, with a mean age TRANS of 55 years. 42 (93.3%) of this cohort met criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome at time of admission. Clinical management was consistent with evidence based institutional guidelines introduced for acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome. Median length of intensive care stay was 14 days. The intensive care mortality rate was 8.9%. Functional and psychological morbidity post intensive care was significant: 45.2% of respondents had at least moderate impairment of mobility and 35.5% described at least moderate symptoms of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD or depression MESHD at the time of follow up.Conclusions : This case series demonstrates low mortality in a cohort of patients treated according to an established evidence-based approach for acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome. However, COVID-19 survivors have a marked functional and psychological morbidity impacting quality of life following ICU admission. The therapeutic goal in the future will be to achieve similar survival outcomes while minimizing the significant morbidity associated with COVID-19 related critical care admission.

    Lymphocyte May Be a Reference Index of the Outcome of Cancer MESHD Patients in COVID-19 Infection

    Authors: Xun Yuan; Yuan Gao; Qian Chu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-58047/v1 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19)– infected pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP is an international concern as it spreads through human populations and across national and international borders.Methods: In this retrospective study, we consecutively included all cancer MESHD cases who had been identified as having a nucleic acid-confirmed COVID-19 infection MESHD from two designated hospitals in Wuhan, China. Non-cancer MESHD patients were also enrolled for comparison. The clinical data were gathered from the medical recordsfrom Jan 14 to March 12.Results: Among the 117 cancer MESHD patients infected with COVID19, the median age TRANS was 63 years and 48.7% were male TRANS. Male TRANS, hematologic cancer MESHD, dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD on admission, and anti- cancer MESHD therapy significantly increased the risk of death MESHD. The amounts of cytokines and immune cells were correlated with the outcomeofcancer patients infected with COVIP-19. However, high level of TNF-a, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8 did not increase the risk of death in non-cancer MESHD patients. Moreover, IL-2R and IL-6 markedly decreased in cancer MESHD patients recovered from COVID-19.Conclusions: Cancer MESHD patients with COVID-19 were associated with high mortality (23.9%).The amounts of cytokines and lymphocytes could be utilized as the reference index in predicting the survival outcome of cancer MESHD patients with COVID-19.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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