Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 246
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    Cyclooxgenase-2 is induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD but does not affect viral entry or replication

    Authors: Jennifer S. Chen; Mia Madel Alfajaro; Jin Wei; Ryan D. Chow; Renata B Filler; Stephanie C. Eisenbarth; Craig B Wilen; Li Hui Tan; Beihua Dong; Konstantinos Dionysios Alysandratose; Jesse Huang; James N Palmer; Nithin D Adappa; Michael A Kohanski; Darrell N Kotton; Robert H Silverman; Wenli Yang; Edward Morrisey; Noam Cohen; Susan R Weiss; David C. Jackson; Nathan W Bartlett; Francesca Mercuri; Miles W Carroll; Sonam T. Nyatsatsang; Alexander L. Greninger; Ansuman T. Satpathy; John S Pauk; Scott D. Boyd; James R. Heath

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.24.312769 Date: 2020-09-25 Source: bioRxiv

    Identifying drugs that regulate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and its symptoms has been a pressing area of investigation during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are frequently used for the relief of pain HP pain MESHD and inflammation MESHD, could modulate both SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and the host response to the virus. NSAIDs inhibit the enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which mediate the production of prostaglandins (PGs). PGE2, one of the most abundant PGs, has diverse biological roles in homeostasis and inflammatory responses. Previous studies have shown that NSAID treatment or inhibition of PGE2 receptor signaling leads to upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, thus raising concerns that NSAIDs could increase susceptibility to infection MESHD. COX/PGE2 signaling has also been shown to regulate the replication of many viruses, but it is not yet known whether it plays a role in SARS-CoV-2 replication. The purpose of this study was to dissect the effect of NSAIDs on COVID-19 in terms of SARS-CoV-2 entry MESHD and replication. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD induced COX-2 upregulation in diverse human cell culture and mouse systems. However, suppression of COX-2/PGE2 signaling by two commonly used NSAIDs, ibuprofen and meloxicam, had no effect on ACE2 expression, viral entry, or viral replication. Our findings suggest that COX-2 signaling driven by SARS-CoV-2 may instead play a role in regulating the lung inflammation MESHD and injury observed in COVID-19 patients.

    Optimal Drug Regimen and Combined Drug Therapy and its Efficacy in the Treatment of COVID-19 : An Within-Host Modeling Study

    Authors: Bishal Chhetri; Vijay M. Bhagat; D. K. K. Vamsi; Ananth V S; Bhanu Prakadh; Swapna Muthuswamy; Pradeep Deshmukh; Carani B Sanjeevi

    id:2009.10049v1 Date: 2020-09-21 Source: arXiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in more than 30.35 million infections and 9, 50, 625 deaths in 212 countries over the last few months. Different drug intervention acting at multiple stages of pathogenesis of COVID-19 can substantially reduce the infection MESHD induced mortality. The current within-host mathematical modeling studies deals with the optimal drug regimen and the efficacy of combined therapy in treatment of COVID-19. The drugs/interventions considered include Arbidol, Remdesivir, Inteferon (INF) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir. It is concluded that these drug interventions when administered individually or in combination reduce the infected cells and viral load. Four scenarios involving administration of single drug intervention, two drug interventions, three drug interventions and all the four have been discussed. In all these scenarios the optimal drug regimen is proposed based on two methods. In the first method these medical interventions are modeled as control interventions and a corresponding objective function and optimal control problem is formulated. In this setting the optimal drug regimen is proposed. Later using the the comparative effectiveness method the optimal drug regimen is proposed based on basic reproduction number TRANS and viral load. The average infected cell count and viral load decreased the most when all the four interventions were applied together. On the other hand the average susceptible cell count decreased the best when Arbidol alone was administered. The basic reproduction number TRANS and viral count decreased the best when all the four interventions were applied together reinstating the fact obtained earlier in the optimal control setting. These findings may help physicians with decision making in treatment of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD.

    Association between corticosteroids and intubation or death MESHD among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in non-ICU settings: an observational study using of real-world data from 51 hospitals in France and Luxembourg

    Authors: Viet-Thi Tran; Matthieu Mahevas; Firouze Bani Sadr; Olivier Robineau; Thomas Perpoint; Elodie Perrodeau; Laure Gallay; Philippe Ravaud; Francois Goehringer; Xavier Lescure; - COCORICO; Jean-Christophe Lucet; Yazdan Yazdanpanah; Mickael Attia; Caroline Demeret; Thierry Rose; Julia A Bielicki; Patricia Bruijning-Verhagen; Herman Goossens; Diane Descamps; Sylvie van der Werf; Bruno Lina; Xavier Duval

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.16.20195750 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of corticosteroids on outcomes of patients with mild COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Methods We used routine care data from 51 hospitals in France and Luxembourg to assess the effectiveness of corticosteroids at 0.8 mg/kg/day eq. prednisone (CTC group) vs standard of care (no-CTC group) among patients [≤] 80 years old with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD requiring oxygen without mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was intubation or death at Day 28. Baseline characteristics of patients were balanced using propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighting. Results Among the 891 patients included in the analysis, 203 were assigned to the CTC group. At day 28, corticosteroids did not reduce the rate of the primary outcome (wHR 0.92, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.39) nor the cumulative death rate (wHR 1.03, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.98). Corticosteroids significantly reduced the rate of the primary outcome for patients requiring oxygen [≥] at 3L/min (wHR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.85) or C-Reactive Protein (CRP) [≥] 100mg/L (wHR 0.44, 95%CI 0.23 to 0.85). We found a higher number of hyperglycaemia events MESHD among patients who received corticosteroids, but number of infections MESHD were similar across the two groups. Conclusions We found no association between the use of corticosteroids and intubation or death MESHD in the broad population of patients [≤]80 years old with COVID-19 hospitalized in non-ICU settings. However, the treatment was beneficial for patients with [≥] 3L/min oxygen or CRP [≥] 100mg/L at baseline. These data support the need to confirm the right timing of corticosteroids for patients with mild COVID.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD is a frequent cause of pulmonary failure MESHD in 2020, but not the only one – a case report

    Authors: Carlos Metz; Torben Rixecker; Sebastian Mang; André Becker; Alexander Maßmann; Sören L. Becker; Cihan Papan; Barbara Gärtner; Frederik Seiler; Guy Danziger; Robert Bals; Philipp M. Lepper

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-78362/v1 Date: 2020-09-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background In 2020, a novel coronavirus caused a global pandemic with a clinical picture termed COVID-19 accounting for numerous cases of ARDS. However, there are still other infectious causes of ARDS MESHD that should be considered, especially, as the majority of these pathogens are specifically treatable. Case Presentation We present the case of a 36-year-old gentleman who was admitted to the hospital with flu-like symptoms after completing a half-marathon one week before admission. As infection MESHD with SARS-CoV2 was suspected based on radiologic imaging, the hypoxemic patient was immediately transferred to the ICU, where he developed ARDS MESHD. Empiric antimicrobial chemotherapy was initiated, the patient deteriorated further, therapy was changed and the patient was transferred to a tertiary care ARDS center. As cold agglutinins were present, the hypothesis of an infection with SARS-CoV-2 was then questioned. Bronchoscopic sampling revealed Mycoplasma (M.) pneumoniae HP. When antimicrobial chemotherapy was adjusted, the patient recovered quickly. Conclusion Usually, M. pneumoniae HP causes mild disease. When antimicrobial chemotherapy was adjusted, the patient recovered quickly. The case underlines the importance of adhering to established treatment guidelines, scrutinizing treatment modalities and not forgetting other potential causes of severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD or ARDS MESHD.

    Respiratory Rehabilitation After Blood SERO Transfusion in a COVID-19 Patient: A Case Report

    Authors: Mohammad Javad Mousavi; Narges Obeidi; Saeed keshmiri; Farzan Azodi; Jamile Kiyani; Farhad Abbasi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-78131/v1 Date: 2020-09-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified as the most crucial threat of the century. Due to severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD), the SARS-CoV-2 can cause shortness of breath MESHD, hypoxemia HP hypoxemia MESHD, and the need to mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) management, and eventual death MESHD. We have tried to use a non-invasive approach to prevent patient from needing respiratory support with invasive ventilation (IV). Here, for the first time, improvement of oxygen delivery and oxygen saturation levels were observed in a COVID-19 patient using packed red blood SERO cells (PRBCs) transfusion.Case presentation: A 63-year-old man with a history of smoking and addiction who came to our hospital facility with fever HP fever MESHD, shortness of breath MESHD and decreased blood SERO oxygen saturation. High-resolution chest CT revealed bilateral and multifocal ground-glass opacities consistent with COVID-19. Subsequently, the COVID-19 infection was confirmed TRANS infection was confirmed MESHD by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay of the upper respiratory tract. Conclusions: Oxygen delivery and oxygen saturation improvement were observed in the COVID-19 patient, after PRBCs transfusions.

    COVID-19 outbreak, social distancing and mass testing in Kenya - Insights from a mathematical model 

    Authors: Rachel Waema Mbogo; John W. Oddhiambo

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-77523/v1 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    As reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), the world is currently facing a devastating pandemic of a novel coronavirus ( COVID -19), which started as an outbreak of pneumonia HP neumonia MESHDof unknown cause in the Wuhan city of China in December 2019. Within days and weeks, the COVID -19 pandemic had spread to over 210 countries. By the end of April, COVID -19 had caused over three million confirmed cases TRANS of i nfections MESHDand 230,000 fatalities globally. The trend poses a huge threat to global public health. Understanding the early transmission TRANS dynamics of the i nfection MESHDand evaluating the effectiveness of control measures is crucial for assessing the potential for sustained transmission TRANS to occur in new areas.We employed a SEIHCRD delay differential mathematical transmission TRANS model with reported Kenyan data on cases of COVID -19 to estimate how transmission TRANS varies over time and which population to target for mass testing. The model is concise in structure, and successfully captures the course of the COVID -19 outbreak, and thus sheds light on understanding the trends of the outbreak and the vulnerable populations. The results from the model gives insights to the government on the population to target for mass testing. The government should target population in the informal settlement for mass testing. People with pre-existing medical and non-medical conditions should be identified and given special medical care.  With aggressive effective mass testing and adhering to the government directives and guidelines, we can get rid of COVID -19 epidemic.

    New onset of Myasthenia Gravis MESHD in a patient with COVID-19: A novel case report and literature review

    Authors: Shitiz Sriwastava; Medha Tandon; Saurabh Kataria; Maha Daimee; Shumaila Sultan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-77694/v1 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    The novel coronavirus outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 first began in Wuhan, China in December, 2019. The most striking manifestation is atypical pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and respiratory complications MESHD, however various neurological manifestations are now well recognized. Currently, there have been a very few case reports in regards to COVID-19 in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis MESHD. Myasthenia gravis MESHD ( MG MESHD) causes muscle weakness HP muscle weakness MESHD, especially respiratory muscles in high-risk COVID-19 patients that can lead to severe respiratory compromise. There are few reported cases of severe myasthenia crisis MESHD following COVID-19, likely due to the involvement of the respiratory apparatus and from use of immunosuppressive medication. We report a first case MG MESHD developing secondary to COVID-19 infection MESHD in a 65-year-old woman. Two weeks prior to hospitalization, the patient suffered from cough HP, fever HP fever MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD and was found to be positive for COVID-19 via nasopharyngeal RT-PCR swab test. The electrodiagnostic test showed decremental response over more than 10% on repetitive nerve stimulation test of orbicularis oculi. She tested positive for antibodies SERO against Acetylcholine receptor (AchR).COVID-19 is known to cause release of inflammatory cytokines leading to immune-mediated damage. MG MESHD is an immune-mediated disorder caused due to molecular mimicry and autoantibodies against the neuromuscular junction. 

    Tracheal tube obstruction MESHD due to hemoptysis HP associated with pulmonary infarction MESHD in a patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD: A case report.

    Authors: Takaaki Maruhashi; Yutaro Kurihara; Tatsuhiko Wada; Mayuko Osada; Marina Oi; Tomonari Masuda; Kunihiro Yamaoka; Yasushi Asari

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-75925/v1 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The incidence of thrombotic complications MESHD is extremely high among severe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019(COVID-19) patients in the intensive care unit. Various factors such as a cytokine storm due to an excessive immune response to inflammation MESHD, hypoxemia HP hypoxemia MESHD, and disseminated intravascular coagulation HP intravascular coagulation MESHD are considered predisposing factors for thrombotic complications MESHD.Case presentation: A 55-year-old Japanese man intubated 8 days previously was referred to our hospital because of a severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD diagnosis after his pharyngeal swab tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The patient continued to remain hypoxic (PaO2/FiO2 ratio <100 mmHg) at the referring hospital. On admission, we initiated veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Unfractionated heparin and nafamostat mesylate were used as anticoagulants during VV-ECMO. Despite the adequate anticoagulant therapy, he developed pulmonary infarction MESHD due to pulmonary embolism HP pulmonary embolism MESHD followed by hemoptysis HP. On day 10 following admission, his oxygen saturation dropped from 95% to 88%, with a marked decrease in his ventilator tidal volume, accompanied by an inability to ventilate the patient. Thereafter, we increased the VV-ECMO flow and exchanged his endotracheal tube. The lumen of the removed tracheal tube was found to be occluded by a large-sized blood SERO coagulum. There was no further episode of tube occlusion MESHD. The patient was discharged in a walkable state on day 39 following admission. Conclusions: Endotracheal tube obstruction MESHD secondary to hemoptysis HP should be suggested in patients with COVID-19 requiring ventilator support, as they are not able to perform frequent endotracheal tube suctions owing to the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD.

    Small molecules inhibit SARS-COV-2 induced aberrant inflammation MESHD and viral replication in mice by targeting S100A8/A9-TLR4 axis

    Authors: Qirui Guo; Yingchi Zhao; Junhong Li; Jiangning Liu; Chuan Qin; Xiangxi Wang; Fuping You; Xuefei Guo; Zeming Zhang; Lili Cao; Yujie Luo; Xiao Wang; Xuemei Wei; Luoying Chen; Linlin Bao; Wei Deng; Hua Zhu; Ran Gao; Ilayda Tolu; Esra Ayan; Busra Yuksel; Ayse Buket Peksen; Oktay Gocenler; Ali Doga Yucel; Ozgur Can; Serena Ozabrahamyan; Alpsu Olkan; Ece Erdemoglu; Fulya Aksit; Gokhan Haci Tanisali; Oleksandr M. Yefanov; Anton Barty; Alexandra Tolstikova; Gihan K. Ketawala; Sabine Botha; E. Han Dao; Brandon Hayes; Mengning Liang; Matthew H Seaberg; Mark S. Hunter; Alex Batyuk; Valerio Mariani; Zhen Su; Frederic Poitevin; Chun Hong Yoon; Christopher J. Kupitz; Raymond G. Sierra; Edward H Snell; Hasan DeMirci

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.288704 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: bioRxiv

    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses an unprecedented public health crisis. Accumulating evidences suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD causes dysregulation of immune HP system. However, the unique signature of early immune responses remains elusive. We characterized the transcriptome of rhesus macaques and mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Alarmin S100A8 was robustly induced by SARS-CoV-2 in animal models as well as in COVID-19 patients. Paquinimod, a specific inhibitor of S100A8/A9, could reduce inflammatory response and rescue the pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD with substantial reduction of viral titers in SASR-CoV-2 infected MESHD animals. Remarkably, Paquinimod treatment resulted in 100% survival of mice in a lethal model of mouse coronavirus (MHV) infection MESHD. A novel group of neutrophils that contributed to the uncontrolled inflammation MESHD and onset of COVID-19 were dramatically induced by coronavirus infections MESHD. Paquinimod treatment could reduce these neutrophils and regain antiviral responses, unveiling key roles of S100A8/A9 and noncanonical neutrophils in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, highlighting new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

    Positive association of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers, not Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, with an increased vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in patients hospitalized for suspected COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD

    Authors: Jean-Louis GEORGES; Floriane Floriane Gilles; Helene Cochet; Alisson Bertrand; Marie De Tournemire; Victorien Monguillon; Maeva Pasqualini; Alix Prevot; Guillaume Roger; Joseph Saba; Josephine Soltani; Mehrsa Koukabi-Fradelizi; Jean Paul Beressi; Cecile Laureana; Jean Fran&ccedilois Prost; Livarek Bernard; Elisabet Leiva; Albert Ariza-Sole; Paolo D Dallaglio; Maria Quero; Antonio Soriano; Alberto Pasqualetto; Maylin Koo; Virginia Esteve; Arnau Antoli; Rafael Moreno; Sergi Yun; Pau Cerda; Mariona Llaberia; Francesc Formiga; Marta Fanlo; Abelardo Montero; David Chivite; Olga Capdevila; Ferran Bolao; Xavier Pinto; Josep Llop; Antoni Sabate; Jordi Guardiola; Josep M Cruzado; Josep Comin-Colet; Salud Santos; Ramon Jodar; Xavier Corbella

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20182451 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) type 2 is the receptor of SARSCoV-2 for entry into lungs cells. Because ACE-2 may be modulated by ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), there is concern that patients treated with ACEIs and ARBs are at higher risk for COVID-19 infection MESHD. Aim. This study sought to analyze the association of COVID-19 with previous treatment with ACEI and ARB. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 684 consecutive patients hospitalized for suspected COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and tested by PCR. Patients were split into 2 groups, whether (group 1, n=484) or not (group 2, n=250) COVID-19 was confirmed. Multivariate adjusted comparisons included a propensity score analysis. Results Age TRANS was 63.6 {+/-} 18.7 years, and 302(44%) were female TRANS. Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD was present in 42.6% and 38.4% patients of group 1 and 2, respectively (P=0.28). A treatment with ARBs (20.7% versus 12.0%, respectively, OR 1.92, 95% confidence interval [1.23-2.98], p=0.004) was more frequent in patients of group 1 than in group 2. No difference was found for treatment with ACEIs (12.7% vs 15.7%, respectively, OR 0.81 [0.52-1.26], p=0.35). Propensity score matched multivariate logistic regression confirmed a significant association between COVID-19 and a previous treatment with ARBs (adjusted OR 2.18 [1.29-3.67], p=0.004). Significant interaction between ARBs and ACEIs for the risk of COVID-19 was observed in patients aged TRANS>60, women, and hypertensive MESHD patients. Conclusion . This study suggests that ACEIs and ARBs are not similarly associated with the COVID-19. In this retrospective series, patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD received more frequently a previous treatment with ARBs, than patients without COVID-19.

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MeSH Disease
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