Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (970)

Fever (156)

Cough (123)

Respiratory distress (83)

Hypertension (65)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 1017
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    Broad-spectrum, patient-adaptable inhaled niclosamide-lysozyme particles are efficacious against coronaviruses in lethal murine infection models

    Authors: Ashlee D Brunaugh; Hyojong Seo; Zachary Warnken; Li Ding; Sang Heui Seo; Hugh D.C. Smyth; Justin Rafa O De La Fuente; Megan Mathew; Desmond Green; Sayari Patel; Maria Virginia Perez Bastidas; Sara Haddadi; Mukunthan Murthi; Miguel Santiago Gonzalez; Shweta Kambali; Kayo HM Santos; Huda Asif; Farzaneh Modarresi; Mohammad Faghihi; Mehdi Mirsaeidi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.24.310490 Date: 2020-09-24 Source: bioRxiv

    Niclosamide (NIC) has demonstrated promising in vitro antiviral efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Though NIC is already FDA-approved, the oral formulation produces systemic drug levels that are too low to inhibit SARS-CoV-2. As an alternative, direct delivery of NIC to the respiratory tract as an aerosol could target the primary site of for SARS-CoV-2 acquisition MESHD and spread. We have developed a niclosamide powder suitable for delivery via dry powder inhaler, nebulizer, and nasal spray through the incorporation of human lysozyme (hLYS) as a carrier TRANS molecule. This novel formulation exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo activity against MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 and protects against methicillin-resistance staphylococcus aureus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and inflammatory lung damage MESHD. The suitability of the formulation for all stages of the disease and low-cost development approach will ensure wide-spread utilization.

    ECOVNet: An Ensemble of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks Based on EfficientNet to Detect COVID-19 From Chest X-rays

    Authors: Nihad Karim Chowdhury; Md. Muhtadir Rahman; Noortaz Rezoana; Muhammad Ashad Kabir

    id:2009.11850v1 Date: 2020-09-24 Source: arXiv

    This paper proposed an ensemble of deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) based on EfficientNet, named ECOVNet, to detect COVID-19 using a large chest X-ray data set. At first, the open-access large chest X-ray collection is augmented, and then ImageNet pre-trained weights for EfficientNet is transferred with some customized fine-tuning top layers that are trained, followed by an ensemble of model snapshots to classify chest X-rays corresponding to COVID-19, normal, and pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. The predictions of the model snapshots, which are created during a single training, are combined through two ensemble strategies, i.e., hard ensemble and soft ensemble to ameliorate classification performance SERO and generalization in the related task of classifying chest X-rays.

    T cell anergy in COVID-19 reflects virus persistence and poor outcomes

    Authors: Kerstin Renner; Christine Mueller; Charlotte Tiefenboeck; Jan-Niklas Salewski; Frederike Winter; Simone Buchtler; Maximilian V Malfertheiner; Matthias Lubnow; Dirk Lunz; Bernhard Graf; Florian Hitzenbichler; Frank Hanses; Hendrik Poeck; Marina Kreutz; Evelyn Orso; Ralph Burkhardt; Tanja Niedermair; Christoph Brochhausen; Andre Gessner; Bernd Salzberger; Matthias Mack; Christine Goffinet; Florian Kurth; Martin Witzenrath; Maria Theresa Völker; Sarah Dorothea Müller; Uwe Gerd Liebert; Naveed Ishaque; Lars Kaderali; Leif Erik Sander; Sven Laudi; Christian Drosten; Roland Eils; Christian Conrad; Ulf Landmesser; Irina Lehmann

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.21.20198671 Date: 2020-09-23 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and hyperinflammation. So far, insufficient MESHD or excessive T cell responses were described in patients. We applied novel approaches to analyze T cell reactivity and showed that T anergy is already present in non-ventilated COVID-19 patients, very pronounced in ventilated patients, strongly associated with virus persistence and reversible with clinical recovery. T cell activation was measured by downstream effects on responder cells like basophils, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, monocytes and neutrophils in whole blood SERO and proved to be much more meaningful than classical readouts with PBMCs. Monocytes responded stronger in males TRANS than females TRANS and IL-2 partially reversed T cell anergy. Downstream markers of T cell anergy were also found in fresh blood SERO samples of critically ill MESHD patients with severe T cell anergy. Based on our data we were able to develop a score to predict fatal outcomes and to identify patients that may benefit from strategies to overcome T cell anergy.

    Post-acute COVID-19 associated with evidence of bystander T-cell activation and a recurring antibiotic-resistant bacterial pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD.

    Authors: Ruth Massey; Karen Wynter; Yvonne Hauck; Vidanka Vasilevski; Lesley Kuliukas; Alyce Wilson; Rebecca A Szabo; Caroline Homer; Linda Sweet; Claire Strain-Damerell; Petra Lukacik; - Covid-Moonshot Consortium; Haim Barr; Martin A. Walsh; Frank von Delft; Nir London; Anthony Finkelstein; David G Bonsall; Lucie Abeler-Dorner; Christophe Fraser; Neil M Ferguson; Swapnil Mishra; Seth Flaxman; Samir Bhatt; Oliver Ratmann; - Imperial College London COVID-19 Response Team

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.17.20190033 Date: 2020-09-22 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic has brought with it the largest ever cohort of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Here we describe such a patient who developed a recurring ventilator-associated pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD caused by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that acquired increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in response to treatment. Metagenomic analysis recovered whole genomes of the bacterium directly from samples, revealing the AMR genotype. While immunological analysis of longitudinally-collected blood SERO samples revealed escalating levels of T-cell activation targeting both bacteria and virus, with evidence of bystander-activation, a feature which may have contributed to the continuing inflammation MESHD and prolonged requirement for ventilation.

    CCBlock: An Effective Use of Deep Learning for Automatic Diagnosis of COVID-19 Using X-Ray Images

    Authors: Ali Al-Bawi; Karrar Ali Al-Kaabi; Mohammed Jeryo; Ahmad Al-Fatlawi

    id:2009.10141v1 Date: 2020-09-21 Source: arXiv

    Propose: Troubling countries one after another, the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically affected the health and well-being of the world's population. The disease may continue to persist more extensively due to the increasing number of new cases daily, the rapid spread of the virus, and delay in the PCR analysis results. Therefore, it is necessary to consider developing assistive methods for detecting and diagnosing the COVID-19 to eradicate the spread of the novel coronavirus among people. Based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs), automated detection systems have shown promising results of diagnosing patients with the COVID-19 through radiography; thus, they are introduced as a workable solution to the COVID-19 diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Based on the enhancement of the classical visual geometry group (VGG) network with the convolutional COVID block (CCBlock), an efficient screening model was proposed in this study to diagnose and distinguish patients with the COVID-19 from those with pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and the healthy people through radiography. The model testing dataset included 1,828 x-ray images available on public platforms. 310 images were showing confirmed COVID-19 cases, 864 images indicating pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD cases, and 654 images showing healthy people. Results: According to the test results, enhancing the classical VGG network with radiography provided the highest diagnosis performance SERO and overall accuracy of 98.52% for two classes as well as accuracy of 95.34% for three classes. Conclusions: According to the results, using the enhanced VGG deep neural network can help radiologists automatically diagnose the COVID-19 through radiography.

    Optimal Drug Regimen and Combined Drug Therapy and its Efficacy in the Treatment of COVID-19 : An Within-Host Modeling Study

    Authors: Bishal Chhetri; Vijay M. Bhagat; D. K. K. Vamsi; Ananth V S; Bhanu Prakadh; Swapna Muthuswamy; Pradeep Deshmukh; Carani B Sanjeevi

    id:2009.10049v1 Date: 2020-09-21 Source: arXiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in more than 30.35 million infections and 9, 50, 625 deaths in 212 countries over the last few months. Different drug intervention acting at multiple stages of pathogenesis of COVID-19 can substantially reduce the infection MESHD induced mortality. The current within-host mathematical modeling studies deals with the optimal drug regimen and the efficacy of combined therapy in treatment of COVID-19. The drugs/interventions considered include Arbidol, Remdesivir, Inteferon (INF) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir. It is concluded that these drug interventions when administered individually or in combination reduce the infected cells and viral load. Four scenarios involving administration of single drug intervention, two drug interventions, three drug interventions and all the four have been discussed. In all these scenarios the optimal drug regimen is proposed based on two methods. In the first method these medical interventions are modeled as control interventions and a corresponding objective function and optimal control problem is formulated. In this setting the optimal drug regimen is proposed. Later using the the comparative effectiveness method the optimal drug regimen is proposed based on basic reproduction number TRANS and viral load. The average infected cell count and viral load decreased the most when all the four interventions were applied together. On the other hand the average susceptible cell count decreased the best when Arbidol alone was administered. The basic reproduction number TRANS and viral count decreased the best when all the four interventions were applied together reinstating the fact obtained earlier in the optimal control setting. These findings may help physicians with decision making in treatment of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD in the Central Nervous System of a 1-Year-Old Infant Submitted to Complete Autopsy MESHD

    Authors: Ismael Carlos Gomes; Karina Karmirian; Julia Oliveira; Carolina Pedrosa; Fernando Colonna Rosman; Leila Chimelli; Stevens Rehen

    id:202009.0297/v2 Date: 2020-09-19 Source: Preprints.org

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially characterized as a respiratory illness MESHD. Neurological manifestations were reported mostly in severely affected patients. Routes for brain infection MESHD and the presence of virus particles in situ have not been well described, raising controversy about how the virus causes neurological symptoms. Here, we report the autopsy findings of a 1-year old infant with COVID-19. In addition to pneumonitis, meningitis MESHD meningitis HP and multiple organ damage related to thrombosis MESHD, a previous encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD may have contributed to additional cerebral damage MESHD. SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD the choroid plexus, ventricles, and cerebral cortex. This is the first evidence of SARS-CoV-2 detection in an infant post-mortem brain.

    Genetically proxied inhibition of interleukin-6 signaling: opposing associations with susceptibility to COVID-19 and pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD

    Authors: Susanna C Larsson; Stephen Burgess; Dipender C Gill; Micael Widerström; Ursula Werneke; Adolfo García-Sastre; Florian Krammer

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.15.20165886 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is pivotal for orchestrating the immune response. Inhibitors of IL-6 signaling are being investigated as treatments for severe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a Mendelian randomization study investigating the effect of IL-6 signaling on susceptibility to COVID-19 and pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Our results showed that genetically proxied inhibition of IL-6 signaling was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19, but also with increased risk of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Respiratory disease MESHD is a main feature of severe COVID-19, and the potential of IL-6 signaling inhibitors to increase risk of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD warrants vigilance and caution in their application to treat COVID-19.

    Association between corticosteroids and intubation or death MESHD among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in non-ICU settings: an observational study using of real-world data from 51 hospitals in France and Luxembourg

    Authors: Viet-Thi Tran; Matthieu Mahevas; Firouze Bani Sadr; Olivier Robineau; Thomas Perpoint; Elodie Perrodeau; Laure Gallay; Philippe Ravaud; Francois Goehringer; Xavier Lescure; - COCORICO; Jean-Christophe Lucet; Yazdan Yazdanpanah; Mickael Attia; Caroline Demeret; Thierry Rose; Julia A Bielicki; Patricia Bruijning-Verhagen; Herman Goossens; Diane Descamps; Sylvie van der Werf; Bruno Lina; Xavier Duval

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.16.20195750 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of corticosteroids on outcomes of patients with mild COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Methods We used routine care data from 51 hospitals in France and Luxembourg to assess the effectiveness of corticosteroids at 0.8 mg/kg/day eq. prednisone (CTC group) vs standard of care (no-CTC group) among patients [≤] 80 years old with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD requiring oxygen without mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was intubation or death at Day 28. Baseline characteristics of patients were balanced using propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighting. Results Among the 891 patients included in the analysis, 203 were assigned to the CTC group. At day 28, corticosteroids did not reduce the rate of the primary outcome (wHR 0.92, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.39) nor the cumulative death rate (wHR 1.03, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.98). Corticosteroids significantly reduced the rate of the primary outcome for patients requiring oxygen [≥] at 3L/min (wHR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.85) or C-Reactive Protein (CRP) [≥] 100mg/L (wHR 0.44, 95%CI 0.23 to 0.85). We found a higher number of hyperglycaemia events MESHD among patients who received corticosteroids, but number of infections MESHD were similar across the two groups. Conclusions We found no association between the use of corticosteroids and intubation or death MESHD in the broad population of patients [≤]80 years old with COVID-19 hospitalized in non-ICU settings. However, the treatment was beneficial for patients with [≥] 3L/min oxygen or CRP [≥] 100mg/L at baseline. These data support the need to confirm the right timing of corticosteroids for patients with mild COVID.

    Clinical evolution of COVID-19 during pregnancy at different altitudes: a population-based study

    Authors: Juan Alonso Leon-Abarca; Maria Teresa Pena-Gallardo; Jorge Soliz; Roberto Alfonso Accinelli; Catherine Aiken

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.14.20193177 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The impact of influenza and various types of coronaviruses ( SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV MESHD) on pregnancy has been reported. However, the current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 continues to reveal important data for understanding its behavior in pregnant women. Methods: We analyzed the records of 326,586 non-pregnant women of reproductive age TRANS and 7,444 pregnant women with no other risk factor who also had a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR result to estimate adjusted prevalence SERO (aP) and adjusted prevalence SERO ratios (aPR) of COVID-19 and its requirement of hospitalization, intubation, ICU admission and case-fatality rates. Adjustment was done through Poisson regressions for age TRANS and altitude of residence and birth. Generalized binomial models were used to generate probability plots to display how each outcome varied across ages TRANS and altitudes. Results: Pregnancy was independently associated with a 15% higher probability of COVID-19 (aPR: 1.15), a 116% higher probability of its following admission (aPR: 2.169) and a 127% higher probability of ICU admission (aPR: 2.275). Also, pregnancy was associated with 84.2% higher probability of developing pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (aPR: 1.842) and a 163% higher probability of its following admission (aPR: 2.639). There were no significant differences in COVID-19 case-fatality rates between pregnant and non pregnant women (1.178, 95% CI: 0.68-1.67). Conclusion: Pregnancy was associated with a higher probability of COVID-19, developing of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, hospitalization, and ICU admission. Our results also suggest that the risk of COVID-19 and its related outcomes, except for intubation, decrease with altitude. Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, pregnancy, reproductive age TRANS, altitude

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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