Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 51
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    New onset of Myasthenia Gravis MESHD in a patient with COVID-19: A novel case report and literature review

    Authors: Shitiz Sriwastava; Medha Tandon; Saurabh Kataria; Maha Daimee; Shumaila Sultan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-77694/v1 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    The novel coronavirus outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 first began in Wuhan, China in December, 2019. The most striking manifestation is atypical pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and respiratory complications MESHD, however various neurological manifestations are now well recognized. Currently, there have been a very few case reports in regards to COVID-19 in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis MESHD. Myasthenia gravis MESHD ( MG MESHD) causes muscle weakness HP muscle weakness MESHD, especially respiratory muscles in high-risk COVID-19 patients that can lead to severe respiratory compromise. There are few reported cases of severe myasthenia crisis MESHD following COVID-19, likely due to the involvement of the respiratory apparatus and from use of immunosuppressive medication. We report a first case MG MESHD developing secondary to COVID-19 infection MESHD in a 65-year-old woman. Two weeks prior to hospitalization, the patient suffered from cough HP, fever HP fever MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD and was found to be positive for COVID-19 via nasopharyngeal RT-PCR swab test. The electrodiagnostic test showed decremental response over more than 10% on repetitive nerve stimulation test of orbicularis oculi. She tested positive for antibodies SERO against Acetylcholine receptor (AchR).COVID-19 is known to cause release of inflammatory cytokines leading to immune-mediated damage. MG MESHD is an immune-mediated disorder caused due to molecular mimicry and autoantibodies against the neuromuscular junction. 

    Anakinra and Intravenous IgG versus Tocilizumab in the Treatment of COVID-19 Pneumonia HP

    Authors: Massa Zantah; Eduardo Dominguez Castillo; Andrew J. Gangemi; Maulin Patel; Junad Chowdhury; Steven Verga; Osheen Abramian; Mattew Zheng; Kevin Lu; Arthur Lau; Justin Levinson; Hauquing Zhao; Gerard J. Criner; Roberto Caricchio; Yousif Yousif; Fouad AboGazalah; Fuad Awwad; Khaled AlabdulKareem; Fahad AlGhofaili; Ahmed AlJedai; Hani Jokhdar; Fahad Alrabiah

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192401 Date: 2020-09-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD and an exaggerated inflammatory response. Studies have suggested promising outcomes using monoclonal antibodies SERO targeting IL-1{beta} (Anakinra) or IL6 (Tocilizumab), however no head to head comparison was done between the two treatments. Herein, we report our experience in treating COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD associated with cytokine storm with either subcutaneous Anakinra given concomitantly with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), or intravenous Tocilizumab. Methods: Comprehensive clinical and laboratory data from patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD admitted at our hospital between March and May 2020 were collected. Patients who received either Anakinra/ IVIG or Tocilizumab were selected. Baseline characteristics including oxygen therapy, respiratory status evaluation using ROX index, clinical assessment using NEWS score and laboratory data were collected. Outcomes included mortality, intubation, ICU admission and length of stay. In addition, we compared the change in ROX index, NEWS score and inflammatory markers at days 7 and 14 post initiation of therapy. Results: 84 consecutive patients who received either treatment (51 in the Anakinra/ IVIG group and 33 in the Tocilizumab group) were retrospectively studied. Baseline inflammatory markers were similar in both groups. There was no significant difference regarding to death (21.6% vs 15.2%, p 0.464), intubation (15.7% vs 24.2%, p 0.329), ICU need (57.1% vs 48.5%, p 0.475) or length of stay (13+9.6 vs 14.9+11.6, p 0.512) in the Anakinra/IVIG and Tocilizumab, respectively. Additionally, the rate of improvement in ROX index, NEWS score and inflammatory markers was similar in both groups at days 7 and 14. Furthermore, there was no difference in the incidence of superinfection in both groups. Conclusion: Treating COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD associated with cytokine storm features with either subcutaneous Anakinra/IVIG or intravenous Tocilizumab is associated with improved clinical outcomes in most subjects. The choice of treatment does not appear to affect morbidity or mortality. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm our study findings. Funding: None.

    Stepwise anti-inflammatory and anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects following convalescent plasma SERO therapy with full clinical recovery

    Authors: Aurelia Zimmerli; Matteo Monti; Craig Fenwick; Isabella Eckerle; Catherine Beigelman-Aubry; Celine Pellaton; Katia Jaton; Dominique Dumas; Gian-Marco Stamm; Laura Infanti; Heidrun Andreu-Ullrich; Daphne Germann; Marie Mean; Peter Vollenweider; Raphael Stadelmann; Maura Prella; Denis Comte; Benoit Guery; David Gachoud; Nathalie Rufer

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-76799/v1 Date: 2020-09-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Convalescent plasma SERO to treat coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is currently the focus of numerous clinical trials worldwide, but the criteria of treatment efficacy remain largely unknown. Here, we describe a severely immunosuppressed patient following rituximab and chemotherapy for chronic lymphoid leukemia HP lymphoid leukemia MESHD, who became infected by SARS-CoV-2. His prolonged viral disease was successfully cured after four cycles of convalescent plasma SERO. Its immunomodulatory properties led to the rapid improvement of inflammation MESHD, pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and blood SERO cell counts, already after the first cycle. Importantly, the cumulative increase in anti- SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies SERO following each plasma SERO transfusion was associated to progressive viral clearance, resulting in clinical recovery from infection. Our data provide insight into the different modes of action of plasma SERO components. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help to optimize the treatment of COVID-19 patients.

    Serological Responses to Human Virome Define Clinical Outcomes of Italian Patients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 MESHD

    Authors: Limin Wang; Julian Candia; Lichun Ma; Yongmei Zhao; Luisa Imberti; Alessandra Sottini; Kerry Dobbs; - NIAID-NCI COVID Consortium; Andrea Lisco; Irini Sereti; Helen C. Su; Luigi D. Notarangelo; Xin Wei Wang; Junyoung Kim; Patricia S Lobo; Fabiolla S Santos; Alessandra AP Lima; Camila M Bragagnolo; Luana S Soares; Patricia SM Almeida; Darleise S Oliveira; Carolina KN Amorim; Iran B Costa; Dielle M Teixeira; Edvaldo T Penha Jr.; Delana AM Bezerra; Jones AM Siqueira; Fernando N Tavares; Felipe B Freitas; Janete TN Rodrigues; Janaina Mazaro; Andreia S Costa; Marcia SP Cavalcante; Marineide Souza Silva; Ilvanete A Silva; Gleissy AL Borges; Lidio G Lima; Hivylla LS Ferreira; Miriam TFP Livorati; Andre L Abreu; Arnaldo C Medeiros; Hugo R Resque; Rita CM Sousa; Giselle MR Viana

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.20187088 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: medRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic respiratory infectious disease MESHD COVID-19. However, clinical manifestations and outcomes differ significantly among COVID-19 patients, ranging from asymptomatic TRANS to extremely severe, and it remains unclear what drives these disparities. Here, we studied 159 hospitalized Italian patients with pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD from the NIAID-NCI COVID-19 Consortium using a phage-display method to characterize circulating antibodies SERO binding to 93,904 viral peptides encoded by 1,276 strains of human viruses. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was associated with a marked increase in individual's immune memory antibody SERO repertoires linked to trajectories of disease severity from the longitudinal analysis also including anti-spike protein antibodies SERO. By applying a machine-learning-based strategy, we developed a viral exposure signature predictive of COVID-19-related disease severity linked to patient survival. These results provide a basis for understanding the roles of memory B-cell repertoires in COVID-19-related symptoms as well as a predictive tool for monitoring its clinical severity.

    Seroprevalence SERO of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in COVID-19 patients and healthy volunteers

    Authors: Patricia Figueiredo-Campos; Birte Blankenhaus; Catarina Mota; Andreia Gomes; Marta Serrano; Silvia Ariotti; Catarina Costa; Helena Nunes-Cabaco; Antonio M Mendes; Pedro Gaspar; Conceicao M Pereira-Santos; Fabiana Rodrigues; Jorge Condeco; Antonia M Escoval; Matilde Santos; Mario Ramirez; Jose Melo-Cristino; Pedro J Simas; Eugenia Vasconcelos; Angela Afonso; Marc Veldhoen; Matthew Harnett; Melody Eaton; Sandra Hatem; Hajra Jamal; Alara Akyatan; Alexandra Tabachnikova; Lora E. Liharska; Liam Cotter; Brian Fennessey; Akhil Vaid; Guillermo Barturen; Scott R. Tyler; Hardik Shah; Yinh-chih Wang; Shwetha Hara Sridhar; Juan Soto; Swaroop Bose; Kent Madrid; Ethan Ellis; Elyze Merzier; Konstantinos Vlachos; Nataly Fishman; Manying Tin; Melissa Smith; Hui Xie; Manishkumar Patel; Kimberly Argueta; Jocelyn Harris; Neha Karekar; Craig Batchelor; Jose Lacunza; Mahlet Yishak; Kevin Tuballes; Leisha Scott; Arvind Kumar; Suraj Jaladanki; Ryan Thompson; Evan Clark; Bojan Losic; - The Mount Sinai COVID-19 Biobank Team; Jun Zhu; Wenhui Wang; Andrew Kasarskis; Benjamin S. Glicksberg; Girish Nadkarni; Dusan Bogunovic; Cordelia Elaiho; Sandeep Gangadharan; George Ofori-Amanfo; Kasey Alesso-Carra; Kenan Onel; Karen M. Wilson; Carmen Argmann; Marta E. Alarcón-Riquelme; Thomas U. Marron; Adeeb Rahman; Seunghee Kim-Schulze; Sacha Gnjatic; Bruce D. Gelb; Miriam Merad; Robert Sebra; Eric E. Schadt; Alexander W. Charney

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184309 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a novel human pathogen, causing clinical signs, from fever HP fever MESHD to pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD - COVID-19 - but may remain mild or even asymptomatic TRANS. To understand the continuing spread of the virus, to detect those who are and were infected, and to follow the immune response longitudinally, reliable and robust assays for SARS-CoV-2 detection and immunological monitoring are needed and have been setup around the world. We quantified immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG and IgA antibodies SERO recognizing the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) or the Spike (S) protein over a period of five months following COVID-19 disease onset or in previously SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive volunteers. We report the detailed setup to monitor the humoral immune response from over 300 COVID-19 hospital patients and healthcare workers, 2500 University staff and 187 post-COVID19 volunteers, and assessing titres for IgM, IgG and IgA. Anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO responses followed a classic pattern with a rapid increase within the first three weeks after symptoms. Although titres reduce from approximately four weeks, the ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO remained robust for five months in a large proportion of previously virus-positive screened subjects. Our work provides detailed information for the assays used, facilitating further and longitudinal analysis of protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, it highlights a continued level of circulating neutralising antibodies SERO in most people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2, at least up to five months after infection.

    Tocilizumab in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 Pneumonia HP

    Authors: Ivan Rosas; Norbert Bräu; Michael Waters; Ronaldo C. Go; Bradley D. Hunter; Sanjay Bhagani; Daniel Skiest; Mariam S. Aziz; Nichola Cooper; Ivor S. Douglas; Sinisa Savic; Taryn Youngstein; Lorenzo Del Sorbo; Antonio Cubillo Gracian; David J. De La Zerda; Andrew Ustianowski; Min Bao; Sophie Dimonaco; Emily Graham; Balpreet Matharu; Helen Spotswood; Larry Tsai; Atul Malhotra

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.27.20183442 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND COVID-19 is associated with immune dysregulation HP dysregulation and hyperinflammation MESHD. Tocilizumab is an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody SERO. METHODS Patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD receiving standard care were randomized (2:1) to double-blinded intravenous tocilizumab 8 mg/kg or placebo. The primary outcome measure was clinical status on a 7-category ordinal scale at day 28 (1, discharged/ready for discharge; 7, death MESHD). RESULTS Overall, 452 patients were randomized; the modified-intention-to-treat population included 294 tocilizumab-treated and 144 placebo-treated patients. Clinical status at day 28 was not statistically significantly improved for tocilizumab versus placebo (P=0.36). Median (95% CI) ordinal scale values at day 28: 1.0 (1.0 to 1.0) for tocilizumab and 2.0 (1.0 to 4.0) for placebo (odds ratio, 1.19 [0.81 to 1.76]). There was no difference in mortality at day 28 between tocilizumab (19.7%) and placebo (19.4%) (difference, 0.3% [95% CI, -7.6 to 8.2]; nominal P=0.94). Median time to hospital discharge was 8 days shorter with tocilizumab than placebo (20.0 and 28.0, respectively; nominal P=0.037; hazard ratio 1.35 [95% CI 1.02 to 1.79]). Median duration of ICU stay was 5.8 days shorter with tocilizumab than placebo (9.8 and 15.5, respectively; nominal P=0.045). In the safety population, serious adverse events occurred in 34.9% of 295 patients in the tocilizumab arm and 38.5% of 143 in the placebo arm. CONCLUSIONS In this randomized placebo-controlled trial in hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD patients, tocilizumab did not improve clinical status or mortality. Potential benefits in time to hospital discharge and duration of ICU stay are being investigated in ongoing clinical trials.

    SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing human antibodies SERO protect against lower respiratory tract disease MESHD in a hamster model

    Authors: Bart L Haagmans; Danny Noack; Nisreen M.A. Okba; Wentao LI; Chunyan Wang; Theo Bestebroer; Rory de Vries; Sander Herfst; Dennis de Meulder; Peter van Run; Mart M Lamers; Bart Rijnders; Casper Rokx; Frank J.M. van Kuppeveld; Frank Grosveld; Dubravka Drabek; Corine GeurtsvanKessel; Marion Koopmans; Berend Jan Bosch; Thijs Kuiken; Barry Rockx; Greggory E Mojares; Michael P Eagan; Kristy L Ziontz; Paul Mastrokyriakos; Stuart L Goldberg; Felecia Cerrato; Maha Farhat; Damien Slater; Jason B Harris; John Branda; David Hooper; Jessie M Gaeta; Travis P. Baggett; James O'Connell; Andreas Gnirke; Tami D Lieberman; Anthony Philippakis; Meagan Burns; Catherine Brown; Jeremy Luban; Edward T Ryan; Sarah E Turbett; Regina C LaRocque; William P. Hanage; Glen Gallagher; Lawrence C Madoff; Sandra Smole; Virginia M. Pierce; Eric S Rosenberg; Pardis Sabeti; Daniel J Park; Bronwyn L MacInnis

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.24.264630 Date: 2020-08-24 Source: bioRxiv

    Effective clinical intervention strategies for COVID-19 are urgently needed. Although several clinical trials have evaluated the use of convalescent plasma SERO containing virus- neutralizing antibodies SERO, the effectiveness has not been proven. We show that hamsters treated with a high dose of human convalescent plasma SERO or a monoclonal antibody SERO were protected against weight loss HP showing reduced pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and pulmonary virus replication compared to control animals. However, a ten-fold lower dose of convalescent plasma SERO showed no protective effect. Thus, variable and relatively low levels of virus neutralizing antibodies SERO in convalescent plasma SERO may limit their use for effective antiviral therapy, favouring concentrated, purified (monoclonal) antibodies SERO.

    Modeling COVID-19 with Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cells Reveals Synergistic Effects of Anti-inflammatory Macrophages with ACE2 Inhibition Against SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Fuyu Duan; Liyan Guo; Liuliu Yang; Yuling Han; Abhimanyu Thakur; Benjamin E. Nilsson-Payant; Pengfei Wang; Zhao Zhang; Chui Yan Ma; Xiaoya Zhou; Teng Han; Tuo Zhang; Xing Wang; Dong Xu; Xiaohua Duan; Jenny Xiang; Hung-fat Tse; Can Liao; Weiren Luo; Fang-Ping Huang; Ya-Wen Chen; Todd Evans; Robert E. Schwartz; Benjamin tenOever; David D. Ho; Shuibing Chen; Qizhou Lian; Huanhuan Joyce Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-62758/v1 Date: 2020-08-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Dysfunctional immune responses contribute critically to the progression of Coronavirus Disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19) from mild to severe stages including fatality, with pro-inflammatory macrophages as one of the main mediators of lung hyper-inflammation MESHD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to better understand the interactions among SARS-CoV-2 permissive cells, macrophage, and the SARS-CoV-2 virus, thereby offering important insights into new therapeutic strategies.  Here, we used directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to establish a lung and macrophage co-culture system and model the host-pathogen interaction and immune response caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Among the hPSC-derived lung cells, alveolar type II MESHD and ciliated cells are the major cell populations expressing the viral receptor ACE2 and co-effector TMPRSS2, and both were highly permissive to viral infection MESHD. We found that alternatively polarized macrophages (M2) and classically polarized macrophages (M1) had similar inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. However, only M1 macrophages significantly up-regulated inflammatory factors including IL-6 and IL-18, inhibiting growth and enhancing apoptosis of lung cells. Inhibiting viral entry into target cells using an ACE2 blocking antibody SERO enhanced the activity of M2 macrophages, resulting in nearly complete clearance of virus and protection of lung cells. These results suggest a potential therapeutic strategy, in that by blocking viral entrance to target cells while boosting anti-inflammatory action of macrophages at an early stage of infection MESHD, M2 macrophages can eliminate SARS-CoV-2, while sparing lung cells and suppressing the dysfunctional hyper MESHD-inflammatory response mediated by M1 macrophages.    

    Modeling COVID-19 with Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cells Reveals Synergistic Effects of Anti-inflammatory Macrophages with ACE2 Inhibition Against SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Fuyu Duan; Liyan Guo; Liuliu Yang; Yuling Han; Abhimanyu Thakur; Benjamin E. Nilsson-Payant; Pengfei Wang; Zhao Zhang; Chui Yan Ma; Xiaoya Zhou; Teng Han; Tuo Zhang; Xing Wang; Dong Xu; Xiaohua Duan; Jenny Xiang; Hung-fat Tse; Can Liao; Weiren Luo; Fang-Ping Huang; Ya-Wen Chen; Todd Evans; Robert E. Schwartz; Benjamin tenOever; David D. Ho; Shuibing Chen; Jie Na; Qizhou Lian; Huanhuan Joyce Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-62758/v2 Date: 2020-08-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Dysfunctional immune responses contribute critically to the progression of Coronavirus Disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19) from mild to severe stages including fatality, with pro-inflammatory macrophages as one of the main mediators of lung hyper-inflammation MESHD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to better understand the interactions among SARS-CoV-2 permissive cells, macrophage, and the SARS-CoV-2 virus, thereby offering important insights into new therapeutic strategies.  Here, we used directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to establish a lung and macrophage co-culture system and model the host-pathogen interaction and immune response caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Among the hPSC-derived lung cells, alveolar type II MESHD and ciliated cells are the major cell populations expressing the viral receptor ACE2 and co-effector TMPRSS2, and both were highly permissive to viral infection MESHD. We found that alternatively polarized macrophages (M2) and classically polarized macrophages (M1) had similar inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. However, only M1 macrophages significantly up-regulated inflammatory factors including IL-6 and IL-18, inhibiting growth and enhancing apoptosis of lung cells. Inhibiting viral entry into target cells using an ACE2 blocking antibody SERO enhanced the activity of M2 macrophages, resulting in nearly complete clearance of virus and protection of lung cells. These results suggest a potential therapeutic strategy, in that by blocking viral entrance to target cells while boosting anti-inflammatory action of macrophages at an early stage of infection MESHD, M2 macrophages can eliminate SARS-CoV-2, while sparing lung cells and suppressing the dysfunctional hyper MESHD-inflammatory response mediated by M1 macrophages.    

    Neutralizing antibody SERO-dependent and -independent immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 in cynomolgus macaques

    Authors: Hirohito Ishigaki; Misako Nakayama; Yoshinori Kitagawa; Cong Thanh Nguyen; Kaori Hayashi; Masanori Shiohara; Bin Gotoh; Yasushi Itoh; Osemeke Osokogu; Magdalena Skrybant; Jonathan J Deeks; Katie L Flanagan; Denise Doolan; Joseph Torresi; Weisan Chen; Linda Wakim; Allen Cheng; Jan Petersen; Jamie Rossjohn; Adam K Wheatley; Stephen Kent; Louise Rowntree; Katherine Kedzierska; Mengge Lyu; Guixiang Xiao; Xia Xu; Weigang Ge; Jiale He; Jun Fan; Junhua Wu; Meng Luo; Xiaona Chang; Huaxiong Pan; Xue Cai; Junjie Zhou; Jing Yu; Huanhuan Gao; Mingxing Xie; Sihua Wang; Guan Ruan; Hao Chen; Hua Su; Heng Mei; Danju Luo; Dashi Zhao; Fei Xu; Yan Li; Yi Zhu; Jiahong Xia; Yu Hu; Tiannan Guo

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.18.256446 Date: 2020-08-19 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infectious disease MESHD (COVID-19) has been threatening the world because of severe symptoms and relatively high mortality. To develop vaccines and antiviral drugs for COVID-19, an animal model of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is required to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactics and therapeutics in vivo. Therefore, we examined the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in cynomolgus macaques until 28 days after virus inoculation in the present study. Cynomolgus macaques showed body temperature rises after infection MESHD and X-ray radiographic viral pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD was observed in one of three macaques. However, none of the macaques showed life-threatening clinical signs of disease corresponding that approximately 80% of human patients did not show a critical disease in COVID-19. A neutralizing antibody SERO against SARS-CoV-2 and T-lymphocytes that produced interferon (IFN)-{gamma} and interleukin (IL)-2 specifically for SARS-CoV-2 N MESHD protein were detected on day 14 in the macaque that showed viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. On the other hand, in the other macaques, in which a neutralizing antibody SERO was not detected, T-lymphocytes that produced IFN-{gamma} specifically for SARS-CoV-2 N MESHD protein increased on day 7 to day 14 prior to an increase in the number of T-lymphocytes that produced IL-2. These results suggest that not only a neutralizing antibody SERO but also cellular immunity augmented by IFN-{gamma} has a role in the elimination of SARS-CoV-2. Thus, because of the mild clinical signs of disease and low/no antibody SERO responses against SARS-CoV-2 in two thirds of the macaques, cynomolgus macaques are appropriate to extrapolate human responses in vaccine and drug development. Author SummarySevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infectious disease (COVID-19) has been threatening the world. To develop vaccines and antiviral drugs for COVID-19, an animal model of SARS-CoV-2 infection is required to evaluate their efficacy in vivo. Therefore, we examined the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in a non-human primate model until 28 days after virus inoculation. Cynomolgus macaques showed a fever HP after infection and X-ray radiographic viral pneumonia HP was observed in one of three macaques. However, none of the macaques showed life-threatening symptoms. A neutralizing antibody SERO against SARS-CoV-2 and T-lymphocytes that produced interferon (IFN)-{gamma} and interleukin (IL)-2 specifically for SARS-CoV-2 protein were detected on day 14 in the macaque that showed viral pneumonia HP. In the other macaques, in which a neutralizing antibody SERO was not detected, T-lymphocytes that produced IFN-{gamma} specifically for SARS-CoV-2 N protein increased on day 7 to day 14. These results suggest that not only a neutralizing antibody SERO but also cellular immunity augmented by IFN-{gamma} has a role in the elimination of SARS-CoV-2. Thus, because of the mild symptoms and low/no antibody SERO responses against SARS-CoV-2 in two thirds of the macaques, cynomolgus macaques are appropriate to extrapolate human responses in vaccine and drug development.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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