Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 101
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    Broad-spectrum, patient-adaptable inhaled niclosamide-lysozyme particles are efficacious against coronaviruses in lethal murine infection models

    Authors: Ashlee D Brunaugh; Hyojong Seo; Zachary Warnken; Li Ding; Sang Heui Seo; Hugh D.C. Smyth; Justin Rafa O De La Fuente; Megan Mathew; Desmond Green; Sayari Patel; Maria Virginia Perez Bastidas; Sara Haddadi; Mukunthan Murthi; Miguel Santiago Gonzalez; Shweta Kambali; Kayo HM Santos; Huda Asif; Farzaneh Modarresi; Mohammad Faghihi; Mehdi Mirsaeidi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.24.310490 Date: 2020-09-24 Source: bioRxiv

    Niclosamide (NIC) has demonstrated promising in vitro antiviral efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Though NIC is already FDA-approved, the oral formulation produces systemic drug levels that are too low to inhibit SARS-CoV-2. As an alternative, direct delivery of NIC to the respiratory tract as an aerosol could target the primary site of for SARS-CoV-2 acquisition MESHD and spread. We have developed a niclosamide powder suitable for delivery via dry powder inhaler, nebulizer, and nasal spray through the incorporation of human lysozyme (hLYS) as a carrier TRANS molecule. This novel formulation exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo activity against MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 and protects against methicillin-resistance staphylococcus aureus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and inflammatory lung damage MESHD. The suitability of the formulation for all stages of the disease and low-cost development approach will ensure wide-spread utilization.

    Respiratory Rehabilitation After Blood SERO Transfusion in a COVID-19 Patient: A Case Report

    Authors: Mohammad Javad Mousavi; Narges Obeidi; Saeed keshmiri; Farzan Azodi; Jamile Kiyani; Farhad Abbasi

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified as the most crucial threat of the century. Due to severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD), the SARS-CoV-2 can cause shortness of breath MESHD, hypoxemia HP hypoxemia MESHD, and the need to mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) management, and eventual death MESHD. We have tried to use a non-invasive approach to prevent patient from needing respiratory support with invasive ventilation (IV). Here, for the first time, improvement of oxygen delivery and oxygen saturation levels were observed in a COVID-19 patient using packed red blood SERO cells (PRBCs) transfusion.Case presentation: A 63-year-old man with a history of smoking and addiction who came to our hospital facility with fever HP fever MESHD, shortness of breath MESHD and decreased blood SERO oxygen saturation. High-resolution chest CT revealed bilateral and multifocal ground-glass opacities consistent with COVID-19. Subsequently, the COVID-19 infection was confirmed TRANS infection was confirmed MESHD by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay of the upper respiratory tract. Conclusions: Oxygen delivery and oxygen saturation improvement were observed in the COVID-19 patient, after PRBCs transfusions.

    COVID-19 outbreak, social distancing and mass testing in Kenya - Insights from a mathematical model 

    Authors: Rachel Waema Mbogo; John W. Oddhiambo

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    As reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), the world is currently facing a devastating pandemic of a novel coronavirus ( COVID -19), which started as an outbreak of pneumonia HP neumonia MESHDof unknown cause in the Wuhan city of China in December 2019. Within days and weeks, the COVID -19 pandemic had spread to over 210 countries. By the end of April, COVID -19 had caused over three million confirmed cases TRANS of i nfections MESHDand 230,000 fatalities globally. The trend poses a huge threat to global public health. Understanding the early transmission TRANS dynamics of the i nfection MESHDand evaluating the effectiveness of control measures is crucial for assessing the potential for sustained transmission TRANS to occur in new areas.We employed a SEIHCRD delay differential mathematical transmission TRANS model with reported Kenyan data on cases of COVID -19 to estimate how transmission TRANS varies over time and which population to target for mass testing. The model is concise in structure, and successfully captures the course of the COVID -19 outbreak, and thus sheds light on understanding the trends of the outbreak and the vulnerable populations. The results from the model gives insights to the government on the population to target for mass testing. The government should target population in the informal settlement for mass testing. People with pre-existing medical and non-medical conditions should be identified and given special medical care.  With aggressive effective mass testing and adhering to the government directives and guidelines, we can get rid of COVID -19 epidemic.

    Prospective Time Periodic Geographical Covid-19 Surveillance in Ethiopia Using a Space-time Scan Statistics: Detecting and Evaluating Emerging Clusters

    Authors: Nuredin Nassir Azmach; Tesfay Gebremariam Tesfahannes; Samiya Abrar Abdulsemed; Temam Abrar Hamza

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: On December 31, 2019, multiple pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD cases, subsequently identified as coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), was reported for the first time in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province in China. At that time, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission had report 27 cases, of which seven are severely ill, and the remaining cases are stable and controllable. Since, then, the spread of COVID-19 has already taken on pandemic proportions, affecting over 100 countries in a matter of weeks. As of September 07, 2020, there had been more than 27 million confirmed cases TRANS and 889,000 total deaths MESHD, with an average mortality of about 3.3%, globally. In Ethiopia, 58,672 confirmed cases TRANS and 918 deaths MESHD and this number are likely to increase exponentially. It is critical to detect clusters of COVID-19 to better allocate resources and improve decision-making as the pandemics continue to grow.Methods: We have collected the individual-level information on patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 on daily bases from the official reports of the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH), regional, and city government of Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa health bureaus. Using the daily case data, we conducted a prospective space-time analysis with SaTScan version 9.6. We detect statistically significant space-time clusters of COVID-19 at the woreda and sub-city level in Ethiopia between March 13th-June 6th, 2020, and March 13th-June 24th, 2020.Results: The prospective space-time scan statistic detected “alive” and emerging clusters that are present at the end of our study periods; notably, nine more clusters were detected when adding the updated case data.Conclusions: These results can notify public health officials and decision-makers about where to improve the allocation of resources, testing areas; also, where to implement necessary isolation measures and travel TRANS bans. As more confirmed cases TRANS become available, the statistic can be rerun to support timely surveillance of COVID-19, demonstrated here. In Ethiopia, our research is the first geographic study that utilizes space-time statistics to monitor COVID-19.

    Performance SERO of serum SERO apolipoprotein-A1 as a sentinel of Covid-19

    Authors: Thierry Poynard; Olivier Deckmyn; Marika Rudler; Valentina Peta; Yen Ngo; Mathieu Vautier; Sepideh Akhavan; Vincent Calvez; Clemence Franc; Jean Marie Castille; Fabienne Drane; Mehdi Sakka; Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot; Jean Marc Lacorte; David Saadoun; Yves Allenbach; Olivier Benveniste; Frederique Gandjbakhch; Julien Mayaux; Olivier Lucidarme; Bruno Fautrel; Vlad Ratziu; Chantal Housset; Dominique Thabut; Patrice Cacoub; Fredrik Nyberg; Jose D Posada; Christian G Reich; Lisa M Schilling; Karishma Shah; Nigham H Shah; Vignesh Subbian; Lin Zhang; Hong Zhu; Patrick Ryan; Daniel Prieto-Alhambra; Kristin Kostka; Talita Duarte-Salles

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20186213 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background Since 1920, a decrease in serum SERO cholesterol has been identified as a marker of severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. We have assessed the performance SERO of serum SERO apolipoprotein-A1, the main transporter of HDL-cholesterol, to identify the early spread of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (Covid-19) in the general population and its diagnostic performance SERO for the Covid-19. Methods We compared the daily mean serum SERO apolipoprotein-A1 during the first 34 weeks of 2020 in a population that is routinely followed for a risk of liver fibrosis MESHD risk in the USA (212,297 sera) and in France (20,652 sera) in relation to a local increase in confirmed cases TRANS, and in comparison to the same period in 2019 (266,976 and 28,452 sera, respectively). We prospectively assessed the sensitivity SERO of this marker in an observational study of 136 consecutive hospitalized cases and retrospectively evaluated its specificity in 7,481 controls representing the general population. Results The mean serum SERO apolipoprotein-A1 levels in the survey populations began decreasing in January 2020, compared to the same period in 2019. This decrease was highly correlated with the daily increase in confirmed Covid-19 cases in the following 34 weeks, both in France and USA, including the June and mid-July recovery periods in France. Apolipoprotein-A1 at the 1.25 g/L cutoff had a sensitivity SERO of 90.6% (95%CI84.2-95.1) and a specificity of 96.1% (95.7-96.6%) for the diagnosis of Covid-19. The area under the characteristics curve was 0.978 (0.957-0.988), and outperformed haptoglobin and liver function tests. The adjusted risk ratio of apolipoprotein-A1 for survival without transfer to intensive care unit was 5.61 (95%CI 1.02-31.0;P=0.04). Conclusion Apolipoprotein-A1 could be a sentinel of the pandemic in existing routine surveillance of the general population. NCT01927133, CER-2020-14.

    Viral and Bacterial Pneumonia HP Detection using Artificial Intelligence in the Era of COVID-19

    Authors: Mehmet Ozsoz; Abdullahi Umar Ibrahim; Sertan Serte; Fadi Al-Turjman; Polycarp Shizawaliyi Yakoi

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 on the eve of January 2020 has led to global crisis around the world. The disease was declared pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) in mid-March. Currently the outbreak has affected more than 150 countries with more than 20 million confirmed cases TRANS and more than 700,000 death tolls. The standard method for detection of COVID-19 is the Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) which is less sensitive, expensive and required specialized health expert. As the number of cases continue to grow, there is high need for developing rapid screening method that is accurate, fast and cheap. Methods: We proposed the use of Deep Learning approach based on Pretrained AlexNet Model for classification of COVID-19, non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and normal Chest X-rays Images (CXR) scans obtained from different public databases. Result and Conclusion: For non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and healthy datasets, the model achieved 94.43% accuracy, 98.19% Sensitivity SERO and 95.78% Specificity. For bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and healthy datasets, the model achieved 91.43% accuracy, 91.94% sensitivity SERO and 100% Specificity. For COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and healthy CXR images, the model achieved 99.16% accuracy, 97.44% sensitivity SERO and 100% Specificity. For classification of COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, the model achieved 99.62% accuracy, 90.63% sensitivity SERO and 99.89% Specificity. For multiclass datasets the model achieved 94.00% accuracy, 91.30% sensitivity SERO and 84.78% specificity for COVID-19, bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and healthy. For 4 classes (COVID-19, non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia HP, bacterial pneumonia HP and healthy, the model achieved accuracy of 93.42%, sensitivity SERO of 89.18% and specificity of 98.92%.

    In Vitro Inactivation of Human Coronavirus by Titania Nanoparticle Coatings and UVC Radiation: Throwing Light on SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Svetlana Khaiboullina; Timsy Uppal; Nikhil Dhabarde; Vaidyanathan Subramanian; Subhash C Verma; Yuanfei Zhu; Wei Xu; Xia Cai; Zhiping Sun; Wendong Han; Rong Ye; Hongjun Chen; Qiang Ding; Qiliang Cai; Di Qu; Youhua Xie; Zhenghong Yuan; Rong Zhang; Arthur G Calise; Bradley L Pulver; Dominic Ruocco; Greggory E Mojares; Michael P Eagan; Kristy L Ziontz; Paul Mastrokyriakos; Stuart L Goldberg; Felecia Cerrato; Maha Farhat; Damien Slater; Jason B Harris; John Branda; David Hooper; Jessie M Gaeta; Travis P. Baggett; James O'Connell; Andreas Gnirke; Tami D Lieberman; Anthony Philippakis; Meagan Burns; Catherine Brown; Jeremy Luban; Edward T Ryan; Sarah E Turbett; Regina C LaRocque; William P. Hanage; Glen Gallagher; Lawrence C Madoff; Sandra Smole; Virginia M. Pierce; Eric S Rosenberg; Pardis Sabeti; Daniel J Park; Bronwyn L MacInnis

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.25.265223 Date: 2020-08-25 Source: bioRxiv

    The newly identified pathogenic human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, led to an atypical pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD-like severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS) outbreak called coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, nearly 23 million cases have been confirmed TRANS worldwide with the highest COVID-19 cases been confirmed TRANS in the United States. As there is no vaccine or any effective interventions, massive efforts to create a postential vaccine to combat COVID-19 is underway. In the meantime, safety precautions and effective disease control strategies appear to be vital for preventing the virus spread in the public places. Due to the longevity of the virus on smooth surfaces, photocatalytic properties of self-disinfecting/cleaning surfaces appear to be a promising tool to help guide disinfection policies to control infectious SAR TRANS-CoV-2 spread in high-traffic areas such as hospitals, grocery stores, airports, schools, and stadiums. Here, we explored the photocatalytic properties of nanosized TiO2 (TNPs) as induced by the UV radiation, towards virus deactivation. Our preliminary results using close genetic relative of SAR TRANS-CoV-2, HCoV-NL63, showed the virucidal efficacy of photoactive TNPs deposited on glass coverslips, as examined by quantitative RT-PCR and virus culture assays. Efforts to extrapolate the underlying concepts described in this study to SARS-CoV-2 are currently underway.

    A Systematic Review on Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19)

    Authors: Hira Karim; Muhammad Shahzeb Khan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0516.v1 Date: 2020-08-24 Source:

    Emerging and reemerging pathogens is a global challenge for public health. Recently, a novel coronavirus disease MESHD emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province of China, in December 2019. It is named COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO). It is known to be caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) that affects the lower respiratory tract and manifests as pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in humans. Coronaviruses (CoVs) are structurally more complicated as compared to other RNA viruses. This viral epidemic has led to the deaths of many, including the elderly TRANS or those with chronic disease MESHD or compromised immunity. Viruses cause infection MESHD and diseases in humans of varying degrees, upper respiratory tract infections MESHD respiratory tract infections HP ( URTIs MESHD) cause common cold while lower respiratory tract infections HP induce pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, bronchitis HP bronchitis MESHD, and even severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS). The costs of COVID-19 are not limited. It equally affects all the medical, sociological, psychological, and economic aspects globally. This is regarded as the third deadly outbreak in the last two decades after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS MESHD (2002–2003) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome MERS MESHD (2012). Based on the sequence homology of SARS-CoV-2, different animal sources including bats, snakes, and pangolins have been reported as potential carriers TRANS of this viral strain. Real-time RT-PCR represents the primary method for the diagnosis of new emerging viral strain SARS-CoV-2. The transmission TRANS dynamics suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted from person-to-person through direct contact or coughing HP, sneezing HP, and by respiratory droplets. Several anti-viral treatments including lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, chloroquine phosphate, and abidor are also suggested with different recommendations and prescriptions. Protective and preventive strategies as suggested by various health organization i.e. WHO and US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) must be adopted by everyone. This review covers the important aspects of novel COVID-19 including characteristics, virology, symptoms, diagnostics, clinical aspects, transmission TRANS dynamics, and protective measures of COVID-19.

    Transmission TRANS Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in a Mid-size City of China

    Authors: Hongjun Zhao; Xiaoxiao Lu; Wenhui Lun; Tiegang Li; Boqi Rao; Dedong Wang; Di Wu; Fuman Qiu; Zhicong Yang; Lu Jiachun

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: An outbreak of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city and then spread to other cities. It is very urgent to delineate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these affected patients. Methods: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19, we describe a case series of 473 patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Wenzhou of China from January 27 to March 2, 2020.Results: The median age TRANS of all patients was 47.6 years, 48.4% of which were female TRANS. 33.8% of the patients had a history of residence in Wuhan. Fever HP Fever MESHD (71.7%) and cough HP (43.1%) were the most common symptoms. In addition, three kinds of unconventional cases were observed, namely 4.9% asymptomatic TRANS patients, 7.6% confirmed patients who had no link to Wuhan city but contact with individuals from Wuhan without any symptoms at the time of contact, and 12.9% confirmed patients who had an unknown source of transmission TRANS. We estimated that the basic reproductive number TRANS ( R0 TRANS) was 2.75 (95%CI: 2.37-3.23). The effective reproduction number TRANS (Rt) fluctuated within the range of 2.50 to 3.74 from January 11 to January 16 while gradually reached the peak of 3.74 on January 16. Rt gradually decreased after January 16 and decreased to 1.00 on January 30. Rt continually decreased and reached the lowest point (0.03) on February 21, 2020.Conclusion: Our findings presented the possibility of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS affected with SARS-CoV-2, and this phenomenon suggested that chances of uncontrollable transmission TRANS in the larger population might be higher than formerly estimated, and transmission TRANS by these three kinds of unconventional patients in Wenzhou may be an important characteristic of infection MESHD in other mid-sized cities in the world. This study evaluated the epidemic characteristics of Wenzhou after having cases imported from Hubei Province and the effects after adopting a series of strict prevention and control strategy. 

    Clinical course, biomarkers, management and outcomes of patients hospitalised due to COVID-19 in Colombia

    Authors: Nancy Yomayusa; Kelly Rocío Chacón Acevedo; Adriana Janeth Avila Reina; Karen Lorena Rincón; Carlos Hernando Toloza; Olga Gomez Gomez; Eduardo Low Padilla; Juan Felipe Combariza Vallejo; Johana Vargas Rodriguez; Emilio Herrera Molina; Sandra Yadira Moreno Marin; Carlos Arturo Álvarez Moreno

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) represents an unprecedented challenge for both people and health systems. Latin America is the current epicentre of the pandemic; however, there is little published clinical information on the clinical characteristics and outcomes.Objective: To analyse the clinic characteristics, risk factors and evolution of the first cohort of hospitalised patients with confirmed infection TRANS by COVID-19 in 5 Colombian institutions.Methods: In the present retrospective observational study, information was acquired from consecutive hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from March 01 to May 30, 2020 in Colombia.Results: A total of 44 patients were included. The median age TRANS was 62 years, and 65.9% of the patients were male TRANS. A total of 69.8% of the patients were overweight HP or obese MESHD, and 13.6% of the patients had high blood SERO pressure and diabetes MESHD. The presence of systemic symptoms and cough HP cough MESHD were the most common. Ground-glass opacity was frequent finding upon chest imaging. The 30-day mortality rate was 47.7% with a median of 11 days. The composite outcome (critical care requirement, mechanical ventilation and death MESHD) occurred in 36.4% of the patients. The biomarkers associated with mortality risk included troponin higher than 14 ng/L (RR: 5.25; 95% CI 1.37-20.1, p = 0.004) and D-dimer higher than 1000 ng/ml (RR: 3.0; 95% CI 1.4-6.3, p = 0.008). Cardiovascular complications MESHD, acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) and acute kidney injury HP acute kidney injury MESHD were the most frequent comorbidities in patients with severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD.Conclusion: The clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD diagnosis confirmed by RT-PCR in Colombian patients admitted to a high-complexity hospital was similar to that reported in the literature; however, the population was characterised by a more advanced stage of the infection MESHD

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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