Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Hepatitis (1)

Meningitis (1)

Fever (1)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Benefit-risk analysis of health benefits of routine childhood immunisation against the excess risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD during the Covid-19 pandemic in Africa

    Authors: Kaja Abbas; Simon R Procter; Kevin van Zandvoort; Andrew Clark; Sebastian Funk; - LSHTM CMMID Covid-19 Working Group; Tewodaj Mengistu; Dan Hogan; Emily Dansereau; Mark Jit; Stefan Flasche

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.20106278 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: National immunisation programmes globally are at risk of suspension due to the severe health system constraints and physical distancing measures in place to mitigate the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Our aim is to compare the health benefits of sustaining routine childhood immunisation in Africa against the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD through visiting routine vaccination service delivery points. Methods: We used two scenarios to approximate the child TRANS deaths that may be caused by immunisation coverage reductions during COVID-19 outbreaks. First, we used previously reported country-specific child TRANS mortality impact estimates of childhood immunisation for diphtheria, tetanus MESHD, pertussis, hepatitis HP hepatitis MESHD B, Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal MESHD, rotavirus MESHD, measles, meningitis HP meningitis MESHD A, rubella MESHD, and yellow fever MESHD fever HP (DTP3, HepB3, Hib3, PCV3, RotaC, MCV1, MCV2, MenA, RCV, YFV) to approximate the future deaths averted before completing five years of age TRANS by routine childhood vaccination during a 6-month COVID-19 risk period without catch-up campaigns. Second, we analysed an alternative scenario that approximates the health benefits of sustaining routine childhood immunisation to only the child TRANS deaths averted from measles outbreaks during the COVID-19 risk period. The excess number of infections MESHD due to additional SARS-CoV-2 exposure during immunisation visits assumes that contact reducing interventions flatten the outbreak curve during the COVID-19 risk period, that 60% of the population will have been infected by the end of that period, that children TRANS can be infected by either vaccinators or during transport and that upon child TRANS infection the whole household would be infected. Country specific household age TRANS structure estimates and age TRANS dependent infection fatality rates are then applied to calculate the number of deaths attributable to the vaccination clinic visits. We present benefit-risk ratios for routine childhood immunisation alongside 95% uncertainty range estimates from probabilistic sensitivity SERO analysis. Findings: For every one excess COVID-19 death attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD acquired during routine vaccination clinic visits, there could be 84 (14-267) deaths in children TRANS prevented by sustaining routine childhood immunisation in Africa. The benefit-risk ratio for the vaccinated children TRANS, siblings, parents TRANS or adult TRANS care-givers, and older adults TRANS in the households of vaccinated children TRANS are 85,000 (4,900 - 546,000), 75,000 (4,400 - 483,000), 769 (148 - 2,700), and 96 (14 - 307) respectively. In the alternative scenario that approximates the health benefits to only the child TRANS deaths averted from measles outbreaks, the benefit-risk ratio to the households of vaccinated children TRANS is 3 (0 - 10) under these highly conservative assumptions and if the risk to only the vaccinated children TRANS is considered, the benefit-risk ratio is 3,000 (182 - 21,000). Interpretation: Our analysis suggests that the health benefits of deaths prevented by sustaining routine childhood immunisation in Africa far outweighs the excess risk of COVID-19 deaths associated with vaccination clinic visits, especially for the vaccinated children TRANS. However, there are other factors that must be considered for strategic decision making to sustain routine childhood immunisation in African countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. These include logistical constraints of vaccine supply chain problems caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, reallocation of immunisation providers to other prioritised health services, healthcare staff shortages caused by SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD among the staff, decreased demand for vaccination arising from community reluctance to visit vaccination clinics for fear of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD, and infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS to healthcare staff providing immunisation services as well as to their households and onward SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS into the wider community.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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