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MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

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Seroprevalence
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    Possible Cross-Reactivity Between SARS-CoV-2 Proteins, CRM197 and Proteins in Pneumococcal Vaccines May Protect Against Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Disease MESHD and Death MESHD

    Authors: Robert Root-Bernstein

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0141.v3 Date: 2020-09-04 Source: Preprints.org

    Various studies indicate that vaccination, especially with pneumococcal vaccines MESHD, protects against symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and death. This paper explores the possibility that pneumococcal vaccines MESHD in particular, but perhaps other vaccines as well, contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Comparison of the glycosylation structures of SARS-CoV-2 with the polysaccharide structures of pneumococcal MESHD vaccines yielded no obvious similarities. However, while pneumococcal MESHD vaccines are primarily composed of capsular polysaccharides, some are conjugated to CRM197, a modified diphtheria toxin, and all contain about three percent protein contaminants, including the pneumococcal MESHD surface proteins PsaA, PspA and probably PspC. All of these proteins have very high degrees of similarity, using very stringent criteria, with several SARS-CoV-2 proteins including the spike protein, membrane protein and replicase 1a. CRM197 is also present in Hib and meningitis HP meningitis MESHD vaccines. Equivalent similarities were found at lower rates, or were completely absent, among the proteins in diphtheria, tetanus MESHD, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella MESHD, and poliovirus vaccines. Notably, PspA and PspC are highly antigenic and new pneumococcal MESHD vaccines based on them are currently in human clinical trials so that their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD is easily testable.

    Equine hyperimmune globulin raised against the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein has extremely high neutralizing titers

    Authors: Luis Eduardo R. Cunha; Adilson A. Stolet; Marcelo A. Strauch; Victor A. R. Pereira; Carlos H. Dumard; Patricia N. C. Souza; Juliana G. Fonseca; Francisco E. Pontes; Leonardo G. R. Meirelles; Jose W. M. Albuquerque; Carolina Q. Sacramento; Natalia Fintelman-Rodrigues; Tulio M. Lima; Renata G. F. Alvim; Russolina Zingali; Guilherme A. P. Oliveira; Thiago M. L. Souza; AMILCAR TANURI; Andre M. O. Gomes; Andrea C. Oliveira; Herbert L. M. Guedes; Leda R. Castilho; Jerson L. Silva; Scott Hensley

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.17.254375 Date: 2020-08-18 Source: bioRxiv

    COVID-19 pandemic caused approximately 750,000 deaths MESHD and over 20 million confirmed cases TRANS of infection MESHD by SARS-CoV-2 within 8 months since the emergence of the virus. While there are no vaccines approved and considering the difficulty in meeting the large vaccination demand worldwide, the potential use of passive immunization should be considered based on existing successful therapies against many diseases. Here we demonstrate that hyperimmune globulin preparations raised in horses against the recombinant trimeric spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 in the prefusion conformation provide very high ELISA SERO titers as well as highly potent neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2. Five horses were subcutaneously inoculated for 6 weeks with the recombinant S protein (ectodomain, residues 1-1208). Four out of the 5 horses presented a strong immune response. Considering the average of all 5 horses, ELISA SERO titers above 1:1,000,000 and neutralizing titers (PRNT90) reaching 1:14,604 were observed. When compared with the plasma SERO of three convalescent COVID-19 patients, sera of immunized horses displayed approximately 140-fold higher neutralizing titers measured as PRNT90. To prevent eventual side effects caused by horse antiserum, IgG was digested with pepsin and purified by fractional salt precipitation to eliminate Fc fragments, a process that is industrially used for the production of passive immunization F(ab)2 concentrates against rabies, tetanus MESHD and snake venoms. The high neutralizing titers against SARS-CoV-2 obtained for the unprocessed sera were confirmed for the F(ab)2 fragments and were 150-fold higher than the PRNT90 neutralizing titers of plasma SERO of three COVID-19 convalescent patients. The great advantage of using the recombinant trimeric S glycoprotein is that it is safe and provides quick adaptive immunity in horses. Our data show the perspective of using hyperimmune anti-SARS-CoV-2 F(ab)2 preparations as a passive immunization therapy in humans, similar to therapies that have been safely used for decades against rabies, tetanus MESHD and snake venoms.

    Possible Cross-Reactivity Between SARS-CoV-2 Proteins, CRM197 and Proteins in Pneumococcal Vaccines May Protect Against Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Disease MESHD and Death MESHD

    Authors: Robert Root-Bernstein

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0141.v2 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: Preprints.org

    Various studies indicate that vaccination, especially with pneumococcal vaccines MESHD, protects against symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and death. This paper explores the possibility that pneumococcal vaccines MESHD in particular, but perhaps other vaccines as well, contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Comparison of the glycosylation structures of SARS-CoV-2 with the polysaccharide structures of pneumococcal MESHD vaccines yielded no obvious similarities. However, while pneumococcal MESHD vaccines are primarily composed of capsular polysaccharides, some are conjugated to CRM197, a modified diphtheria toxin, and all contain about three percent protein contaminants, including the pneumococcal MESHD surface proteins PsaA, PspA and probably PspC. All of these proteins have very high degrees of similarity, using very stringent criteria, with several SARS-CoV-2 proteins including the spike protein, membrane protein and replicase 1a. CRM197 is also present in Hib and meningitis HP meningitis MESHD vaccines. Equivalent similarities were found at statistically significantly lower rates, or were completely absent, among the proteins in diphtheria, tetanus MESHD, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella MESHD, and poliovirus vaccines. Notably, PspA and PspC are highly antigenic and new pneumococcal MESHD vaccines based on them are currently in human clinical trials so that their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD is easily testable.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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