Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Morbidity and Mortality Outcomes of Covid-19 Patients With and Without Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD in Lagos, Nigeria: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Authors: Akin Osibogun; Akin Abayomi; Oluchi Kanma-Okafor; Jide Idris; Abimbola Bowale; Ololade Wright; Bisola Adebayo; Segun Ogboye; Remi Adeseun; Ismael Abdus-Salam; Bamidele Mutiu; Babatunde Saka; Dayo Lajide; Sam Yenyi; Rotimi Agbolagorite; Oluwatosin Onasanya; Eniola Erinosho; Joshua Obasanya; Olu Adejumo; Sunday Adesola; Yewande Oshodi; IorhenE Akase; Shina Ogunbiyi; Adenike Omosun; Femi Erinoso; Hussein Abdur-Razzaq; Nike Osa; Kingsley Akinroye

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-70014/v1 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The current pandemic of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has shown epidemiological and clinical characteristics that appear worsened in hypertensive MESHD patients with COVID-19. The morbidity and mortality of the disease among hypertensive MESHD patients in Africa have yet to be well described.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study all confirmed COVID-19 adult TRANS patients (≥18 years of age TRANS) in Lagos between February 27 to July 6 2020 were included. Demographic, clinical and outcome data were extracted from electronic medical records of patients admitted at the COVID-19 isolation centers in Lagos. Outcomes included dying or being discharged by July 6, 2020. Variables were compared between hypertensive MESHD and non-hypertensives MESHD using univariable and multivariable logistic regression, cox regression and Kaplan Meier survival analysis methods to assess hypertension HP hypertension MESHD as a risk factor associated with worsened disease severity and death MESHD.Results: A total of 2075 adults TRANS with COVID-19 were included in this study. The prevalence SERO of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD was 17.8% and it was the most common comorbidity followed by diabetes MESHD (7.2%) and asthma HP asthma MESHD (2.0%). Overall mortality from COVID-19 was 4.2% while mortality among the hypertensives MESHD was 13.7%. Severe symptoms and mortality were significantly higher among the hypertensives MESHD and survival rates were significantly lowered by the presence of an additional comorbidity to 50% from 91% for those with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD alone and from 98% for all other patients (P<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, severe COVID-19 disease and death MESHD were higher for hypertensives MESHD (severe/critical illness: HR=2.41, P=0.001, 95%CI=1.4–4.0, death: HR=2.30, P=0.001, 95%CI=1.2–4.6, for those with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD only). Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD posed an increased risk of severe morbidity and death MESHD from coronavirus disease MESHD in the presence of other comorbidities (severe/critical illness: HR=3.76, P=0.001, 95%CI=2.1–6.4, death: crude HR=6.63, P=0.001, 95%CI=3.4–1.6, for those with additional comorbidities).Conclusion: The potential morbidity and mortality risks of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD especially with other comorbidities in COVID-19 could help direct efforts towards prevention and prognostication. This provides the rationale for improving preventive caution for people with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and other comorbidities and prioritizing them for future antiviral interventions.

    Clinical Characteristics, Comorbidities, Initial Management and Outcome of COVID-19 Infected Patients Admitted to Intensive Care Unit in Somalia: A National Retrospective Study.

    Authors: Mohamed Farah Yusuf Mohamud; Abdullahi Said Hashi; Abdikarim Hussein Mohamed; Ali Mohamed Yusuf; Ibrahim Hussein Ali; Mohamed Abdi Ahmed

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-66767/v1 Date: 2020-08-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics, morbidities, management, and outcomes of COVID-19 Infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Somalia.Material MESHD and methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of laboratory 60 confirmed patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) admitted to an ICU from March 28, to May 28, 2020.The sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, exposure history, clinical manifestations (symptoms and signs), laboratory findings, treatment, and outcomes were collected from medical records.Results: Most of the patients admitted to ICU were men over 59 years of age TRANS, and nearly half had diabetes MESHD followed by hypertension HP hypertension MESHD chronic kidney disease HP and asthma HP asthma MESHD. The most clinical presentations were dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD (91.2%), Fever HP Fever MESHD (81.1%), (68.75%), Fatigue HP and myalgia HP myalgia MESHD (25%), and Altered level of conscious (16.6%). Among 48 patients admitted to the ICU, about 24 (50%) patients had required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, and 11(29.9%) patients needed noninvasive ventilation, while 13(27.08%) patients treated with high-flow oxygen therapy >15 L/min (Table 3). Corticosteroids were administered to most patients (85.4%), while 77.1% of the patients received inhaled bronchodilators and morethan half of the patients administered antibiotics. 58.3% of the patients had received Oseltamivir, while 22.9% received Vasopressors.Conclusion This study represents the first description of critically ill MESHD patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to ICU in Somalia. The study identified that elder age TRANS, male TRANS gender TRANS, and diabetic MESHD and hypertensive MESHD comorbidities as independent risk factors of poor outcomes for patients admitted to the ICU (p<0.005).

    Decreased Eosinophil Counts HP and Elevated Lactate Dehydrogenase Predict Severe COVID-19 Patients with Underlying Chronic Airway Diseases MESHD

    Authors: Lingling Yi; Dian Chen; Shuchen Zhang; Yuchen Feng; Wenliang Wu; Chenli Chang; Shengchong Chen; Guohua Zhen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53471/v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Several predictors for the severity of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported, including decreased circulating lymphocytes and eosinophil counts. However, chronic airway inflammation MESHD characterized by accumulated lymphocytes or eosinophils may affect the pathogenesis of COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the predictors for the severity of COVID-19 in patients with chronic airway diseases.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed medical records of all laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with chronic bronchitis HP chronic bronchitis MESHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD ( COPD MESHD) and asthma HP asthma MESHD admitted in Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital, a large regional hospital in Wuhan, China, from January 26th to April 3rd. The Tongji Hospital ethics committee approved this study.Results: There were 59 patients with underlying chronic airway inflammation MESHD including chronic bronchitis HP bronchitis MESHD, COPD MESHD, and asthma HP asthma MESHD. When compared with non-severe patients, severe patients were more likely to have decreased lymphocyte counts (0.6 vs. 1.1× 10⁹/L, p < 0.001), eosinopenia (< 0.02 × 10⁹/L, 73% vs. 24%, p < 0.001), increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (471.0 vs. 230.0 U/L, p < 0.001) and elevated IL-6 level (47.4 vs. 5.7 pg/ml, p = 0.002) on admission. Eosinopenia and elevated LDH were significantly associated with disease severity in both univariate and multivariate regression models included the above variables. Eosinopenia was also an independent risk factor for mortality of this cohort in a multivariate model included the above variables. Moreover, eosinophil counts and LDH levels tended to return to normal range over time in both groups after treatment and severe patients recovered slower than non-severe patients, especially eosinophil counts.Conclusions: Eosinopenia and elevated LDH are potential predictors of disease severity in COVID-19 patients with underlying chronic airway diseases. Theses predictors may help clinicians identify the severe COVID-19 patients with chronic bronchitis HP chronic bronchitis MESHD, COPD MESHD, and asthma HP asthma MESHD.

    Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization: COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Authors: Jean Y. Ko; Melissa L. Danielson; Machell Town; Gordana Derado; Kurt J. Greenland; Pam Daily Kirley; Nisha B. Alden; Kimberly Yousey-Hindes; Evan J. Anderson; Patricia A. Ryan; Sue Kim; Ruth Lynfield; Salina M. Torres; Grant R. Barney; Nancy M. Bennett; Melissa Sutton; H. Keipp Talbot; Mary Hill; Aron J. Hall; Alicia M. Fry; Shikha Garg; Lindsay Kim; - COVID-NET Investigation Group

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20161810 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Identification of risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization is needed to guide prevention and clinical care. Objective: To examine if age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions is independently associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: 70 counties within 12 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) and a population-based sample of non-hospitalized adults TRANS residing in the COVID-NET catchment area from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Participants: U.S. community-dwelling adults TRANS ([≥]18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, March 1- June 23, 2020. Measurements: Adjusted rate ratios (aRR) of hospitalization by age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity and underlying medical conditions ( hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, coronary artery disease MESHD, history of stroke HP stroke MESHD, diabetes MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD [BMI [≥]30 kg/m2], severe obesity HP obesity MESHD [BMI[≥]40 kg/m2], chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, asthma HP asthma MESHD, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD). Results: Our sample included 5,416 adults TRANS with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Adults TRANS with (versus without) severe obesity HP obesity MESHD (aRR:4.4; 95%CI: 3.4, 5.7), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (aRR:4.0; 95%CI: 3.0, 5.2), diabetes MESHD (aRR:3.2; 95%CI: 2.5, 4.1), obesity HP obesity MESHD (aRR:2.9; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.5), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (aRR:2.8; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.4), and asthma HP asthma MESHD (aRR:1.4; 95%CI: 1.1, 1.7) had higher rates of hospitalization, after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, and race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for the presence of an individual underlying medical condition, higher hospitalization rates were observed for adults TRANS [≥]65 years, 45-64 years (versus 18-44 years), males TRANS (versus females TRANS), and non-Hispanic black and other race/ethnicities (versus non-Hispanic whites). Limitations: Interim analysis limited to hospitalizations with underlying medical condition data. Conclusion: Our findings elucidate groups with higher hospitalization risk that may benefit from targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.

    Asthma HP in COVID-19: An extra chain fitting around the neck?

    Authors: Mohammad Hosny Hussein; Eman Ali Toraih; Abdallah S Attia; Mohanad Youssef; Mahmoud Omar; Nicholas Burley; Allen D Zhang; Jackson Roos; August Houghton; Nedum Aniemeka; Mohamed Ahmed Shama; Juan Duchesne; Emad Kandil

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.13.20153130 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread across the globe, overwhelming healthcare systems and depleting resources. The infection MESHD has a wide spectrum of presentations, and pre-existing comorbidities have been found to have a dramatic effect on the disease course and prognosis. We sought to analyze the effect of asthma HP on the disease progression and outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Methods We conducted a multi-center retrospective study of positively confirmed COVID-19 patients from multiple hospitals in Louisiana. Demographics, medical history, comorbidities, clinical presentation, daily laboratory values, complications, and outcomes data were collected and analyzed. The primary outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, risk of intubation, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay. Results A total of 502 COVID-19 patients (72 asthma HP and 430 non- asthma HP cohorts) were included in the study. The frequency of asthma HP asthma MESHD in hospitalized cohorts was 14.3%, higher than the national prevalence SERO of asthma HP (7.7%). Univariate analysis revealed that asthma HP asthma MESHD patients were more likely to be obese MESHD (75% vs 54.2%, p=0.001), with higher frequency of intubation (40.3% vs 27.8%, p = 0.036), and required longer duration of hospitalization (15.1{+/-}12.5 vs 11.5{+/-}10.6, p=0.015). After adjustment, multivariable analysis showed that asthmatic patients were not associated with higher risk of ICU admission (OR=1.81, 95%CI=0.98-3.09, p=0.06), endotracheal intubation (OR=1.77, 95%CI=0.99-3.04, p=0.06) or complications (OR=1.37, 95%CI=0.82-2.31, p=0.23). Asthmatic patients were not associated with higher odds of prolonged hospital length of stay (OR=1.48, 95%CI=0.82-2.66, p=0.20) or with the duration of ICU stay (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.28-2.02, p=0.58). Kaplan-Meier curve showed no significant difference in overall survival of the two groups (p=0.65). Conclusion Despite the increased prevalence SERO of hospitalization in asthmatic COVID-19 patients compared to the general population, after adjustment for other variables, it was neither associated with increased severity nor worse outcomes.

    IL-33 expression in response to SARS-CoV-2 correlates with seropositivity in COVID-19 convalescent individuals

    Authors: Michal A Stanczak; David E Sanin; Petya Apostolova; Gabriele Nerz; Dimitrios Lampaki; Maike Hofmann; Daniel Steinmann; Robert Thimme; Gerhard Mittler; Cornelius F Waller; Edward J Pearce; Erika L Pearce

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20148056 Date: 2020-07-10 Source: medRxiv

    Our understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is still developing. We investigated seroprevalence SERO and immune responses in subjects professionally exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and their family members TRANS (155 individuals; ages TRANS 5-79 years). Seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein aligned with PCR results that confirmed previous infection MESHD. Anti-spike IgG titers remained high 60 days post- infection MESHD and did not associate with symptoms, but spike-specific IgM did associate with malaise and fever MESHD fever HP. We found limited household transmission TRANS, with children TRANS of infected individuals seldomly seropositive, highlighting professional exposure as the dominant route of infection MESHD in our cohort. We analyzed PBMCs from a subset of seropositive and seronegative adults TRANS. TLR7 agonist- activation revealed an increased population of IL-6+TNF-IL-1{beta}+ monocytes, while SARS-CoV-2 peptide stimulation elicited IL-33, IL-6, IFNa2, and IL-23 expression in seropositive individuals. IL-33 correlated with CD4+ T cell activation in PBMCs from convalescent subjects, and was likely due to T cell-mediated effects on IL-33- producing cells. IL-33 is associated with pulmonary infection MESHD infection and chronic HP chronic diseases like asthma MESHD asthma HP and COPD, but its role in COVID-19 is unknown. Analysis of published scRNAseq data of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid MESHD ( BALF MESHD) from patients with mild to severe COVID-19 revealed a population of IL-33-producing cells that increases with disease. Together these findings show that IL-33 production is linked to SARS-CoV- 2 infection MESHD and warrant further investigation of IL-33 in COVID-19 pathogenesis and immunity.

    A Network Medicine Approach to Investigation and Population-based Validation of Disease Manifestations and Drug Repurposing for COVID-19

    Authors: Yadi Zhou; Yuan Hou; Jiayu Shen; Asha Kalianpur; Joe Zein; Daniel A. Culver; Samar Farha; Suzy Comhair; Claudio Fiocchi; Michaela U. Gack; Reena Mehra; Thaddeus S Stappenbeck; Timothy Chan; Charis Eng; Jae U. Jung; Lara Jehi; Serpil Erzurum; Feixiong Cheng

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12579137.v1 Date: 2020-07-02 Source: ChemRxiv

    The global Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), has led to unprecedented social and economic consequences. The risk of morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 increases dramatically in the presence of co-existing medical conditions while the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Furthermore, there are no proven effective therapies for COVID-19. This study aims to identify SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, diseases manifestations, and COVID-19 therapies using network medicine methodologies along with clinical and multi-omics observations. We incorporate SARS-CoV-2 virus-host protein-protein interactions, transcriptomics, and proteomics into the human interactome. Network proximity measure revealed underlying pathogenesis for broad COVID-19-associated manifestations. Multi-modal analyses of single-cell RNA-sequencing data showed that co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was elevated in absorptive enterocytes from the inflamed ileal tissues of Crohn's disease HP Crohn's disease MESHD patients compared to uninflamed tissues, revealing shared pathobiology by COVID-19 and inflammatory bowel disease MESHD. Integrative analyses of metabolomics and transcriptomics (bulk and single-cell) data from asthma HP asthma MESHD patients indicated that COVID-19 shared intermediate inflammatory endophenotypes with asthma HP asthma MESHD (includingIRAK3 and ADRB2). To prioritize potential treatment, we combined network-based prediction and propensity score (PS) matching observational study of 18,118 patients from a COVID-19 registry. We identified that melatonin (odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.59) was associated with 64% reduced likelihood of a positive laboratory test result for SARS-CoV-2. Using PS-matching user active comparator design, melatonin was associated with 54% reduced likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 positive test result compared to angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.86).

    Factors Associated with Hospitalization and Disease Severity in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Population of COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Angelico Mendy; Senu Apewokin; Anjanette A Wells; Ardythe L Morrow

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.25.20137323 Date: 2020-06-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) first identified in Wuhan in December 2019 became a pandemic within a few months of its discovery. The impact of COVID-19 is due to both its rapid spread and its severity, but the determinants of severity have not been fully delineated. Objective: Identify factors associated with hospitalization and disease severity in a racially and ethnically diverse cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: We analyzed data from COVID-19 patients diagnosed at the University of Cincinnati health system from March 13, 2020 to May 31, 2020. Severe COVID-19 was defined as admission to intensive care unit or death MESHD. Logistic regression modeling adjusted for covariates was used to identify the factors associated with hospitalization and severe COVID-19. Results: Among the 689 COVID-19 patients included in our study, 29.2% were non-Hispanic White, 25.5% were non-Hispanic Black, 32.5% were Hispanic, and 12.8% were of other race/ethnicity. About 31.3% of patients were hospitalized and 13.2% had severe disease. In adjusted analyses, the sociodemographic factors associated with hospitalization and/or disease severity included older age TRANS, non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity (compared to non-Hispanic White), and smoking. The following comorbidities: diabetes MESHD, hypercholesterolemia HP hypercholesterolemia MESHD, asthma HP asthma MESHD, COPD MESHD, chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, cardiovascular diseases MESHD, osteoarthritis HP osteoarthritis MESHD, and vitamin D deficiency MESHD were associated with hospitalization and/or disease severity. Hematological disorders MESHD such as anemia HP anemia MESHD, coagulation disorders MESHD, and thrombocytopenia HP thrombocytopenia MESHD were associated with both hospitalization and disease severity. Conclusion: This study confirms race and ethnicity as predictors of severe COVID-19. It also finds clinical risk factors for hospitalization and severe COVID-19 not previously identified such a vitamin D deficiency MESHD, hypercholesterolemia HP hypercholesterolemia MESHD, osteoarthritis HP osteoarthritis MESHD, and anemia HP anemia MESHD.

    Triple Therapy With Budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol Fumarate Used in Asthmatic Coexisting With Covid-19

    Authors: Yingjian Liang; Meizhu Chen; Cuiyan Tan; Changli Tu; Jin Huang; Xiaobin Zheng; Jing Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-36621/v1 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Awareness of the association between coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and airway diseases can effectively help in the treatment during the coronavirus pandemic. Case presentation: Herein, we present a COVID-19 case who confirmed to coexist with asthma HP asthma MESHD. BGF was used as sequential medicine to systemic glucocorticoidsfor his persisted symptoms related to bronchospasms HP bronchospasms MESHD.Conclusion: Our case suggests patients with long-term airway diseases like asthma HP probably attribute to COVID-19 instead of primary diseases, which make it more difficult in the treatment.BGF is able to be an effective and convenient choiceas sequential medicine to systemic glucocorticoidsin some refractoryasthmatic patients complicated with COVID-19.

    Comorbidity and Sociodemographic determinants in COVID-19 Mortality in an US Urban Healthcare System

    Authors: AN-LI WANG; Xiaobo Zhong; Yasmin Hurd

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.11.20128926 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background: New York City is the US epicenter of the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Early international data indicated that comorbidity contributes significantly to poor prognosis and fatality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. It is not known to what degree medical comorbidity and sociodemographic determinants impact COVID-19 mortality in the US. Methods: Evaluation of de-identified electronic health records of 7,592 COVID-19 patients confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 lab tests in New York City. Medical comorbidites and outcome of mortality, and other covariates, including clinical, sociodemographic, and medication measures were assessed by bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Of common comorbid conditions ( hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD, asthma HP asthma MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, diabetes MESHD, HIV MESHD, cancer MESHD), when adjusted for covariates, chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD remained significantly associated with increased odds of mortality. Patients who had more than one comorbidities, former smokers, treated with Azithromycin without Hydroxychloroquine, reside within the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens Higher had higher odds of death MESHD. Conclusions: Increasing numbers of comorbid factors increase COVID-19 mortality, but several clinical and sociodemographic factors can mitigate risk. Continued evaluation of COVID-19 in large diverse populations is important to characterize individuals at risk and improve clinical outcomes.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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