Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Clinical characteristics study of elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in China

    Authors: Chao Zhang; Hua Fu; Long Zhang; Yuxiong Yin; Jing Lin; Hu Liu; Qing Mao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-67737/v1 Date: 2020-08-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a newly emerged respiratory disease MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), has recently become pandemic. Clinical observation indicated that elderly TRANS patients had high incidence of severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and poor treatment efficacy. Therefore, this study was to clarify the characteristics of elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in order to guide rational treatment for elderly TRANS patients. Methods: we enrolled 331 elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with confirmed COVID-19 in Huoshenshan hospital of Wuhan from February 3rd to March 31st. The cases were divided into general, serious and critical groups according to severity after hospitalization, and the difference among groups were compared by R package statistics software. Results: Compared with general group, serious and critical groups had more underlying comorbidities and higher incidence of cough HP cough MESHD, breath shortness MESHD and anorexia HP anorexia MESHD. Moreover, there existed obviously differences in many of laboratory indexes and CT images among them. serious and critical elderly TRANS patients were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, corticosteroid, abidor, cephaloprin, imipenem, human serum SERO albumin (HSA), nutrition support, anti SARS-CoV-2 positive plasma SERO and actemra. Multivariate analysis of factors showed that male TRANS sex, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, renal diseases MESHD, breath shortness MESHD, neutrophil, platelet, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase were the risk factor for serious and critical illness. While blood SERO cell (WBC) was the protective factor. Conclusion: elderly TRANS patients have high incidence of severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and poor treatment efficacy. The reasons might be that many of the elderly TRANS patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD have certain chronic disease MESHD, poor immune function and a meager response to the virus. the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 might be involved in the cell-mediated immunity and cytokine storms by acting on lymphocytes.

    A Systematic Review on Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19)

    Authors: Hira Karim; Muhammad Shahzeb Khan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0516.v1 Date: 2020-08-24 Source: Preprints.org

    Emerging and reemerging pathogens is a global challenge for public health. Recently, a novel coronavirus disease MESHD emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province of China, in December 2019. It is named COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO). It is known to be caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) that affects the lower respiratory tract and manifests as pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in humans. Coronaviruses (CoVs) are structurally more complicated as compared to other RNA viruses. This viral epidemic has led to the deaths of many, including the elderly TRANS or those with chronic disease MESHD or compromised immunity. Viruses cause infection MESHD and diseases in humans of varying degrees, upper respiratory tract infections MESHD respiratory tract infections HP ( URTIs MESHD) cause common cold while lower respiratory tract infections HP induce pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, bronchitis HP bronchitis MESHD, and even severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS). The costs of COVID-19 are not limited. It equally affects all the medical, sociological, psychological, and economic aspects globally. This is regarded as the third deadly outbreak in the last two decades after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS MESHD (2002–2003) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome MERS MESHD (2012). Based on the sequence homology of SARS-CoV-2, different animal sources including bats, snakes, and pangolins have been reported as potential carriers TRANS of this viral strain. Real-time RT-PCR represents the primary method for the diagnosis of new emerging viral strain SARS-CoV-2. The transmission TRANS dynamics suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted from person-to-person through direct contact or coughing HP, sneezing HP, and by respiratory droplets. Several anti-viral treatments including lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, chloroquine phosphate, and abidor are also suggested with different recommendations and prescriptions. Protective and preventive strategies as suggested by various health organization i.e. WHO and US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) must be adopted by everyone. This review covers the important aspects of novel COVID-19 including characteristics, virology, symptoms, diagnostics, clinical aspects, transmission TRANS dynamics, and protective measures of COVID-19.

    Spatial Distribution and Trend Analysis of Current Status of COVID-19 in Nepal and Global Future Preventive Perspectives

    Authors: Ramesh Raj Pant; Buddha Bahadur Bahadur; Kiran Bishwakarma; Sudip Paudel; Nashib Pandey; Samir Kumar Adhikari; Kamal Ranabhat

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-54139/v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a recently discovered severe and contagious disease MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) and has received worldwide attention. The risk of COVID-19 is serious for the infected persons of chronic diseases MESHD as well as vulnerable populations including elder group. Still, the present scenario of scarcity of effective treatment options and limited recovery rate of ongoing treatment are prevailed in Nepal. This study aims to analyze the spatial distribution and trends of COVID-19 with the help of geographic information system ( GIS MESHD) software and outlook future preventive perspectives.Methods: In this research work, we used GIS tool ArcGIS 10.4.1 to map the distribution patterns of population of COVID-19 cases. Federal, provincial and district level daily cases data of COVID-19 confirmed, cured and death MESHD from 23rd January to 13th July 2020 were obtained from the Ministry of Health and Population (MoHP), Government of Nepal. In addition, we reviewed several peer-reviewed research papers to summarize the global scenarios and preventive perspectives on COVID-19.Results: In context to Nepal SARS-CoV-2 has spread throughout the country infecting 16,945 persons in all 77 districts, as of 13th July, 2020. Confirmed, cured and death MESHD cases experienced an upward trend up to 1st July, 2020 followed by downward trend as of 13th July, 2020. Over 70% of total confirmed cases TRANS of reported COVID-19 patients were from the lowland-plain area. Spatial clustering suggested that provinces 2 and 5 were at potentially increased risk of COVID-19, and Province 1 and Bagmati province could be grouped as future "hot spots". In addition, we proposed four strategies namely, identification of the key medical and social elements, discovery and development of treatment options for a future pandemic, investing in ethno-medicine research and epidemic preparedness of health care system to decrease the efficacy of calamities of future pandemics.Conclusion: Our study demonstrates one of the best ways to protect; control and sluggish transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 could be achieved by monitoring active ties using GIS spatial analysis. And, the severity of future pandemic could be minimized by integrative action on the abovementioned four different preventive master plans.

    Comorbidities associated with regional variations in COVID-19 mortality revealed by population-level analysis

    Authors: Hongxing Yang; Fei Zhong

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20158105 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-Cov-2), has developed into a global health crisis. Understanding the risk factors for poor outcomes of COVID-19 is thus important for successful management and control of the pandemic. However, the progress and severity of the epidemic across different regions show great differentiations. We hypothesized the origination of these differences are based on location-dependent variations in underlying population-wide health factors. Disease prevalence SERO or incidence data of states and counties of the United States were collected for a group of chronic diseases MESHD, including hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, coronary heart disease MESHD, heart failure MESHD, physical inactivation, and common cancers MESHD (e.g., lung, colorectal MESHD, stomach, kidney and renal MESHD). Correlation and regression analysis identified the prevalence SERO of heart failure MESHD as a significant positive factor for region-level COVID-19 mortality. Similarly, the incidence of gastric cancer MESHD and thyroid cancer MESHD were also identified as significant factors contributing to regional variation in COVID-19 mortality. To explore the implications of these results, we re-analyzed the RNA-seq data for stomach adenocarcinoma MESHD ( STAD MESHD) and colon carcinoma MESHD carcinoma HP ( COAD MESHD) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We found that expression of genes in the immune response pathways were more severely disturbed in STAD MESHD than in COAD, implicating higher probability for STAD MESHD patients or individuals with precancerous chronic stomach diseases MESHD to develop cytokine storm once infected with COVID-19. Taken together, we conclude that location variations in particular chronic diseases MESHD and cancers MESHD contribute significantly to the regional variations in COVID-19 mortality.

    COVID-19 misinformation: mere harmless delusions HP or much more? A knowledge and attitude cross-sectional study among the general public residing in Jordan

    Authors: Malik Sallam; Deema Dababseh; Alaa Yaseen; Ayat Al-Haidar; Duaa Taim; Huda Eid; Nidaa A. Ababneh; Faris G. Bakri; Azmi Mahafzah

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.13.20152694 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Since the emergence of the recent coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and its spread as a pandemic, media was teeming with misinformation that led to psychologic, social and economic consequences among the global public. Probing knowledge and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD regarding this novel infectious disease MESHD is necessary to identify gaps and sources of misinformation which can help public health efforts to design and implement more focused interventional measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and effects of misinformation about COVID-19 on anxiety HP anxiety MESHD level among the general public residing in Jordan. An online survey was used that targeted people aged TRANS 18 and above and residing in Jordan. The questionnaire included items on the following: demographic characteristics of the participants, knowledge about COVID-19, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD level and misconceptions regarding the origin of the pandemic. The total number of participants included in final analysis was 3150. The study population was predominantly females TRANS (76.0%), with mean age TRANS of 31 years. The overall knowledge of COVID-19 was satisfactory. Older age TRANS, male TRANS gender TRANS, lower monthly income and educational levels, smoking and history of chronic disease MESHD were associated with perceiving COVID-19 as a very dangerous disease. Variables that were associated with a higher anxiety HP anxiety MESHD level during the pandemic included: lower monthly income and educational level, residence outside the capital (Amman) and history of smoking. Misinformation about the origin of the pandemic (being part of a conspiracy, biologic warfare and the 5G networks role) was also associated with higher anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and lower knowledge about the disease. Social media platforms, TV and news releases were the most common sources of information about the pandemic. The study showed the potential harmful effects of misinformation on the general public and emphasized the need to meticulously deliver timely and accurate information about the pandemic to lessen the health, social and psychological impact of the disease MESHD.

    Clinical, Behavioral and Social Factors Associated with Racial Disparities in Hospitalized and Ambulatory COVID-19 Patients from an Integrated Health Care System in Georgia

    Authors: Felipe Lobelo; Alan X Bienvenida; Serena Leung; Armand N Mbanya; Elizabeth J. Leslie; Kate E Koplan; S. Ryan Shin

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.08.20148973 Date: 2020-07-10 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Racial and ethnic minorities have shouldered a disproportioned burden of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) infection MESHD to date in the US, but data on the various drivers of these disparities is limited. Objectives: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients and explore factors associated with hospitalization risk by race. Methods: Case series of 448 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 seen at Kaiser Permanente Georgia (KPGA), an integrated health care system serving the Atlanta metropolitan area, from March 3 to May 12, 2020. KPGA members with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Multivariable analyses for hospitalization risk also included an additional 3489 persons under investigation (PUI) with suspected infection MESHD. COVID-19 treatment and outcomes, underlying comorbidities and quality of care management metrics, socio-demographic and other individual and community-level social determinants of health (SDOH) indicators. Results: Of 448 COVID-19 positive members, 68,3% was non-Hispanic Black (n=306), 18% non-Hispanic White (n=81) and 13,7% Other race (n=61). Median age TRANS was 54 [IQR 43-63) years. Overall, 224 patients were hospitalized, median age TRANS 60 (50-69) years. Black race was a significant factor in the Confirmed + PUI, female TRANS and male TRANS models (ORs from 1.98 to 2.19). Obesity HP was associated with higher hospitalization odds in the confirmed, confirmed + PUI, Black and male TRANS models (ORs from 1.78 to 2.77). Chronic disease MESHD control metrics ( diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, hyperlipidemia HP hyperlipidemia MESHD) were associated with lower odds of hospitalization ranging from 48% to 35% in the confirmed + PUI and Black models. Self-reported physical inactivity was associated with 50% higher hospitalization odds in the Black and Female TRANS models. Residence in the Northeast region of Atlanta was associated with lower hospitalization odds in the Confirmed + PUI, White and female TRANS models (ORs from 0.22 to 0.64) Conclusions: We found that non-Hispanic Black KPGA members had a disproportionately higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD and, after adjusting for covariates, twice the risk of hospitalization compared to other race groups. We found no significant differences in clinical outcomes or mortality across race/ethnicity groups. In addition to age TRANS, sex and comorbidity burden, pre-pandemic self-reported exercise, metrics on quality of care and control of underlying cardio-metabolic diseases MESHD, and location of residence in Atlanta were significantly associated with hospitalization risk by race groups. Beyond well-known physiologic and clinical factors, individual and community-level social indicators and health behaviors must be considered as interventions designed to reduce COVID-19 disparities and the systemic effects of racism are implemented.

    SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence SERO Rates of Children TRANS in Louisiana During the State Stay at Home Order.

    Authors: Monika L Dietrich; Elizabeth B Norton; Debra Elliott; Ashley R Smira; Julie A Rouelle; Nell G Bond; Karen Aime-Marcelin; Alisha Prystowsky; Rebecca Kemnitz; Arunava Sarma; Sarah Talia Himmelfarb; Neha Sharma; Addison E Stone; Randall Craver; Alyssa R Lindrose; Leslie A Smitley; Robert B Uddo; Leann Myers; Stacy S Drury; John S Schieffelin; James E Robinson; Kevin J Zwezdaryk

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20147884 Date: 2020-07-08 Source: medRxiv

    Children TRANS (less than 19 years) account for 20% of the US population but currently represent less than 2% of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Because infected children TRANS often have few or no symptoms and may not be tested, the extent of infection in children TRANS is poorly understood. METHODS During the March 18th-May 15th 2020 Louisiana Stay At Home Order, 1690 blood SERO samples from 812 individuals from a Childrens Hospital were tested for antibodies SERO to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. Demographics, COVID-19 testing, and clinical presentation abstracted from medical records were compared with local COVID-19 cases. RESULTS In total, 62 subjects (7.6%) were found to be seropositive. The median age TRANS was 11 years with 50.4% female TRANS. The presenting complaint of seropositive patients was chronic illness MESHD (43.5%). Only 18.2% had a previous positive COVID-19 PCR or antibody test SERO. Seropositivity was significantly associated with parish (counties), race, and residence in a low-income area. Importantly, seropositivity was linearly correlated with cumulative COVID-19 case number for all ages TRANS by parish. CONCLUSION In a large retrospective study, the seropositivity prevalence SERO for SARS-CoV-2 in children TRANS in Louisiana during the mandated Stay At Home Order was 7.6%. Residence location, race, and lower socioeconomic factors were linked to more frequent seropositivity in children TRANS and correlated to regional COVID-19 case rates. Thus, a significant number of children TRANS in Louisiana had SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD that went undetected and unreported and may have contributed to virus transmission TRANS.

    Clinical characteristics of confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 admitted at Al-Nahdha hospital, Oman: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    Authors: Saud Al Harthi; Magdi AlOsali; Ruwaida Al Ismaili; Sultan Al Lawati; Bina Kamble; Mustafa Al Shaaibi; Nasser Al kindi; Salim Al Qasabi; Mohamed Al Hinai; Hamad Al Harthi; Thamra Al Ghafri

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39988/v1 Date: 2020-07-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: With the coronavirus disease MESHD 19 (COVID-19) pervading the world, little has been published regarding the hospitalized cases of COVID-19 (confirmed) in the Arabian Gulf countries. This paper describes the socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics, treatment and clinical outcomes of these cases in Al-Nahdha hospital, Oman. Additionally, factors associated with requiring critical care were identified.Methods: Data of all the positive cases in Al-Nahdha hospital were retrieved from the electronic health information system retrospectively from 3rd of March to 9th May 2020. Required information was recorded in a bespoke sheet and exported to SPSS for further analysis. The primary outcome was defined as requiring vs not requiring critical care.Results:Out of 102 total admissions, 19 cases required critical care (18.6%). Compared to the non-critical cases, majority of the severe cases requiring critical care were older [54.1(13.4) years vs 48.9(14.9) years], males TRANS [89.5% vs 74.7%] and non-nationals [63.2 vs 55.4%]. Significant factors associated with requiring critical care were symptoms of shortness of breath MESHD (89.5% vs 65.1%, P=0.03), diabetes MESHD (68.4% vs 32.5%, OR=1.5, P=0.004), chronic artery disease MESHD (15.8% vs 3.6%, OR=1.7, P=0.04), diagnosis of ARDS (63.2% vs 6.0%, P<0.001). Additionally, the mean ferritin levels was significantly higher in cases requiring critical care compared to their counter cases (2350.4(423.8) vs 795.7(554.3), P=0.005). Depending on disease severity, treatment included anti-bacterial, anti-viral, heparin and steroids. The utilization of steroids was significantly higher in the cases requiring critical care (63.2% vs 26.5%, P=0.001). Out of cases who required critical care (n=19), nine died (death rate= 47.4%). Conclusions:Results from this study provides fundamental information about the non-clinical and clinical characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Oman. The information obtained can be utilized to follow up the clinical progress of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the Arabic speaking countries where such reports are limited.

    Evaluation of Health Status of Children TRANS with Autoinflammatory Diseases MESHD During COVID-19 Pandemic

    Authors: Fatih Haslak; Mehmet Yildiz; Amra Adrovic; Sezgin Sahin; Oya Koker; Ayten Aliyeva; Kenan Barut; Ozgur Kasapcopur

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-35834/v1 Date: 2020-06-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Since concerns have been raised that comorbidity is a significant risk factor for Coronavirus Disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19), there is an urgent need to perform studies which evaluate patients with chronic diseases MESHD such as autoinflammatory diseases MESHD ( AIDs MESHD). We prepared a web-based survey investigating the clinical findings and contagion histories. Patients with AIDs MESHD, were included in the study. Confirmed COVID-19 cases, patients with contact history and patients with symptoms which were highly suggestive of COVID-19 were called via phone or recruited to a video or face to face appointment. Data of AIDs MESHD were obtained from their medical records, retrospectively. Laboratory and screening findings were confirmed by using our national health registry website and they were re-examined, if required. There were 404 patients (217 female TRANS) eligible for the enrollment. During pandemic, 375 (93%) were on colchicine treatment, and 48 (11.8%) were receiving biologic treatment. 24 out of 404 patients had admission to hospital due to COVID-19 suspicion. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) were identified through rhino-pharyngeal swabs in 7 patients, 6 of whom were only on colchicine treatment. Only one patient with no finding of any severe respiratory complications has been hospitalized. All of them recovered completely. Among patients on biologic drugs, neither a symptom nor a positive polymerase chain reaction test was detected that would have been suggestive of COVID-19. In conclusion, pediatric patients with AIDs MESHD, those receive either biologic treatment or colchicine may not be at increased risk for either being infected MESHD or having worse disease course.

    Drug-utilisation Profiles and COVID-19: Retrospective Cohort Study in Italy MESHD

    Authors: Valentina Orlando; Enrico Coscioni; Ilaria Guarino; Sara Mucherino; Alessandro Perrella; Ugo Trama; Giuseppe Limongelli; Enrica Menditto

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-31829/v1 Date: 2020-05-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has wrought havoc on healthcare systems worldwide. Age TRANS, chronic diseases MESHD, use of drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), male TRANS sex and genetic predisposition have been postulated as risk factors for adverse outcomes in COVID-19 cases. A retrospective drug-utilisation study was carried out using information collected routinely in a healthcare database (CaReDB) in Campania (Southern Italy). We wished to discover the prevalence SERO of drug utilisation (monotherapy and polytherapy) in COVID-19 vs. non-COVID-19 patients in Campania (~6 million inhabitants). The study cohort was 1,532 individuals who tested positive for COVID-19. Drugs were grouped according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. We noted a higher prevalence SERO of use of drugs in the ATC category C01, B01 and M04, and this was probably linked to related comorbidities (i.e., cardiovascular, metabolic). Nevertheless, the prevalence SERO of use of drugs acting on the RAS, such as antihypertensive drugs, was not higher among COVID-19 patients compared with that in non-COVID-19 patients. These results highlight the need for further case–control studies to define the effect of medications and comorbidities on susceptibility to, and associated mortality from, COVID-19. 

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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