Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 143
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    How the clinical research community responded to the COVID-19 pandemic: An analysis of the COVID-19 clinical studies in

    Authors: Zhe He; Fnu Erdengasileng; Xiao Luo; Aiwen Xing; Neil Charness; Jiang Bian; Vikram Dhawan; Marc Rosenblum; Christine A. Iacobuzio-Donahue; Edward K Avila; Bianca Santomasso; Adrienne Boire; Christopher Sainsbury; Dawit Tefra Zemedikun; G Neil Thomas; Dhruv Parekh; Tom Marshall; Elizabeth Sapey; Nicola J Adderley; Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar; Ricardo Soto-Rifo; Fernando Valiente-Echeverría; Christian Caglevic; Mauricio Mahave; Carolina Selman; Raimundo Gazitúa; José Luis Briones; Franz Villarroel-Espindola; Carlos Balmaceda; Manuel A. Espinoza; Jaime Pereira; Bruno Nervi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.16.20195552 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: The novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19), broke out in December 2019, is a global pandemic. Rapidly in the past few months, a large number of clinical studies have been initiated worldwide to find effective therapeutics, vaccines, and preventive strategies. In this study, we aim to understand the landscape of COVID-19 clinical research and identify the gaps and issues that may cause difficulty in recruitment and the lack of population representativeness. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 2,034 COVID-19 studies registered in the largest public registry - Leveraging natural language processing, descriptive analysis, association analysis, and clustering analysis, we characterized COVID-19 clinical studies by phase and design features. Particularly, we analyzed their eligibility criteria to understand: (1) whether they considered the reported underlying health conditions that may lead to severe illnesses, and (2) if these studies excluded older adults TRANS, either explicitly or implicitly, which may reduce the generalizability of these studies in older adults TRANS. Results: The 5 most frequently tested drugs are Hydroxychloroquine (N=148), Azithromycin (N=46), Tocilizumab (N=29), Lopinavir (N=20), and Ritonavir (N=20). Most trials did not have an upper age TRANS limit and did not exclude patients with common chronic conditions such as hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and diabetes MESHD that are prevalent in older adults TRANS. However, known risk factors that may lead to severe illnesses have not been adequately considered by existing studies. Conclusions: A careful examination of the registered COVID-19 clinical studies can identify the research gaps and inform future COVID-19 trial design towards balanced internal validity and generalizability.

    COVID-19 Pandemic and the South African Podiatrist

    Authors: Bernhard Zipfel; Nadia Dembskey

    id:10.20944/preprints202009.0425.v1 Date: 2020-09-18 Source:

    The Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is clearly taking a firmer grip on South Africa and more podiatrists will face the potential transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2. Government response was swift with the implementation of a travel TRANS ban, strict national lockdown as well as social distancing and hygiene protocols in line with international health regulations. Co-morbidities such as tuberculosis MESHD and HIV MESHD/ AIDS MESHD, endemic to South Africa, are considered a dangerous combination with COVID-19, making many South Africans vulnerable to contracting the COVID-19. Patients with diabetes MESHD as well as the aged TRANS are vulnerable, both in terms of potential combined complications and challenges in continuity in foot care. The demands of the pandemic may outstrip the ability of the health systems to cope. Should this time arrive, all healthcare practitioners, including podiatrists, would have to step in and take on a role beyond their scope of practice in order to ensure that the healthcare system does not get overwhelmed. It is important for podiatrists to keep abreast with the developments around the COVID-19, in order that they may institute appropriate clinical practice which will ensure maximum protection for themselves, staff and patients as well as providing quality foot health care.

    Network analysis and disease subnets for the SARS-CoV-2/Human interactome

    Authors: Beatriz Luna; Marcelino Ramírez; Edgardo Galán

    id:2009.06035v1 Date: 2020-09-13 Source: arXiv

    Motivation: With the aim to amplify and make sense of interactions of virus-human proteins in the case of SARS-CoV-2, we performed a structural analysis of the network of protein interactions obtained from the integration of three sources: 1) proteins of virus SARS-CoV-2, 2)physical interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins, 3) known interactions of these human proteins between them and the dossier of affections in which these proteins are implicated. Results: As a product of this research, we present two networks, one from the interactions virus-host, and the other restricted to host-host, the last one is not usually considered for network analysis. We identified the most important proteins in both networks, those that have the maximal value of calculated invariants, these proteins are considered as the most: affected, connected or those that best monitor the flow of information in the network, among them we find UBC, a human protein related with ubiquination, linked with different stages of coronavirus disease MESHD, and ORF7A a virus protein that induces apoptosis in infected cells, associated with virion tethering. Using the constructed networks, we establish the more significant diseases corresponding with human proteins and their connections with other proteins. It is relevant that the identified diseases coincide with comorbidities, particularly the subnetwork of diabetes MESHD involves a great quantity of virus and human proteins (56%) and interactions (60%), this could explain the effect of this condition as an important cause of disease complications.

    Burden and prevalence SERO of risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease in the ageing European population – A SHARE-based analysis

    Authors: Linda Juel Ahrenfeldt; Camilla Riis Nielsen; Sören Möller; Kaare Christensen; Rune Lindahl-Jacobsen

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Aim: International health authorities suggest that individuals aged TRANS 65 years and above and people with underlying comorbidities such as hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, chronic lung disease HP lung disease MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, cancer MESHD, diabetes MESHD, and obesity HP obesity MESHD are at increased risk of severe Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19); however, the prevalence SERO of risk factors is unknown in many countries. Therefore, we aim to describe the distribution of these risk factors across Europe. Subject and Methods: Prevalence SERO of risk factors for severe COVID-19 was identified based on interview for 73,274 Europeans aged TRANS 50+ participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) in 2017. Burden of disease was estimated using population data from Eurostat. Results: A total of 75.3% of the study population (corresponding to app. 60 million European men and 71 million women) had at least one risk factor for severe COVID-19, 45.9% (app. 36 million men and 43 million women) had at least two factors and 21.2% (app. 17 million men and 20 million women) had at least three risk factors. The prevalences SERO of underlying medical conditions ranged from 4.5% for cancer MESHD to 41.4% for hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, and the region-specific prevalence SERO of having at least three risk factors ranged from 18.9% in Northern Europe to 24.6% in Eastern Europe. Conclusions: Information about the prevalences SERO of risk factors might help authorities to identify the most vulnerable subpopulations with multiple risk factors of severe COVID-19 disease MESHD and thus to decide appropriate strategies to mitigate the pandemic.  


    Authors: Manju Mamtani; Ambarish M Athavale; Mohan Abraham; Jane Vernik; Amatur Amarah; Juan Ruiz; Amit Joshi; Matthew Itteera; Sara Zhukovsky; Ravi Prakash Madaiah; Peter Hart; Hemant Kulkarni

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.31.20185157 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Diabetes MESHD is a known risk factor for mortality in Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Our objective was to identify prevalence SERO of hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD in COVID-19 patients with and without diabetes MESHD and quantify its association with COVID-19 disease course. Research Design and Methods: In this observational cohort study, all consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to John H Stroger Jr. Hospital, Chicago, IL from March 15, 2020 to May 15, 2020 were included. The primary outcome was hospital mortality and the main predictor was hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD (any blood SERO glucose [≥]7.78 mmol/L during hospitalization). Results: Of 403 COVID-19 patients studied, 228 (57%) developed hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD. Of these, 83 (21%) had hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD without diabetes MESHD. A total of 51 (12.7%) patients died. Compared to the reference group no- diabetes MESHD/no- hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD patients the no- diabetes MESHD/ hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD patients showed higher mortality (1.8% versus 20.5%, adjusted odds ratio 21.94 (95% confidence interval 4.04-119.0), p < 0.001); improved prediction of death (p=0.0162) and faster progression to death (p=0.0051). Hyperglycemia HP Hyperglycemia MESHD within the first 24 and 48 hours was also significantly associated with mortality (odds ratio 2.15 and 3.31, respectively). Further, compared to the same reference group, no- diabetes MESHD/ hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD patients had higher risk of ICU admission (p<0.001), mechanical ventilation (p<0.001) and acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome (p<0.001) and a longer hospital stay in survivors (p<0.001). Conclusions: Hyperglycemia HP Hyperglycemia MESHD in the absence of diabetes MESHD was common (21% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients) and was associated with an increased risk of and faster progression to death. Development of hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD in COVID-19 patients who do not have diabetes MESHD is an early indicator of poor prognosis.

    Risk of COVID-19 on Diabetes Mellitus HP Diabetes Mellitus MESHD and Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD

    Authors: Abdullahi Aborode; Ademola Aiyenuro; Samuel Ogunsola; Victor Adesewa; Monsour Zakariyah

    id:10.20944/preprints202009.0029.v1 Date: 2020-09-02 Source:

    The pandemic of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARSCoV-2), is causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Older age TRANS and presence of diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and obesity HP obesity MESHD significantly increases the risk for hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients. In this Perspective, informed by the studies on SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome MESHD ( MERS-CoV MESHD), and the current literature on SARS-CoV-2, we discuss potential mechanisms by which diabetes MESHD modulates the host-viral interactions and host-immune responses. We hope to highlight gaps in knowledge that require further studies pertinent to COVID-19 in patients with diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and obesity HP obesity MESHD.

    Morbidity and Mortality Outcomes of Covid-19 Patients With and Without Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD in Lagos, Nigeria: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Authors: Akin Osibogun; Akin Abayomi; Oluchi Kanma-Okafor; Jide Idris; Abimbola Bowale; Ololade Wright; Bisola Adebayo; Segun Ogboye; Remi Adeseun; Ismael Abdus-Salam; Bamidele Mutiu; Babatunde Saka; Dayo Lajide; Sam Yenyi; Rotimi Agbolagorite; Oluwatosin Onasanya; Eniola Erinosho; Joshua Obasanya; Olu Adejumo; Sunday Adesola; Yewande Oshodi; IorhenE Akase; Shina Ogunbiyi; Adenike Omosun; Femi Erinoso; Hussein Abdur-Razzaq; Nike Osa; Kingsley Akinroye

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The current pandemic of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has shown epidemiological and clinical characteristics that appear worsened in hypertensive MESHD patients with COVID-19. The morbidity and mortality of the disease among hypertensive MESHD patients in Africa have yet to be well described.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study all confirmed COVID-19 adult TRANS patients (≥18 years of age TRANS) in Lagos between February 27 to July 6 2020 were included. Demographic, clinical and outcome data were extracted from electronic medical records of patients admitted at the COVID-19 isolation centers in Lagos. Outcomes included dying or being discharged by July 6, 2020. Variables were compared between hypertensive MESHD and non-hypertensives MESHD using univariable and multivariable logistic regression, cox regression and Kaplan Meier survival analysis methods to assess hypertension HP hypertension MESHD as a risk factor associated with worsened disease severity and death MESHD.Results: A total of 2075 adults TRANS with COVID-19 were included in this study. The prevalence SERO of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD was 17.8% and it was the most common comorbidity followed by diabetes MESHD (7.2%) and asthma HP asthma MESHD (2.0%). Overall mortality from COVID-19 was 4.2% while mortality among the hypertensives MESHD was 13.7%. Severe symptoms and mortality were significantly higher among the hypertensives MESHD and survival rates were significantly lowered by the presence of an additional comorbidity to 50% from 91% for those with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD alone and from 98% for all other patients (P<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, severe COVID-19 disease and death MESHD were higher for hypertensives MESHD (severe/critical illness: HR=2.41, P=0.001, 95%CI=1.4–4.0, death: HR=2.30, P=0.001, 95%CI=1.2–4.6, for those with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD only). Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD posed an increased risk of severe morbidity and death MESHD from coronavirus disease MESHD in the presence of other comorbidities (severe/critical illness: HR=3.76, P=0.001, 95%CI=2.1–6.4, death: crude HR=6.63, P=0.001, 95%CI=3.4–1.6, for those with additional comorbidities).Conclusion: The potential morbidity and mortality risks of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD especially with other comorbidities in COVID-19 could help direct efforts towards prevention and prognostication. This provides the rationale for improving preventive caution for people with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and other comorbidities and prioritizing them for future antiviral interventions.

    Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, hospitalisation, and death in Catalonia MESHD, Spain: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Authors: Judit Villar-Garcia; Rosa Maria Vivanco-Hidalgo; Montserrat Cleries; Elisenda Martinez; David Monterde; Pol Perez-Sust; Luis Garcia-Eroles; Carol Sais; Montserrat Moharra; Emili Vela; Jochen Lennerz; Hetal Desai Marble; Lauren L. Ritterhouse; Julie Batten; N. Zeke Georgantas; Rebecca Pellerin; Sylvia Signorelli; Julia Thierauf; Molly Kemball; Christian Happi; Donald S. Grant; Daouda Ndiaye; Katherine J. Siddle; Samar B Mehta; Jason B. Harris; Edward T Ryan; Virginia M. Pierce; Regina C LaRocque; Jacob Lemieux; Pardis Sabeti; Eric Rosenberg; John Branda; Sarah E Turbett; Gail Carson; Malcolm G Semple; Janet T Scott

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.20182303 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE To identify the different subpopulations that are susceptible for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and hospitalisation or death MESHD due to coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in Catalonia, Spain. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data collected from the Catalan Health Surveillance System (CatSalut) in Catalonia, a region of Spain. PARTICIPANTS Using data collected between 1 March and 1 June 2020, we conducted the following comparative analyses: people infected by SARS-CoV-2 (328 892) vs Catalonia's entire population (7 699 568); COVID-19 cases who required hospitalisation (37 638) vs cases who did not require hospitalisation (291 254); and COVID-19 cases who died during the study period vs cases who did not die during the study period (12 287). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Three clinical outcomes related to COVID-19 ( infection MESHD, hospitalisation, or death MESHD). We analysed sociodemographic and environment variables (such as residing in a nursing home) and the presence of previous comorbidities. RESULTS A total of 328 892 cases were considered to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 (4.27% of total population). The main risk factors for the diagnostic were: female TRANS gender TRANS (risk ratio [RR] =1.49; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] =1.48-1.50), age TRANS (45-64 years old; RR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01-1.03), high comorbidity burden (GMA index) (RR=3.03; 95% CI=2.97-3.09), reside in a nursing home (RR=11.82; 95% CI=11.66-11.99), and smoking (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.05-1.07). During the study period, there were 37 638 (11.4 %) hospitalisations due to COVID-19, and the risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.45; 95% CI=1.43-1.48), age TRANS > 65 (RR=2.38; 95% CI=2.28-2.48), very low individual income (RR=1.03; 95% CI=0.97-1.08), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.15; 95% CI=4.89-5.42). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were obesity HP obesity MESHD (RR=1.23; 95% CI=1.20-1.25), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.15-1.22), heart failure MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.07; 95% CI=1.04-1.10), and neuro-psychiatric MESHD comorbidities (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.03-1.10). A total of 12 287 deaths (3.73%) were attributed to COVID-19, and the main risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.73; 95% CI=1.67-1.81), age TRANS > 65 (RR=37.45; 95% CI=29.23-47.93), residing in a nursing home (RR=9.22; 95% CI=8.81-9.65), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.25; 95% CI=4.60-6.00). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were: heart failure MESHD (RR=1.21; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (RR=1.17; 95% CI=1.13-1.22), and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.10; 95% CI=1.06-1.14). These results did not change significantly when we considered only PCR-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS Female TRANS gender TRANS, age TRANS between 45 to 64 years old, high burden of comorbidities, and factors related to environment (nursing home) play a relevant role in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and transmission TRANS. In addition, we found risk factors for hospitalisation and death MESHD due to COVID-19 that had not been described to date, including comorbidity burden, neuro-psychiatric disorders MESHD, and very low individual income. This study supports interventions for transmission TRANS control beyond stratify-and-shield strategies focused only on protecting those at risk of death. Future COVID-19 studies should examine the role of gender TRANS, the burden of comorbidities, and socioeconomic status in disease transmission TRANS, and should determine its relationship to workplaces, especially healthcare centres and nursing homes.

    Clinical Characteristics of Severe Covid Pneumonia HP: Exploring New Trends in ICU

    Authors: Aftab Akhtar; Sheher Bano; Ahtesham Iqbal; Moazma Ramzan; Aayesha Qadeer; Syed Waqar Hussain; Anam Saleem; Omair-ul-Haq Lodhi; Sana Zubair; Abdul Hameed kiani

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In late December 2019, Covid-19 emerged as clusters of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD of unknown cause in a province of china, Wuhan. Etiological agent was identified as novel coronavirus that resembles severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) MESHD and has zoonotic transmission TRANS. Covid pneumonia HP can remain asymptomatic TRANS, present as mild infection, severe HP infection, severe MESHD pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD or respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD. Diagnosis is based on rRT-PCR carried out on respiratory secretions. Covid related mortality exceeds 50% once patient requires ICU admission. Objective: To study the characteristics of ICU population admitted to ICU of Shifa International hospital.Results: we prospectively analysed 74 patients which included 43.3% females TRANS and 56.7% males TRANS. Commonest symptoms were shortness of breath MESHD (94.5%), fever HP fever MESHD (74.3%) and cough HP (74.3%). Most of our study population consisted of non-smokers (79.7%) and had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (59.4%) followed by diabetes MESHD (47.2%). Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin combination is superior to hydroxychloroquine and doxycycline in reducing mortality (p=0.023) whereas Doxycycline alone resulted in increased mortality (p=0.009). Those who did not require antibiotics or required only narrow spectrum antibiotics had increased survival and reduced requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (p=< 0.0001). in our study population, (44.9%) developed acute kidney injury HP acute kidney injury MESHD, 2.7% needed re-intubations 10.8% developed surgical emphysema HP emphysema MESHD and 2.7 % thromboembolic MESHD events despite full anticoagulation. ICU mortality was 41.8% and was higher in females TRANS (59.4%, p=0.008), those who had SOFA score > 3.5 at time of admission, raised D-Dimers > 931 ng/ml, NLR > 9.2. It was further high in those who required invasive mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support (58.1% mortality p=< 0.001). ICU stay was more prolonged in those requiring invasive mechanical ventilation as compared to those who did not. (23 days vs 6 days, p=0.001). Mean plateau pressure was 19.6 ± 7.6; mean Driving pressures 14.4 ± 4.6; mean PaO2/FiO2 150.7 ± 73.9; mean SPO2/FiO2 173.9 ± 106.9; mean PEEP was 8.2 ±4.33.Conclusion: We concluded that severe covid pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD is common amongst males TRANS, non-smokers those who had comorbid. HCQ and azithromycin combination is superior to combination of HCQ and doxycycline or doxycycline alone and QT prolongation MESHD is a rare complication. Baseline NLR, APACHI II, SOFA, SAPS II, NUTRIC scores, D-Dimers, invasive ventilation and vasopressor support are important tools to predict ICU mortality. Invasive mechanical ventilation carries higher mortality and associated with more prolonged ICU stay. AKI is most common complication followed by shock HP and surgical emphysema HP emphysema MESHD. CRP, Ferritin levels has no impact on outcome.

    Clinical characteristics study of elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in China

    Authors: Chao Zhang; Hua Fu; Long Zhang; Yuxiong Yin; Jing Lin; Hu Liu; Qing Mao

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a newly emerged respiratory disease MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), has recently become pandemic. Clinical observation indicated that elderly TRANS patients had high incidence of severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and poor treatment efficacy. Therefore, this study was to clarify the characteristics of elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in order to guide rational treatment for elderly TRANS patients. Methods: we enrolled 331 elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with confirmed COVID-19 in Huoshenshan hospital of Wuhan from February 3rd to March 31st. The cases were divided into general, serious and critical groups according to severity after hospitalization, and the difference among groups were compared by R package statistics software. Results: Compared with general group, serious and critical groups had more underlying comorbidities and higher incidence of cough HP cough MESHD, breath shortness MESHD and anorexia HP anorexia MESHD. Moreover, there existed obviously differences in many of laboratory indexes and CT images among them. serious and critical elderly TRANS patients were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, corticosteroid, abidor, cephaloprin, imipenem, human serum SERO albumin (HSA), nutrition support, anti SARS-CoV-2 positive plasma SERO and actemra. Multivariate analysis of factors showed that male TRANS sex, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, renal diseases MESHD, breath shortness MESHD, neutrophil, platelet, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase were the risk factor for serious and critical illness. While blood SERO cell (WBC) was the protective factor. Conclusion: elderly TRANS patients have high incidence of severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and poor treatment efficacy. The reasons might be that many of the elderly TRANS patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD have certain chronic disease MESHD, poor immune function and a meager response to the virus. the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 might be involved in the cell-mediated immunity and cytokine storms by acting on lymphocytes.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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