Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in peritoneal fluid from patients with kidney disease MESHD and COVID-19: report of two cases

    Authors: Margarita Ibarra-Hernandez; María de la Luz Alcantar-Vallín; Rodolfo I. Cabrera-Silva; Karina Sánchez-Reyes; Monserrat Alvarez-Zavala; Judith C. De Arcos-Jiménez; Luz A. González-Hernández; Vida V. Ruiz-Herrera; Sara A. Aguirre-Díaz; Roxana García-Salcido; Guillermo García-García; Jaime F. Andrade-Villanueva

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-79032/v1 Date: 2020-09-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has a broad clinical presentation, involving multiple organs besides the respiratory system. Currently, there is little evidence available on the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) in peritoneal fluid (PF). In this study, we describe the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the PF of two patients with COVID 19 and kidney disease MESHD.Case presentation: Case 1: A 71-year-old woman with a history of end-stage kidney disease MESHD who presented with a 15-day evolution of progressive dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, accompanied by dry cough MESHD cough HP and fever HP fever MESHD; IgM antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2 were detected on admission. Real-time SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the PF was positive. Three days after admission the patient's respiratory distress HP improved and she was discharged after 8 days of hospitalization.Case 2: A 78-year-old woman, with type 2 diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, a 15-day history of polypnea, and a 5-day onset of fever HP fever MESHD and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD. IgM and IgG antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2 were detected on admission, as well as a positive nasopharyngeal qRT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2. During hospitalization she developed acute kidney injury HP acute kidney injury MESHD, requiring peritoneal dialysis, SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed in PF by qRT-PCRConclusions: These two cases highlights the importance of increasing the level of awareness for the presence and possible SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS through non-respiratory routes, like peritoneal fluid.Emphasis should be given to appropriate preventive strategies for minimizing the risk of transmission TRANS of COVID-19 from patients on peritoneal dialysis in both inpatient and outpatient settings.

    The natural history of symptomatic COVID-19 in Catalonia, Spain: a multi-state model including 109,367 outpatient diagnoses, 18,019 hospitalisations, and 5,585 COVID-19 deaths among 5,627,520 people

    Authors: Edward Burn; Cristian Tebe; Sergio Fernandez-Bertolin; Maria Aragon; Martina Recalde; Elena Roel; Albert Prats-Uribe; Daniel Prieto-Alhambra; Talita Duarte-Salles

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.13.20152454 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background The natural history of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has yet to be fully described, with most previous reports focusing on hospitalised patients. Using linked patient-level data, we set out to describe the associations between age TRANS, gender TRANS, and comorbidities and the risk of outpatient COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalisation, and/or related mortality. Methods A population-based cohort study including all individuals registered in Information System for Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP). SIDIAP includes primary care records covering > 80% of the population of Catalonia, Spain, and was linked to region-wide testing, hospital and mortality records. Outpatient diagnoses of COVID-19, hospitalisations with COVID-19, and deaths with COVID-19 were identified between 1st March and 6th May 2020. A multi-state model was used, with cause-specific Cox survival models estimated for each transition. Findings A total of 5,664,652 individuals were included. Of these, 109,367 had an outpatient diagnosis of COVID-19, 18,019 were hospitalised with COVID-19, and 5,585 died after either being diagnosed or hospitalised with COVID-19. Half of those who died were not admitted to hospital prior to their death. Risk of a diagnosis with COVID-19 peaked first in middle- age TRANS and then again for oldest ages TRANS, risk for hospitalisation after diagnosis peaked around 70 years old, with all other risks highest at oldest ages TRANS. Male TRANS gender TRANS was associated with an increased risk for all outcomes other than outpatient diagnosis. The comorbidities studied (autoimmune condition, chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD, dementia HP dementia MESHD, heart disease MESHD, hyperlipidemia HP hyperlipidemia MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, malignant neoplasm HP neoplasm MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, and type 2 diabetes MESHD) were all associated with worse outcomes. Interpretation There is a continued need to protect those at high risk of poor outcomes, particularly the elderly TRANS, from COVID-19 and provide appropriate care for those who develop symptomatic disease. While risks of hospitalisation and death MESHD are lower for younger populations, there is a need to limit their role in community transmission TRANS. These findings should inform public health strategies, including future vaccination campaigns.

    Association of BMI and Obesity HP with Composite poor outcome in COVID-19 adult TRANS patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Arto Yuwono Soeroto; Nanny Natalia Soetedjo; Aga Purwiga; Prayudi Santoso; Iceu Dimas Kulsum; Hendarsyah Suryadinata; Ferdy Ferdian

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.28.20142240 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: medRxiv

    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the association between obesity HP obesity MESHD and composite poor outcome in coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search from PubMed and Embase database. We included all original research articles in COVID-19 adult TRANS patients and obesity HP obesity MESHD based on classification of Body Mass Index (BMI) and composite poor outcome which consist of mortality, morbidity, admission of Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mechanical ventilation, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome MESHD Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome ( ARDS MESHD), and severe COVID-19. Results: Nine studies were included in meta-analysis with 6 studies presented BMI as continuous outcome and 3 studies presented BMI as dichotomous outcome ( obese MESHD and non-obese MESHD). Most studies were conducted in China (55.5%) with remaining studies from French, Germany, and United States (US). COVID-19 patients with composite poor outcome had higher BMI with mean difference 0.55 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.07-1.03, P=0.02). BMI [≥]30 ( obese MESHD) was associated with composite poor outcome with odds ratio 1.89 (95% CI 1.06-3.34, P=0.03). Multivariate meta-regression analysis by including three moderators: age TRANS, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, and Diabetes Mellitus type HP Diabetes Mellitus type MESHD 2 (DM type 2) showed the association between obesity HP obesity MESHD and composite poor outcome was affected by age TRANS with regression coefficient =-0.06 and P=0.02. Subgroup analysis was not performed due to the limited number of studies for several outcomes. Conclusion: Obesity HP is a risk factor of composite poor outcome of COVID-19. On the other hand, COVID-19 patients with composite poor outcome have higher BMI. BMI is an important routine procedure that should be assessed in the management of COVID-19 patients and special attention should be given to patients with obesity HP obesity MESHD. Keywords: Covid-19, Obesity HP, Body Mass Index

    Antihypertensive medication uses and serum SERO ACE2 levels

    Authors: Valur Emilsson; Elias F Gudmundsson; Thor Aspelund; Brynjolfur G Jonsson; Alexander Gudjonsson; Lenore J Launer; Lori L Jennings; Valborg Gudmundsdottir; Vilmundur Gudnason

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.20108738 Date: 2020-05-25 Source: medRxiv

    Importance Recent reports have shown that hypertension HP hypertension MESHD is the most common comorbidity associated with mortality in the current coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). This has been related to the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) as animal studies indicate that these medications increase levels of ACE2, the cellular entry point for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. This has prompted clinicians to recommend discontinuing ACEIs and ARBs. Objective To examine the effect of ACEIs or ARBs treatment on serum SERO levels of ACE2 and other key enzymes in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Design, Setting, and Participants A single center population-based study of 5457 Icelanders from the Age TRANS, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study ( AGES TRANS-RS) of the elderly TRANS (mean age TRANS 75+/-6 years) stratified by ACEIs (N = 699) or ARBs (N = 753) treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures The AGES TRANS-RS study population was stratified by ACEIs and ARBs medication use and compared for age TRANS, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and type 2 diabetes MESHD ( T2D MESHD) as well as serum SERO levels of renin, ACE and ACE2. Results While renin and ACE levels were significantly raised in serum SERO of individuals on ACEIs or ARBs treatments, the ACE2 levels remained unaffected. Conclusions and Relevance Treatment with ACEIs or ARBs does not raise ACE2 levels in serum SERO. Therefore, the present study does not support the proposed discontinuation of these medications among patients affected with COVID-19.

    The majority of male TRANS patients with COVID-19 present low testosterone levels on admission to Intensive Care in Hamburg, Germany: a retrospective cohort study.

    Authors: Maria Schroeder; Berfin Tuku; Dominik Jarczak; Axel Nierhaus; Tian Bai; Henning Jacobsen; Martin Zickler; Zacharias Mueller; Stephanie Stanelle-Bertram; Andreas Meinhardt; Jens Aberle; Stefan Kluge; Guelsah Gabriel

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.07.20073817 Date: 2020-05-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread worldwide and pose a major public health burden. There is increasing evidence that men are more likely to die from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD than women. However, underlying factors that mediate the observed sex bias in coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) remain unknown. Methods. In this retrospective cohort, we included COVID-19 patients who were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit at the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. We obtained demographic data of all patients who were discharged or had died by 29th April 2020. We systematically analyzed sex hormones as well as cytokine and chemokine responses in male TRANS and female TRANS patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD upon hospital admission. We used uni- and multivariable linear regression methods to identify potential risk factors for disease severity in males TRANS and females TRANS. Findings. All enrolled patients (n=45; n=35 males TRANS and n=10 females TRANS) presented comorbidities with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD being the most common (45.7% in males TRANS; 40% in females TRANS), followed by cancer MESHD (35% in males TRANS; 40% in females TRANS), obesity HP obesity MESHD (34.3% in males TRANS and 30% in females TRANS), type II diabetes MESHD (25.7% in males TRANS and 20% in females TRANS) and chronic heart diseases MESHD (8.6% in males TRANS and 0% in females TRANS). We detected that the vast majority of male TRANS COVID-19 patients present low testosterone (68.6%) and low dihydrotestosterone (48.6%) levels. In contrast, most female TRANS COVID-19 patients have elevated testosterone levels (60%) without alterations in dihydrotestosterone levels. Both, female TRANS and male TRANS COVID-19 patients may present elevated estradiol levels (45.7% in males TRANS and 40% in females TRANS). Disease severity defined by SOFA score correlates with elevated cytokine responses (e.g. IL-6) in males TRANS and IL-2 in females TRANS. In male TRANS COVID-19 patients, testosterone levels negatively correlate with inflammatory IL-2 and IFN-{gamma}, whereas estradiol levels positively correlate with the inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Vice versa, in female TRANS COVID-19 patients, testosterone levels positively correlate with inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-6). Interpretation. We here show that critically ill male TRANS COVID-19 patients suffer from severe testosterone and dihydrotestosterone deficiencies MESHD. Both androgens are required to mount antiviral immune responses to combat infection MESHD in males TRANS.

    Identification and Analysis of Shared Risk Factors in Sepsis HP Sepsis MESHD and High Mortality Risk COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Sayoni Das; Krystyna Taylor; Matthew Pearson; James Kozubek; Marcin Pawlowski; Claus Erik Jensen; Zbigniew Skowron; Gert Lykke Møller; Mark Strivens; Steve Gardner

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.05.20091918 Date: 2020-05-09 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel coronavirus strain disease MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). The disease is highly transmissible and severe disease including viral sepsis MESHD sepsis HP has been reported in up to 16% of hospitalized cases. The admission characteristics associated with increased odds of hospital mortality among confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 include severe hypoxia MESHD, low platelet count, elevated bilirubin, hypoalbuminemia HP hypoalbuminemia MESHD and reduced glomerular filtration rate. These symptoms correlate highly with severe sepsis HP sepsis MESHD cases. The diseases also share similar co-morbidity risks including dementia HP dementia MESHD, type 2 diabetes mellitus HP, coronary heart disease MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and chronic renal failure MESHD. Sepsis HP Sepsis MESHD has been observed in up to 59% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. It is highly desirable to identify risk factors and novel therapy/drug repurposing avenues for late-stage severe COVID-19 patients. This would enable better protection of at-risk populations and clinical stratification of COVID-19 patients according to their risk for developing life threatening disease. METHODS As there is currently insufficient data available for confirmed COVID-19 patients correlating their genomic profile, disease severity and outcome, co-morbidities and treatments as well as epidemiological risk factors (such as ethnicity, blood SERO group, smoking, BMI etc.), a direct study of the impact of host genomics on disease severity and outcomes is not yet possible. We therefore ran a study on the UK Biobank sepsis cohort MESHD sepsis HP cohort as a surrogate to identify sepsis HP sepsis MESHD associated signatures and genes, and correlated these with COVID-19 patients. Sepsis HP Sepsis MESHD is itself a life-threatening inflammatory health condition with a mortality rate of approximately 20%. Like the initial studies for COVID-19 patients, standard genome wide association studies (GWAS) have previously failed to identify more than a handful of genetic variants that predispose individuals to developing sepsis HP sepsis MESHD. RESULTS We used a combinatorial association approach to analyze a sepsis HP sepsis MESHD population derived from UK Biobank. We identified 70 sepsis HP sepsis MESHD risk-associated genes, which provide insights into the disease mechanisms underlying sepsis HP sepsis MESHD pathogenesis. Many of these targets can be grouped by common mechanisms of action such as endothelial cell dysfunction, PI3K/mTOR pathway signaling, immune response regulation, aberrant GABA and neurogenic signaling. CONCLUSION This study has identified 70 sepsis HP sepsis MESHD related genes, many of them for the first time, that can reasonably be considered to be potentially relevant to severe COVID-19 patients. We have further identified 59 drug repurposing candidates for 13 of these targets that can be used for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to increase the survival rate of patients who develop sepsis HP sepsis MESHD and potentially severe COVID-19.

    Inflamm-Aging: Why Older Men Are the Most Susceptible to SARS-Cov-2 Complicated Outcomes

    Authors: Massimiliano Bonafè; Francesco Prattichizzo; Angelica Giuliani; Gianluca Storci; Jacopo Sabbatinelli; Fabiola Olivieri

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0143.v1 Date: 2020-04-09 Source: Preprints.org

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD is characterized by a high mortality of elderly TRANS men with age TRANS-related comorbidities. In most of these patients, uncontrolled local and systemic hyperinflammation induces severe and often lethal outcomes. The aging process is characterized by the gradual development of a chronic subclinical systemic inflammation MESHD (inflamm-aging) and by acquired immune system impairment (immune senescence). Here, we advance the hypothesis that some key features of aging contribute to the disproportionate SARS-CoV-2 mortality suffered by elderly TRANS men. At least four well-recognized aging-related characteristics that are strongly expressed in older men go some way towards explaining why these patients account for the vast majority of fatalities: i. the presence of subclinical systemic inflammation MESHD without overt disease, ii. a blunted acquired immune system and type I interferon response due to the chronic inflammation MESHD; iii. the downregulation of ACE2 (SARS-CoV-2 receptor), which triggers inflammation MESHD, particularly in patients with age TRANS-related comorbid diseases such as type II diabetes MESHD; and iv. accelerated biological aging, as measured by epigenetic and senescence markers (e.g. telomere shortening) associated to the chronic inflammatory state. Though typical of the aged TRANS, especially of elderly TRANS men, it is conceivable that these features are also shared by some subsets of the younger population. The high mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD suggests that clarification of the mechanisms of inflamm-aging and immune senescence can help combat not only age TRANS-related disorders but also SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Clinical and radiographic features of cardiac injury MESHD in patients with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP

    Authors: Hui Hui; Yingqian Zhang; Xin Yang; Xi Wang; Bingxi He; Li Li; Hongjun Li; Jie Tian; Yundai Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.24.20027052 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between clinical characteristics and cardiac injury MESHD of COVID-2019 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Methods: In this retrospective, single-center study, 41 consecutive corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) patients (including 2 deaths) of COVID-2019 in Beijing Youan Hospital, China Jan 21 to Feb 03, 2020, were involved in this study. The high risk factors of cardiac injury MESHD in different COVID-2019 patients were analyzed. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been used to demonstrate the cardiac inflammation MESHD of COVID-2019. ResultsOf the 41 COVID-2019 patients, 2 (4.88%), 32 (78.05%), 4 (9.75%) and 3 (7.32%) patients were clinically diagnosed as light, mild, severe and critical cases, according to the 6th guidance issued by the National Health Commission of China. 10 (24.4%) patients had underlying complications, such as hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, CAD, type 2 diabetes mellites MESHD and tumor MESHD. The peak value of TnI in critical patients is 40-fold more than normal value. 2 patients in the critical group had the onset of atrial fibrillation HP atrial fibrillation MESHD, and the peak heart rates reached up to 160 bpm. CT scan showed low EAT density in severe and critical patients. Conclusion: Our results indicated that cardiac injury MESHD of COVID-2019 was rare in light and mild patients, while common in severe and critical patients. Therefore, the monitoring of the heart functions of COVID-2019 patients and applying potential interventions for those with abnormal cardiac injury MESHD related characteristics, is vital to prevent the fatality.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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