Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Falls (1)


Transmission

Seroprevalence

There are no seroprevalence terms in the subcorpus

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    Nitazoxanide and JIB-04 have broad-spectrum antiviral activity and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture and coronavirus pathogenesis in a pig model

    Authors: Juhee Son; Shimeng Huang; Qiru Zeng; Traci L. Bricker; James Brett Case; Jinzhu Zhou; Ruochen Zang; Zhuoming Liu; Xinjian Chang; Houda H. Harastani; Lu Chen; Maria Florencia Gomez Castro; Yongxiang Zhao; Hinissan Pascaline Kohio; Gaopeng Hou; Baochao Fan; Beibei Niu; Rongli Guo; Paul W. Rothlauf; Adam L. Bailey; Xin Wang; Pei-Yong Shi; Sean P. J. Whelan; Michael S. Diamond; Adrianus C.M. Boon; Bin Li; Siyuan Ding; John S Pauk; Scott D. Boyd; James R. Heath

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.24.312165 Date: 2020-09-25 Source: bioRxiv

    Pathogenic coronaviruses represent a major threat to global public health. Here, using a recombinant reporter virus-based compound screening approach, we identified several small-molecule inhibitors that potently block the replication of the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Two compounds, nitazoxanide and JIB-04 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells with an EC50 of 4.90 M and 0.69 M, respectively, with specificity indices of greater than 150. Both inhibitors had in vitro antiviral activity in multiple cell types against some DNA and RNA viruses, including porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus MESHD. In an in vivo porcine model of coronavirus infection MESHD, administration of JIB-04 reduced virus infection MESHD and associated tissue pathology, which resulted in improved body weight gain and survival. These results highlight the potential utility of nitazoxanide and JIB-04 as antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 and other viral pathogens.

    Changes in Emergency Department attendances before and after COVID-19 lockdown implementation: a cross sectional study of one urban NHS Hospital Trust

    Authors: Kate Honeyford; Charles Coughlan; Paul Expert; Gabriel Burcea; Ian Maconochie; Anne Kinderlerer; Graham S Cooke; Ceire S Costelloe

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20157560 Date: 2020-07-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background Emergency Department (ED) attendances have fallen HP across the UK since the "lockdown" introduced on 23rd March 2020 to limit the spread of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). We hypothesised that reductions would vary by patient age TRANS and disease type. We examined pre- and in-lockdown ED attendances for two COVID-19 unrelated diagnoses; one likely to be affected by lockdown measures ( gastroenteritis MESHD) and one likely to be unaffected ( appendicitis MESHD). Methods Retrospective cross-sectional study conducted across two EDs in one London hospital Trust. We compared all adult TRANS and paediatric ED attendances, before (January 2020) and during lockdown (March/April 2020). Key patient demographics, method of arrival and discharge location were compared. We used SNOMED codes to define attendances for gastroenteritis and appendicitis MESHD. Results ED attendances fell HP from 1129 per day before lockdown to 584 in-lockdown; 51.7% of pre-lockdown rates. In-lockdown attendances were lowest for under-18s (16.0% of pre-lockdown). The proportion of patients admitted to hospital increased from 17.3% to 24.0% and the proportion admitted to intensive care increased four-fold. Attendances for gastroenteritis MESHD fell HP from 511 to 103; 20.2% of pre-lockdown rates. Attendances for appendicitis MESHD also decreased, from 144 to 41; 28.5% of pre-lockdown rates. Conclusion ED attendances fell HP substantially following lockdown implementation. The biggest reduction was for under-18s. We observed reductions in attendances for gastroenteritis and appendicitis MESHD. This may reflect lower rates of infectious disease MESHD transmission TRANS, though the fall HP in appendicitis MESHD-related attendances suggests that behavioural factors are also important. Larger studies are urgently needed to understand changing patterns of ED use and access to emergency care during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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