Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 44
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    Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Safety of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine From Randomized Controlled Trials on Malarial and Non-malarial Conditions

    Authors: Mayra Souza Botelho; Fernanda Bolfi; Renata Giacomini Occhiuto Ferreira Leite; Mauro Salles Ferreira Leite; Luisa Rocco Banzato; Luiza Teixeira Soares; Thaina Oliveira Felicio Olivatti; Amanda Sampaio Mangolim; Flávia Ramos Kazan Oliveira; Luciana Patrícia Fernandes Abbade; Joelcio Francisco Abbade; Ricardo Augusto Monteiro de Barros Almeida; Julia Simões Correa Galendi; Lehana Thabane; Vania dos Santos Nunes Nogueira

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-75518/v1 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Despite the expectations regarding the effectiveness of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) management, concerns about their adverse events have remained. Objectives: The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the safety of CQ and HCQ from malarial and non-malarial randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Methods: The primary outcomes were the frequencies of serious adverse events ( SAEs MESHD), retinopathy HP retinopathy MESHD, and cardiac complications MESHD. Search strategies were applied to MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CENTRAL, Scopus, and Trip databases. We used random-effects model to pool results across studies and Peto one-step odds ratio (OR) for event rates below 1 %. Both-armed zero-event studies were excluded from the meta-analyses. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to evaluate the certainty of evidence.Results: Ninety-two RCTs were included. We found no significant difference between CQ/HCQ and control (placebo or non-CQ/HCQ) in the frequency of SAEs MESHD (OR: 0.98, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.71–1.36, 25 trials, 11,605 participants, moderate certainty of evidence). No clear relationship was observed between CQ/HCQ and retinopathy HP retinopathy MESHD (OR: 1,63, 95 % CI: -0.4–6.57, 5 trials, 344 participants, very low certainty of evidence). There was a low certainty of evidence of the effect of CQ/HCQ versus control on cardiac complications (Relative risk: 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.1–1.98, 8 trials, 5,970 participants).Conclusions: CQ and HCQ might be safe, with low frequency of SAEs on malarial and non-malarial conditions MESHD. No clear effect of their use on the incidence of retinopathy HP retinopathy MESHD and cardiac complications was observed.The protocol for this systematic review was registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020177818)

    Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 transcriptional activity in cardiomyocytes of COVID-19 patients without clinical signs of cardiac involvement

    Authors: Gaetano Pietro Bulfamante; Gianluca Lorenzo Perrucci; Monica Falleni; Elena Sommariva; Delfina Tosi; Carla Martinelli; Paola Songia; Paolo Poggio; Stefano Carugo; Giulio Pompilio

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.24.20170175 Date: 2020-08-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background - Cardiovascular complication in patients affected by novel Coronavirus respiratory disease MESHD (COVID-19) are increasingly recognized. However, although a cardiac tropism of SARS-CoV-2 MESHD for inflammatory cells in autopsy heart samples of COVID-19 patients has been reported, the presence of the virus in cardiomyocytes has not been documented yet. Methods - We investigated for SARS-CoV-2 presence in heart tissue autopsies of 6 consecutive COVID-19 patients deceased for respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD showing no signs of cardiac involvement MESHD and with no history of heart disease MESHD. Cardiac autopsy samples were analysed by digital PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RNAScope, and transmission TRANS electron microscopy assays. Results - The presence of SARS-CoV-2 into cardiomyocytes was invariably detected. A variable pattern of cardiomyocytes injury MESHD was observed, spanning from the absence of cell death and subcellular alterations hallmarks to the intracellular oedema MESHD and sarcomere ruptures MESHD. In addition, we found active viral transcription in cardiomyocytes, by detecting both sense and antisense SARS-CoV-2 spike RNA. Conclusions - In this analysis of autopsy cases, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 into cardiomyocytes, determining variable patterns of intracellular involvement, has been documented. All these findings suggest the need of a cardiologic surveillance even in survived COVID-19 patients not displaying a cardiac phenotype, in order to monitor potential long-term cardiac sequelae.

    Heart disease MESHD mortality during the early pandemic period in the United States.

    Authors: Jeremy Samuel Faust; Zhenqiu Lin; Kalen N. Wright; Michael A Di Iorio; Carrie D Walsh; Harlan Krumholz; Tommaso Fontana; Hannah Blau; Nicolas Matentzoglu; Nomi L Harris; Monica C Munoz-Torres; Peter N Robinson; Marcin P Joachimiak; Christopher J Mungall; Bryn Taylor; Pedro Belda-Ferre; Chenguang Liang; Yujie Zhang; Luca Schifanella; Nichole R. Klatt; Aki S. Havulinna; Pekka Jousilahti; Shi Huang; Niina Haiminen; Laxmi Parida; Ho-Cheol Kim; Austin D. Swafford; Karsten Zengler; Susan Cheng; Michael Inouye; Teemu Niiranen; Mohit Jain; Veikko Salomaa; Jeffrey D. Esko; Nathan E Lewis; Rob Knight

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.16.20175406 Date: 2020-08-18 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has been associated with decreases in acute myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP diagnoses (AMI) and admissions in the United States. Whether this affected heart disease deaths MESHD is unknown. Objective: To determine whether changes in heart disease deaths MESHD occurred during the early pandemic period in the US, we analyzed areas without large COVID-19 outbreaks. This isolated the effect of decreased healthcare-seeking behavior during the early outbreak. Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed an observational study of heart disease MESHD-specific mortality using National Center for Health Statistics data (NCHS). Weekly provisional counts were disaggregated by jurisdiction of occurrence during 2019 and 2020 for all-cause deaths MESHD, COVID-19 deaths, and heart disease deaths MESHD. For the primary analysis, jurisdictions were included if; 1) There was no all-cause excess mortality during the early pandemic period (weeks 14-17, 2020); 2) The completeness of that data was estimated by NCHS to be >97% as of July 22, 2020, and; 3) Decreases in emergency department (ED) visits occurred during the study period. We compared heart disease death MESHD rates during the early pandemic period with corresponding weeks in 2019 and a pre-pandemic control period of 2020 as a sensitivity SERO analysis. Incident rate and rate ratios were calculated. Exposure: The US COVID-19 outbreak. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of heart disease deaths MESHD. Results: Twelve states met the primary inclusion criteria, capturing 747,375,188 person-weeks for the early pandemic period and 740,987,984 person-weeks for the 2019 control period. The mean incidence rate (per 100,000 person-weeks) for heart disease MESHD in states without excess deaths during the early pandemic period was 3.95 (95% CI 3.83 to 4.06) versus 4.19 (95% CI 4.14 to 4.23) during the corresponding period in 2019. The incident rate ratio (2020/2019) was 0.91 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.97). No state recorded an increase from either the corresponding period in 2019 or the 2020 pre-pandemic control period. Two states recorded fewer heart disease deaths MESHD. Conclusions and Relevance: This observational study found a decrease in heart disease deaths MESHD during the early US outbreak in regions without significant COVID-19 burdens, despite decreases in ED utilization. Long term follow-up data are needed.

    The Spectrum of Cardiovascular Complications MESHD in COVID-19- A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Authors: Raja Shakeel Mushtaque; Rabia Mushtaque; Shahbano Baloch; Aadil Raza; Haseeb Bhatti; Zohaib Khan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0257.v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: Preprints.org

    A newly identified novel coronavirus named as severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD-related coronavirus2 (SARS‐CoV 2) has given rise to the global pandemic. SARS-CoV2 which causes coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), is a positive-stranded RNA virus with nucleocapsid. It binds to host angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2) receptor through surface glycoprotein (S protein). These ACE 2 receptors are attached to the cell membranes of many organs. Thus, COVID-19 does not only result in acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome but also affects multiple organ systems, requiring a multidisciplinary approach to manage this disease. COVID-19 can damage the myocardial cells and result in fulminant myocarditis HP myocarditis MESHD, acute cardiac injury MESHD, cardiomyopathy HP cardiomyopathy MESHD, heart failure MESHD, cardiogenic shock HP cardiogenic shock MESHD, or arrhythmia HP arrhythmia MESHD. COVID-19 seeds harmful immune response through cytokine storm leading to indirect organ damage. In this literature review, the available data is comprehended regarding cardiovascular complications in COVID-19, and the correlation of biomarkers with the disease activity is discussed. This literature review also highlights the important treatment options and outcomes of the individual study.

    Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 patients: mid-term follow up by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Authors: Hui Wang; Ruili Li; Hong Jiang; Zixu Yan; Xinyan Tao; Hongjun Li; Lei Xu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57104/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) induces myocardial injury MESHD, either direct myocarditis HP myocarditis MESHD or indirect injury due to systemic inflammatory response. Myocardial involvement MESHD has been proved to be one of the primary manifestations of COVID-19 infection MESHD, according to laboratory test, autopsy, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). However, the middle-term outcome of cardiac involvement MESHD after the patients were discharged from the hospital is yet unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate mid-term cardiac sequelae in recovered COVID-19 patients by CMRIMethods: A total of 47 recovered COVID-19 patients were prospectively recruited and underwent CMRI examination in this study. The CMRI protocol consisted of black blood SERO fat-suppressed T2 weighted imaging (BB-T2WI), T2 star mapping, left ventricle cine imaging, pre- and post-contrast T1 mapping, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Myocardium edema MESHD edema HP and LGE were assessed in recovered COVID-19 patients. The left ventricle ( LV MESHD) and right ventricle (RV) function and LV mass were assessed and compared with normal controls.Results: Finally, 44 recovered COVID-19 patients and 31 normal controls were included in this study. No edema HP edema MESHD was observed in any patient. LGE was found in 13 patients. All LGE lesions were located in the middle myocardium and/or sub-epicardium with a scattered distribution. Further analysis showed that LGE-positive patients had significantly decreased left ventricle peak global circumferential strain (LVpGCS), right ventricle peak global circumferential strain (RVpGCS), right ventricle peak global longitudinal strain (RVpGLS) as compared to non-LGE patients (p<0.05), while no difference was detected between the non-LGE patients and normal controls.Conclusion: Myocardium injury MESHD existed in about 30% of COVID-19 patients. These patients had peak right ventricle strain that decreased at the 3-month follow-up. Cardiac MRI can monitor the COVID-19-induced myocarditis HP myocarditis MESHD progression, and CMR strain analysis is a sensitive tool to evaluate the recovery of left ventricle circumferential contraction dysfunction MESHD and right ventricular dysfunction MESHD.

    Clinical Determinants of the Severity of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Yanling Wu; Hu Li; Shengjin Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-56852/v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging pathogen, and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic. We aim to summarize current evidence regarding the risk of death MESHD and the severity of COVID-19 as well as risk factors for severe COVID-19.Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases as well as some Chinese databases were searched for clinical and epidemiological studies on COVID-19. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine COVID-19-related death MESHD and risk factors for the severity of COVID-19.Results: A total of 55 studies fulfilled the criteria for this review. The case fatality risk ranged from 0 to 61.5%, with a pooled estimate of 3.3%. The risks of ICU admission, acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD)and severe COVID-19 were 24.9%, 20.9% and 26.6%, respectively. Factors related to the risk of severe COVID-19 were older age TRANS (MD=10.09, 95% CI:7.03, 13.16), male TRANS sex (OR=1.62, 95% CI:1.32, 1.99), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (OR=2.34, 95% CI:1.47, 3.73), diabetes MESHD (OR=2.25, 95% CI:1.68, 3.03), chronic renal disease MESHD (OR=3.60, 95% CI:1.53, 8.46), heart disease MESHD (OR=2.76, 95% CI:1.78, 4.30), respiratory disease MESHD (OR=3.74, 95% CI:2.15, 6.49), cerebrovascular disease MESHD (OR=2.21, 95% CI:1.23, 3.98), higher D-dimer levels (SMD=0.62, 95% CI:0.28, 0.96), and higher IL-6 levels (SMD=2.21, 95% CI:0.11, 4.31). However, liver disease MESHD (OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.36, 1.10) was found to be a nonsignificant predictor of the severity of COVID-19.Conclusions: The case fatality risk of COVID-19 and the risk of severe manifestations were not very high, and variances in the study designs and regions led to high heterogeneity among the studies. Male TRANS sex, older age TRANS, comorbidities such as hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, respiratory disease MESHD and cerebrovascular disease MESHD could increase the risk of developing a severe case of COVID-19. Laboratory parameters, such as D-dimer and IL-6 levels, could affect the prognosis of COVID-19.

    Clinical manifestations of patients with Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID- 19) attending at hospitals in Bangladesh

    Authors: Md. Shahed Morshed; Abdullah Al Mosabbir; Prodipta Chowdhury; Sheikh Mohammad Ashadullah; Mohammad Sorowar Hossain

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165100 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Bangladesh is in the rising phase of the ongoing pandemic of the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). The scientific literature on clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients from Bangladesh is scarce. This study aimed to report the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study at three dedicated COVID-19 hospitals. The severity of the COVID-19 cases was assessed based on the WHO interim guidance. Data were collected only from non-critical COVID-19 patients as critical patients required immediate intensive care admission making them unable to respond to the questions. A total of 103 RT-PCR confirmed non-critical COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Most of the patients (71.8%) were male TRANS. Mild, moderate and severe illness were assessed in 74.76%, 9.71% and 15.53% of patients respectively. Nearly 52.4% of patients had a co-morbidity, with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD being the most common (34%), followed by diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (21.4%) and ischemic MESHD heart disease MESHD (9.7%). Fever HP Fever MESHD (78.6%), weakness MESHD (68%) and cough HP (44.7%) were the most common clinical manifestations. Other common symptoms included loss of appetite (37.9%), difficulty in breathing (37.9%), altered sensation of taste or smell (35.0%), headache HP headache MESHD (32%) and body ache MESHD (32%). The median time from onset of symptom TRANS to attending hospitals was 7 days (IQR 4-10). This study will help both the clinicians and epidemiologists to understand the magnitude and clinical spectrum of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh.

    Molecular mechanisms of Cardiac Injury MESHD associated with myocardial SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: XianFang Liu; Longquan Lou; Lei Zhou

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.220954 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: bioRxiv

    BackgroundCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has spread around the world. Developing cardiac injury MESHD is a common condition in COVID-19 patients, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. MethodsThe RNA-Seq dataset (GES150392) compared expression profiling of mock human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) and SARS-cov-2-infected hiPSC-CMs were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). We identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between those two groups. Through gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and CLINVAR human diseases analysis to identify the main effect of SARS-CoV-2 on cardiomyocytes. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed to visualize interactions and functions of the hub genes. ResultsA total of 1554 DEGs were identified (726 upregulated genes and 828 downregulated genes). Gene enrichment analysis shown that SARS-CoV-2 activate immuno-inflammatory responses via multiple signal pathways, including TNF, IL6-JAK-STAT3, IL2-STAT5, NF-{kappa}B, IL17, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway in hiPSC-CMs. Whereas, the muscle contraction, cellular respiration and cell cycle of hiPSC-CMs were inhibited by SARS-CoV-2. CLINVAR human diseases analysis shown SRAS-Cov-2 infection was associated with myocardial infarction HP, cardiomyopathy HP and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy HP. 15 hub genes were identified based on PPI network. Function analysis revealed that 11 upregulated hub genes were mainly enriched in cytokine activity, chemokine activity, Inflammatory response, leukocyte chemotaxis, and lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway. Furthermore, 4 downregulated hub genes were related to cell cycle regulation. ConclusionThe present study elucidates that the SARS-CoV-2 infection induced a strong defensive response in cardiomyocyte, leading to excessive immune inflammation, cell hypoxia, functional contractility reduction and apoptosis, ultimately result in myocardial injury.

    Awareness of Coronavirus Disease MESHD From Conception to Delivery: Antenatal Mental Journey Breaking Anxiety HP Anxiety MESHD During Outbreak

    Authors: Rabia Merve Erbiyik Palalioglu; Ozan Karadeniz; Gokce Ipek Aytok; Batuhan Palalioglu; Gizem Nur Koyan; Halil Ibrahim Erbiyik; Murat Muhcu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48034/v1 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychological impact of the coronavirus disease MESHD on women sensitized by pregnancy after the first case was confirmed TRANS in Turkey, which has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. This study also intends to help developing preventive measures for pregnants, reducing infection incidence, developing solutions to protect public health, and establishing whether pregnants have sufficient knowledge and awareness to manage this situation.Methods This prospective study was conducted at two centers. A total of 529 pregnant women from all three trimesters were given questionnaires that consisted of 51 original questions.Results The period when anxiety HP anxiety MESHD was highest was the 2nd trimester, whereas women in the 1st trimester had the lowest level of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD. High levels of awareness were observed in patients with heart disease MESHD, but patients with diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD had a high level of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD. There was a statistically significant correlation between anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and awareness scores of the coronavirus disease MESHD.Conclusion The treatment and the long-term effects of the coronavirus disease MESHD remain unknown. It is important to maintain the mental and physical health of pregnants, who are in a more delicate condition in the society.

    The Value of High-flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy in Treating Patients With Severe Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia HP

    Authors: Xiao-bao Teng; Ya Shen; Ming-feng Han; Gang Yang; Lei Zha; Jing-feng Shi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44745/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the value of high-flow nasal cannula (HNFC) oxygen therapy in treating patients with severe novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (COVID-19).Methods The clinical data of 22 patients with severe COVID-19 were collected. The heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and oxygenation index (PO2/FiO2) at 0, 6, 24 and 72 hours after treatment were compared between the HFNC oxygen therapy group and the conventional oxygen therapy (COT) group. In addition, the white blood SERO cell (WBC) count, lymphocyte (L) count, C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) were compared before and at 72 hours after oxygen therapy treatment.Results Of the included patients, 12 were assigned to the HFNC oxygen therapy group and 10 were assigned to the COT group. The differences in HR, RR, PaO2/FiO2, WBC, L, CRP and PCT at 0 hours between the two groups were not statistically significant. At 6 hours after treatment with the two oxygen therapies, HR, RR and PaO2/FiO2 were better in the HFNC oxygen therapy group than in the COT group (p < 0.05), while at 24 and 72 hours after treatment with the two oxygen therapies, PaO2/FiO2 was better in the HFNC oxygen therapy group than in the COT group (p < 0.05), but the differences in HR MESHD and RR were not statistically significant. At 72 hours after treatment, L and CRP had significantly improved in the HFNC oxygen therapy group compared with the COT group, but the differences in WBC and PCT were not statistically significant. The length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the total length of hospitalization were shorter in the HFNC oxygen therapy group than in the COT group, and the differences between the two groups were statistically significant.Conclusion Compared with COT, early application of HFNC oxygen therapy in patients with severe COVID-19 can significantly improve oxygenation and RR, and HFNC oxygen therapy can improve the infection indexes of patients and reduce the length of stay in the ICU of patients. Therefore, it has high clinical application value.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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