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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Cell type-specific immune dysregulation HP in severely ill COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Changfu Yao; Stephanie A Bora; Tanyalak Parimon; Tanzira Zaman; Oren A Friedman; Joseph A Palatinus; Nirmala S Surapaneni; Yuri P Matusov; Giuliana Cerro Chiang; Alexander G Kassar; Nayan Patel; Chelsi ER Green; Adam W Aziz; Harshpreet Suri; Jo Suda; Andres A Lopez; Gislaine A Martins; Barry R Stripp; Sina A Gharib; Helen S Goodridge; Peter Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20161182 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly become the most serious pandemic since the 1918 flu pandemic. In extreme situations, patients develop a dysregulated inflammatory lung injury MESHD called acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) that causes progressive respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD requiring mechanical ventilatory support. Recent studies have demonstrated immunologic dysfunction MESHD in severely ill COVID-19 patients. To further delineate the dysregulated immune response driving more severe clinical course from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, we used single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) to analyze the transcriptome of peripheral blood SERO mononuclear cells (PBMC) from hospitalized COVID-19 patients having mild disease (n = 5), developing ARDS MESHD (n = 6), and recovering from ARDS MESHD (n = 6). Our data demonstrated an overwhelming inflammatory response with select immunodeficiencies HP immunodeficiencies MESHD within various immune populations in ARDS MESHD patients. Specifically, their monocytes had defects in antigen presentation and deficiencies in interferon responsiveness that contrasted the higher interferon signals in lymphocytes. Furthermore, cytotoxic activity was suppressed in both NK and CD8 lymphocytes whereas B cell activation was deficient, which is consistent with the delayed viral clearance in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Finally, we identified altered signaling pathways in the severe group that suggests immunosenescence and immunometabolic changes could be contributing to the dysfunctional immune response. Our study demonstrates that COVID-19 patients with ARDS MESHD have an immunologically distinct response when compared to those with a more innocuous disease course and show a state of immune imbalance in which deficiencies in both the innate and adaptive immune response may be contributing to a more severe disease course in COVID-19.

    Clinical Features and Lymphocyte Subsets in Recovered Covid-19 Patients With Prolonged Viral Rna Shedding Duration

    Authors: Wei-yun Zhang; Kai Wu; Ying-ying Liu; Chang-guo Wang; Jian-an Huang; Jun-hong Jiang; Da-xiong Zeng

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-33073/v1 Date: 2020-06-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:The 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) spread in many countries.Data about viral shedding duration, particularly the prolonged ones of the pathogen SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is scarce. The longest viral RNA sheddingduration reported previously was 37 days. Herein, we report the clinical and immunologic features ofrecovered COVID-19cases with a medium viral RNA shedding duration of 44 days. Cases presentation: Nine laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases from Wuhan with viral RNA shedding duration more than 30 days were included in our study,5 of them were moderate.Althoughinflammatory markers were significantlyhigher, the medium duration in severepatients was similar to that in moderate patients (44.5days vs. 43.6days). Severepatients showed higher NK cells levels, although the T cells and B cells were lower as compared with moderate patients. Contrary to previous reports in influenza, prolonged viralshedding time did not cause poor prognosis in this study.Conclusions: There could be characteristic immunological dysfunction MESHD in COVID-19 patients with prolonged viral shedding durationand interestingly, prolonged viral shedding duration seemed not to be related with poor prognosis.

    Individual variation in susceptibility or exposure to SARS-CoV-2 lowers the herd immunity threshold

    Authors: M. Gabriela M. Gomes; Rodrigo M. Corder; Jessica G. King; Kate E. Langwig; Caetano Souto-Maior; Jorge Carneiro; Guilherme Goncalves; Carlos Penha-Goncalves; Marcelo U. Ferreira; Ricardo Aguas

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.27.20081893 Date: 2020-05-02 Source: medRxiv

    As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) spreads, the susceptible subpopulation is depleted causing the incidence of new cases to decline. Variation in individual susceptibility or exposure to infection exacerbates this effect. Individuals that are more susceptible or more exposed tend to be infected earlier, depleting the susceptible subpopulation of those who are at higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD. This selective depletion of susceptibles intensifies the deceleration in incidence. Eventually, susceptible numbers become low enough to prevent epidemic growth or, in other words, the herd immunity threshold ( HIT MESHD) is reached. Although estimates vary, simple calculations suggest that herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 requires 60-70% of the population to be immune. By fitting epidemiological models that allow for heterogeneity to SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks across the globe, we show that variation in susceptibility or exposure to infection reduces these estimates. Accurate measurements of heterogeneity are therefore of paramount importance in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic.

    High rate of increased level of plasma SERO Angiotensin II and its gender TRANS difference in COVID-19: an analysis of 55 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in a single hospital, WuHan, China

    Authors: Na Liu; Yan Hong; Ren-Gui Chen; Heng-Mei Zhu

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.27.20080432 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: 2019 Novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is turning into a pandemic globally lately. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is identified as an important functional receptor for SARS-Cov-2. ACE2 and ACE are homologues with inverse functions in the renin-angiotensin system. ACE converts angiotensin I into a vital vasoactive peptide called angiotensin II(AngII), whereas ACE2 hydrolyzes AngII into a series of vasodilators. There were few reports illustrated the expression of AngII in COVID-19. This study aimed to demonstrate the expression of angiotensin II in COVID-19 and how it correlated to the disease. Methods: We enrolled 55 patients with COVID-19 admitted to renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 21st to February 21st, 2020. Demographic data were collected upon admission. COVID-19 nuclear acid, plasma SERO AngII, Renin and aldosterone in the lying position without sodium restriction, and other laboratory indicators were together measured by the laboratory department of our hospital. Findings: Of the 55 patients with COVID-19, 34(61.8%) had an increased level of AngII. The severity of COVID-19 and male TRANS is positively related with the level of AngII. The level of blood SERO lymphocyte, PCT, ALT, and AST were remarkably severe with those of normal level of AngII (P < 0.05). CD4/CD8 cells ratio was significantly higher whereas CD3+CD8+ cells amount, CD3+CD8+ cells proportion, CD56+CD16+CD3- cells amount and CD19+CD3- cells amount were considerably lower than those of normal level of AngII (P < 0.05). Abnormal rates of blood SERO lymphocyte and PCT were significantly higher in Patients with elevated AngII level. The results of binary logistic regression analysis showed that the severity of COVID-19 (OR=4.123) and CD4/CD8 ratio(OR=4.050) were the co-directional impact factor while female TRANS(OR=0.146) was inverse impact factor of elevated AngII level. Interpretation: High rate of increased level of AngII was detected in COVID-19 patients. Patients with elevated AngII level were more likely to be critically ill with COVID-19. Considering the gender TRANS differences in ACE2 expression and no gender TRANS differences in angiotensin expression, the gender TRANS differences in AngII level might indicate less loss of ACE2 in female TRANS patients. Elevated AngII level was correlated with CD4/CD8 ratio, suggesting it might involve in immune disorder MESHD. Keywords: 2019 Novel coronavirus disease MESHD(COVID-19), Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), Angiotensin II(AngII), gender TRANS differences

    Immunodepletion with Hypoxemia HP Hypoxemia MESHD: A Potential High Risk Subtype of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019

    Authors: Lilei Yu; Yongqing Tong; Gaigai Shen; Aisi Fu; Yanqiu Lai; Xiaoya Zhou; Yuan Yuan; Yuhong Wang; Yuchen Pan; Zhiyao Yu; Yan Li; Tiangang Liu; Hong Jiang

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.03.20030650 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background The outbreak of COVID-2019 is becoming a global public health emergency. Although its basic clinical features have been reported, the dynamic characteristics of immune system in COVID-2019 patients, especially those critical patients with refractory hypoxemia MESHD hypoxemia HP, are not yet well understood. We aim to describe the dynamic characteristics of immune system in 3 critical patients with refractory hypoxemia MESHD hypoxemia HP, and discuss the relationship between hypoxemia HP hypoxemia MESHD severity and immune cell levels, and the changes of gut microbes of COVID-2019 patient. Methods This is a retrospective study from 3 patients with 2019-nCoV infection admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, a COVID-2019 designated hospital in Wuhan, from January 31 to February 6, 2020. All patients were diagnosed and classified based on the Diagnosis and Treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia HP (6th edition) published by the National Health Commission of China4. We recorded the epidemiological history, demographic features, clinical characteristics, symptoms and signs, treatment and clinical outcome in detail. Blood SERO samples were collected and we determined the expression levels of immune cells (CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, and CD16+56+ NK cells) in different time points. Nanopore Targeted Sequencing was used to determine the alterations of gut microbiota homeostasis. Results Apart from the clinical features described previously4, we found that four patients had decreased immune cells and refractory hypoxemia HP hypoxemia MESHD during the hospitalization, and the severity of hypoxemia HP hypoxemia MESHD was strongly correlated to the expression levels of immune cells. Additionally, we found that the proportion of probiotics was significantly reduced, such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Eubacterium, and the proportion of conditioned pathogenic bacteria was significantly increased, such as Corynebacterium of Actinobacteria and Ruthenibacterium of Firmicutes. Notably, all patients died. Conclusions We discussed the dynamic characteristics of host immune system and the imbalance of gut microbiota in 3 critical patients with COVID-2019. Hypoxemia HP Hypoxemia MESHD severity was closely related with host immune cell levels, and the vicious circle between immune disorder MESHD and gut microbiota imbalance may be a high risk of fatal pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which revealing that immunodepletion with refractory hypoxemia MESHD hypoxemia HP is a potential high risk subtype of COVID-2019 and the vicious circle between immune disorder MESHD and gut dysbiosis MESHD may be a high risk of fatal pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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