Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in peritoneal fluid from patients with kidney disease MESHD and COVID-19: report of two cases

    Authors: Margarita Ibarra-Hernandez; María de la Luz Alcantar-Vallín; Rodolfo I. Cabrera-Silva; Karina Sánchez-Reyes; Monserrat Alvarez-Zavala; Judith C. De Arcos-Jiménez; Luz A. González-Hernández; Vida V. Ruiz-Herrera; Sara A. Aguirre-Díaz; Roxana García-Salcido; Guillermo García-García; Jaime F. Andrade-Villanueva

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-79032/v1 Date: 2020-09-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has a broad clinical presentation, involving multiple organs besides the respiratory system. Currently, there is little evidence available on the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) in peritoneal fluid (PF). In this study, we describe the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the PF of two patients with COVID 19 and kidney disease MESHD.Case presentation: Case 1: A 71-year-old woman with a history of end-stage kidney disease MESHD who presented with a 15-day evolution of progressive dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, accompanied by dry cough MESHD cough HP and fever HP fever MESHD; IgM antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2 were detected on admission. Real-time SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the PF was positive. Three days after admission the patient's respiratory distress HP improved and she was discharged after 8 days of hospitalization.Case 2: A 78-year-old woman, with type 2 diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, a 15-day history of polypnea, and a 5-day onset of fever HP fever MESHD and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD. IgM and IgG antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2 were detected on admission, as well as a positive nasopharyngeal qRT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2. During hospitalization she developed acute kidney injury HP acute kidney injury MESHD, requiring peritoneal dialysis, SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed in PF by qRT-PCRConclusions: These two cases highlights the importance of increasing the level of awareness for the presence and possible SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS through non-respiratory routes, like peritoneal fluid.Emphasis should be given to appropriate preventive strategies for minimizing the risk of transmission TRANS of COVID-19 from patients on peritoneal dialysis in both inpatient and outpatient settings.

    Age TRANS-dependent regulation of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry genes and cell death programs correlates with COVID-19 disease severity

    Authors: Zintis Inde; Clarence Yapp; Gaurav N Joshi; Johan Spetz; Cameron Fraser; Brian Deskin; Elisa Ghelfi; Chhinder Sodhi; David Hackam; Lester Kobzik; Ben Croker; Douglas Brownfield; Hongpeng Jia; Kristopher A. Sarosiek; Paige D. Hall; Maud Jansen; Kumaran Shanmugarajah; Jessica S. Donington; Florian Krammer; Daved Fremont; Andrzej Joachimiak; Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Vera Tesic; Maria Lucia Madariaga; Patrick C Wilson; Martin Pettersson; Mattew R. Reese; Thomas Rogers; Michelle I Rossulek; Jean G Sathish; Claire Steppan; Martyn Ticehurst; Lawrence W. Updyke; Yuao Zhu; Jun Wang; Arnab K Chatterjee; Andrew D Mesecar; Annaliesa S. Anderson; Charlotte Allerton

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.13.276923 Date: 2020-09-13 Source: bioRxiv

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) maintains cardiovascular and renal homeostasis MESHD but also serves as the entry receptor for the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) MESHD, the causal agent of novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19)1. COVID-19 disease severity, while highly variable, is typically lower in pediatric patients than adults TRANS (particularly the elderly TRANS), but increased rates of hospitalizations requiring intensive care are observed in infants than in older children TRANS. The reasons for these differences are unknown. To detect potential age TRANS-based correlates of disease severity, we measured ACE2 protein expression at the single cell level in human lung tissue specimens from over 100 donors from [~]4 months to 75 years of age TRANS. We found that expression of ACE2 in distal lung epithelial cells generally increases with advancing age TRANS but exhibits extreme intra- and inter-individual heterogeneity. Notably, we also detected ACE2 expression on neonatal airway epithelial cells and within the lung parenchyma. Similar patterns were found at the transcript level: ACE2 mRNA is expressed in the lung and trachea shortly after birth, downregulated during childhood, and again expressed at high levels in late adulthood in alveolar epithelial MESHD cells. Furthermore, we find that apoptosis, which is a natural host defense system against viral infection MESHD, is also dynamically regulated during lung maturation, resulting in periods of heightened apoptotic priming and dependence on pro-survival BCL-2 family proteins including MCL-1. Infection of human lung cells with SARS-CoV-2 triggers an unfolded protein stress response and upregulation of the endogenous MCL-1 inhibitor Noxa; in juveniles, MCL-1 inhibition is sufficient to trigger apoptosis in lung epithelial cells - this may limit virion production and inflammatory signaling. Overall, we identify strong and distinct correlates of COVID-19 disease severity across lifespan and advance our understanding of the regulation of ACE2 and cell death programs in the mammalian lung. Furthermore, our work provides the framework for potential translation of apoptosis modulating drugs as novel treatments for COVID-19.

    Adult TRANS post COVID-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome MESHD and thrombotic microangiopathy MESHD

    Authors: Idris Boudhabhay; Marion Rabant; Louis-Marie Coupry; Armance Marchal; Lubka T Roumenina; Khalil El-Karoui; Mehran Monchi; Franck Pourcine

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-76310/v1 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 pandemic has affected millions of people worldwide but medium and long-term consequences are unknown. Clinical series of Kawasaki-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome MESHD in children TRANS (MIS-C), occurring after SARS-Cov-2 spreading, have been recently described. Case presentation: We describe a case of post COVID-19 MIS in a 46-year-old man, with biopsy-proven renal thrombotic microangiopathy MESHD ( TMA MESHD). Specific complement inhibition with Eculizumab was initiated promptly and lead to a dramatic improvement of renal function. Conclusion: Our case suggests that post COVID-19 MIS is not restricted to children TRANS and that TMA MESHD could play a central role in the pathophysiology of this syndrome

    Renal Resistive Index is Associated With Acute Kidney Injury HP Acute Kidney Injury MESHD in COVID-19 Patients Treated in the ICU

    Authors: Mårten Renberg; Olof Jonmarker; Naima Kilhamn; Claire Rimes-Stigare; Max Bell; Daniel Hertzberg

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-75544/v1 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Renal resistive index (RRI) is a promising tool for prediction of acute kidney injury HP acute kidney injury MESHD ( AKI MESHD) in critically ill MESHD patients but is not described among patients with Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of RRI in relation to AKI MESHD in patients with COVID-19 treated in the intensive care unit.Methods: In this observational cohort study, RRI was measured in COVID-19 patients in six ICUs at two sites of a Swedish University Hospital. AKI MESHD was defined by the creatinine criteria in the Kidney Disease MESHD Improving Global Outcome classification. We investigated the association between RRI and AKI MESHD diagnosis, different AKI MESHD stages and urine output.Results: RRI was measured in 51 patients, of which 23 patients (45%) had AKI MESHD at the time of measurement. Median RRI in patients with AKI MESHD was 0.80 (IQR 0.71-0.85) compared to 0.72 (IQR 0.67-0.78) in patients without AKI MESHD (p=0.004). Compared to patients without AKI MESHD, RRI was higher in patients with AKI MESHD stage 3 (median 0.83, IQR 0.71-0.85, p=0.006) but not in patients with AKI MESHD stage 1 (median 0.76, IQR 0.71-0.83, p=0.347) or AKI MESHD stage 2 (median 0.79, min/max 0.79/0.80, n=2, p=0.134). RRI was higher in patients with an ongoing AKI MESHD episode compared to patients who never developed AKI MESHD (median 0.72, IQR 0.69-0.78, p=0.015) or patients who developed AKI MESHD but had recovered at the time of measurement (median 0.68, IQR 0.67-0.81, p=0.021). Oliguric patients had higher RRI (median 0.84, IQR 0.83-0.85) compared to non-oliguric patients (median 0.74, IQR 0.69-0.81) (p=0.009).Conclusions: Critically ill COVID-19 patients with AKI MESHD have higher RRI compared to those without AKI MESHD, and elevated RRI may have a role in identifying severe and oliguric AKI MESHD in these patients. 

    Acute kidney injury HP kidney injury MESHD is associated with severe and fatal outcomes in patients with Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

    Authors: Mohammad Parohan; Sajad Yaghoubi; Mahmoud Djalali; Asal Seraji; Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht; Zahra Mousavi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.27.20183632 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic impacting 213 countries and territories with more than 17,918,582 cases worldwide. Kidney dysfunction MESHD has been reported to occur in severe and death MESHD cases. This meta-analysis was done to summarize available studies on the association between acute kidney injury HP kidney injury MESHD and severity of COVID-19 infection MESHD. Online databases including Web of Science, PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched to detect relevant articles up to 1 July 2020, using relevant keywords. To pool data, a random- or fixed-effects model was used based on the heterogeneity between studies. In total, 50 studies with 8,180 COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS (severe cases=1,823 and death MESHD cases=775), were included in this meta-analysis. Higher serum SERO levels of creatinine (weighted mean difference ( WMD MESHD) for disease severity=5.47 mol/L, 95% CI=2.89 to 8.05, P<0.001 and WMD for mortality=18.32 mol/L, 95% CI=12.88 to 23.75, P<0.001), blood SERO urea nitrogen (BUN) ( WMD MESHD for disease severity=1.10 mmol/L, 95% CI=0.67 to 1.54, P<0.001 and WMD for mortality=3.56 mmol/L, 95% CI=2.65 to 4.48, P<0.001) and lower levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ( WMD MESHD for disease severity=-15.34 mL/min/1.73 m2, 95% CI=-18.46 to -12.22, P<0.001 and WMD for mortality=-22.74 mL/min/1.73 m2, 95% CI=-27.18 to -18.31, P<0.001) were associated with a significant increase in the severity and mortality of COVID-19 infection MESHD. Acute kidney injury HP kidney injury MESHD, as assessed by kidney biomarkers ( serum SERO creatinine, BUN and eGFR), was associated with severe outcome and death MESHD from COVID-19 infection MESHD.

    Clinical characteristics study of elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in China

    Authors: Chao Zhang; Hua Fu; Long Zhang; Yuxiong Yin; Jing Lin; Hu Liu; Qing Mao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-67737/v1 Date: 2020-08-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a newly emerged respiratory disease MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), has recently become pandemic. Clinical observation indicated that elderly TRANS patients had high incidence of severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and poor treatment efficacy. Therefore, this study was to clarify the characteristics of elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in order to guide rational treatment for elderly TRANS patients. Methods: we enrolled 331 elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with confirmed COVID-19 in Huoshenshan hospital of Wuhan from February 3rd to March 31st. The cases were divided into general, serious and critical groups according to severity after hospitalization, and the difference among groups were compared by R package statistics software. Results: Compared with general group, serious and critical groups had more underlying comorbidities and higher incidence of cough HP cough MESHD, breath shortness MESHD and anorexia HP anorexia MESHD. Moreover, there existed obviously differences in many of laboratory indexes and CT images among them. serious and critical elderly TRANS patients were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, corticosteroid, abidor, cephaloprin, imipenem, human serum SERO albumin (HSA), nutrition support, anti SARS-CoV-2 positive plasma SERO and actemra. Multivariate analysis of factors showed that male TRANS sex, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, renal diseases MESHD, breath shortness MESHD, neutrophil, platelet, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase were the risk factor for serious and critical illness. While blood SERO cell (WBC) was the protective factor. Conclusion: elderly TRANS patients have high incidence of severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and poor treatment efficacy. The reasons might be that many of the elderly TRANS patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD have certain chronic disease MESHD, poor immune function and a meager response to the virus. the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 might be involved in the cell-mediated immunity and cytokine storms by acting on lymphocytes.

    Effect of novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 infection on chronic HP infection on chronic MESHD kidney disease G1-G5, G5 Dialysis and G5 Transplantation

    Authors: Fateme Shamekhi Amiri

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-66274/v1 Date: 2020-08-26 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious disease MESHD that causes lethal disease and multiorgan failure MESHD. The aim of this research is to investigate association between covid-19 infection MESHD and kidney dysfunction MESHD.Methods and materials: In this retrospective study, sixty-eight patients with kidney dysfunction MESHD and covid-19 infection MESHD were investigated. Clinical features, laboratory data at initial presentation, management and outcomes were collected.The paper has written based on searching PubMed Central and Google Scholar to identify potentially relevant articles. Median, percentage, mean ± standard deviation (SD), two-tailed t and chi-square and Cohen᾽s-d tests were used for statistical analyses. Moreover, relative risk, odds ratio, pearson᾽s correlation for statistical analyses were used. Results: The average age TRANS of patients at time of diagnosis in covid-19 nephropathy HP nephropathy MESHD was 52.04 ± 14.42 years (ranging from 24 years to 88 years). There was not statistical significance correlation between lymphocytopenia MESHD and serum SERO creatinine (SCr) in covid-19 nephropathy HP nephropathy MESHD (R2=0.063; p-value= 0.33).  Effect size of elevated IL-6 on decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in covid-19 nephropathy HP nephropathy MESHD was assessed 0.656 (medium effect size). Relative risk and odds ratio of acute kidney disease MESHD ( AKD MESHD) in covid-19 nephropathy HP nephropathy MESHD were assessed 0.57 and 0.4, respectively (p-value: 0.422). Correlation between SCr changes and time of emergent AKI MESHD ( acute kidney injury HP acute kidney injury MESHD), AKD MESHD and chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD ( CKD MESHD) was assessed with R2 of 0.0003 and p-value of 0.94 (not significant).  Conclusion: The present study revealed medium effect size of elevated IL-6 on decreased eGFR. Future clinical research is required for investigating novel unknown findings in covid-19 nephropathy HP nephropathy MESHD

    Focus on renal blood SERO flow in mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Alberto Fogagnolo; Salvatore Grasso; Martin Dres; Loreto Gesualdo; Elena Morelli; Irene Ottaviani; Elisabetta Marangoni; Carlo Alberto Volta; Savino Spadaro

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57589/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Patients with ARDS MESHD due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) seem particularly susceptible to AKI. Our hypothesis was that the renal blood SERO flow could be more compromised in SARS-CoV-2 patients than in patients with “traditional” ARDS. We compared the renal resistivity index (RRI) and the renal venous flow ( RVF MESHD) in ARDS MESHD patients with SARS-CoV-2 and in ARDS MESHD patients due to other etiologies.Materials and Methods: Prospective, observational study performed on 30 mechanically ventilated patients (15 with SARS-COV-2 ARDS and 15 with ARDS). Ultrasound Doppler measurements of RRI and RVF MESHD pattern were performed in each patient.Results: Patients with SARS-COV-2 ARDS had higher RRI than patients with ARDS (0.71[0.67–0.78] vs 0.64[0.60–0.74], p=0.04). RVF was not-continuous in 9/15 patients (71%) in the SARS-COV-2 ARDS group and in and 5/15 (33%) in the ARDS group (p=0.27). A linear correlation was found between PEEP and RRI MESHD in patients with SARS-COV-2 ARDS (r2=0.31; p=0.03) but not in patients with ARDS. Occurrence of AKI was 53% in patients with SARS-COV-2 ARDS and 33% in patients with ARDS (p=0.46).Conclusions: We found a more pronounced impairment in renal blood MESHD blood SERO flow in mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-COV-2 ARDS, compared with patients with “traditional” ARDS. 

    Comorbidities associated with regional variations in COVID-19 mortality revealed by population-level analysis

    Authors: Hongxing Yang; Fei Zhong

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20158105 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-Cov-2), has developed into a global health crisis. Understanding the risk factors for poor outcomes of COVID-19 is thus important for successful management and control of the pandemic. However, the progress and severity of the epidemic across different regions show great differentiations. We hypothesized the origination of these differences are based on location-dependent variations in underlying population-wide health factors. Disease prevalence SERO or incidence data of states and counties of the United States were collected for a group of chronic diseases MESHD, including hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, coronary heart disease MESHD, heart failure MESHD, physical inactivation, and common cancers MESHD (e.g., lung, colorectal MESHD, stomach, kidney and renal MESHD). Correlation and regression analysis identified the prevalence SERO of heart failure MESHD as a significant positive factor for region-level COVID-19 mortality. Similarly, the incidence of gastric cancer MESHD and thyroid cancer MESHD were also identified as significant factors contributing to regional variation in COVID-19 mortality. To explore the implications of these results, we re-analyzed the RNA-seq data for stomach adenocarcinoma MESHD ( STAD MESHD) and colon carcinoma MESHD carcinoma HP ( COAD MESHD) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We found that expression of genes in the immune response pathways were more severely disturbed in STAD MESHD than in COAD, implicating higher probability for STAD MESHD patients or individuals with precancerous chronic stomach diseases MESHD to develop cytokine storm once infected with COVID-19. Taken together, we conclude that location variations in particular chronic diseases MESHD and cancers MESHD contribute significantly to the regional variations in COVID-19 mortality.

    Quantifying the impacts of human mobility restriction on the spread of COVID-19: an empirical analysis from 344 cities of China

    Authors: Jing Tan; Yi-quan Xiong; Shaoyang Zhao; Chunrong Liu; Shiyao Huang; Xin Lu; Lehana Thabane; Feng Xie; Xin Sun; Weimin Li

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.13.20148668 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Objective Since the outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (COVID-19), human mobility restriction measures have raised controversies, partly due to inconsistent findings. Empirical study is urgently needed to reliably assess the causal effects of mobility restriction. Methods Our study applied the difference-in-difference (DID) model to assess declines of population mobility at the city level, and used the log-log regression model to examine the effects of population mobility declines on the disease spread TRANS measured by cumulative or new cases of COVID-19 over time, after adjusting for confounders. Results The DID MESHD model showed that a continual expansion of the relative declines over time in 2020. After four weeks, population mobility declined by 54.81% (interquartile ranges, -65.50% to -43.56%). The accrued population mobility declines MESHD were associated with significant reduction of cumulative COVID-19 cases throughout six weeks (i.e., 1% decline of population mobility was associated with 0.72% (95%CI 0.50% to 0.93%) reduce of cumulative cases for one week, 1.42% two weeks, 1.69% three weeks, 1.72% four weeks,1.64% five weeks and 1.52% six weeks). The impact on weekly new cases seemed greater in the first four weeks, but faded thereafter. The effects on cumulative cases differed by cities of different population sizes, with greater effects seen in larger cities. Conclusion Persistent population mobility restrictions are well deserved. However, a change in the degree of mobility restriction may be warranted over time, particularly after several weeks of rigorous mobility restriction. Implementation of mobility restrictions in major cities with large population sizes may be even more important.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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