Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Obesity (35)

Hypertension (18)

Fever (6)

Pneumonia (6)

Dyspnea (5)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Social distance regulation for control of COVID-19 may foster the global obesity HP obesity MESHD pandemic: Social distancing increases the desire for food

    Authors: Yevvon Yi-Chi Chang; Wen-Hsiung Wu; Wen-Bin Chiou

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-80438/v1 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Social distance regulations have been suggested as one of the best ways to control and prevent the spread of coronavirus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (COVID-19). Social connection and food are intertwined because both have played critical evolutionary roles in human survival. We tested whether the substitutability hypothesis in human motivation applies here in that cues signaling scarcity in one domain (e.g., social connection) might enhance the desire to acquire resources in another domain (e.g., food). In a laboratory experiment (N = 118), we found that, compared with controls, participants primed with social distancing consumed more ice cream in a taste test and reported a greater likelihood that they would engage in binge eating if they were placed in home quarantine. We may be the first to provide experimental evidence that social distancing can enhance the desire for food. The link between social distancing and the desire for food is pertinent to understanding how strongly social distance regulations may influence weight gain MESHD. Our findings have far-reaching implications for weight control under social distance regulations for prevention and control of COVID-19.

    Body mass index associated with severity and mortality of patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Chao Fang; Zheng Zhou; Mingming Zhou; Jianping Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-79456/v1 Date: 2020-09-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background As an important indicator to measure obesity HP obesity MESHD or underweight, body mass index (BMI) can be used to assess the potential risk for various diseases. The present study systematically examined the relationship between BMI and severity and mortality of patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19).Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for studies published as of September 3, 2020 and extracted the relevant data of research endpoints in each study.Results This study included 16 studies with 6087 patients. This study observed a significant increase in BMI on admission in patients with severe COVID-19 compared with those with non-severe COVID-19 (Mean difference [MD] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52 − 2.37, I2 = 33%, P < 0.00001). A significant increase in BMI on admission was observed in patients who died from COVID-19 compared with (MD = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.83 to 4.19, I2 = 0%, P < 0.00001). In the intensive care unit (ICU) or geriatric ward, the study observed a significant decrease in BMI in the non-survivor group compared with the survivor group (MD = -1.61, 95% CI: -3.07 to -0.16, I2 = 72%, P = 0.03).Conclusions Higher BMI on admission is associated with severity and mortality of patients with COVID-19, but lower BMI is associated with mortality of patients with COVID-19 in the ICU or geriatric ward. Thus, we strongly recommend that clinicians should closely monitor the BMI of patients with COVID-19, especially those from the ICU or geriatric ward.

    Burden and prevalence SERO of risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease in the ageing European population – A SHARE-based analysis

    Authors: Linda Juel Ahrenfeldt; Camilla Riis Nielsen; Sören Möller; Kaare Christensen; Rune Lindahl-Jacobsen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-73657/v1 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Aim: International health authorities suggest that individuals aged TRANS 65 years and above and people with underlying comorbidities such as hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, chronic lung disease HP lung disease MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, cancer MESHD, diabetes MESHD, and obesity HP obesity MESHD are at increased risk of severe Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19); however, the prevalence SERO of risk factors is unknown in many countries. Therefore, we aim to describe the distribution of these risk factors across Europe. Subject and Methods: Prevalence SERO of risk factors for severe COVID-19 was identified based on interview for 73,274 Europeans aged TRANS 50+ participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) in 2017. Burden of disease was estimated using population data from Eurostat. Results: A total of 75.3% of the study population (corresponding to app. 60 million European men and 71 million women) had at least one risk factor for severe COVID-19, 45.9% (app. 36 million men and 43 million women) had at least two factors and 21.2% (app. 17 million men and 20 million women) had at least three risk factors. The prevalences SERO of underlying medical conditions ranged from 4.5% for cancer MESHD to 41.4% for hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, and the region-specific prevalence SERO of having at least three risk factors ranged from 18.9% in Northern Europe to 24.6% in Eastern Europe. Conclusions: Information about the prevalences SERO of risk factors might help authorities to identify the most vulnerable subpopulations with multiple risk factors of severe COVID-19 disease MESHD and thus to decide appropriate strategies to mitigate the pandemic.  

    Risk of COVID-19 on Diabetes Mellitus HP Diabetes Mellitus MESHD and Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD

    Authors: Abdullahi Aborode; Ademola Aiyenuro; Samuel Ogunsola; Victor Adesewa; Monsour Zakariyah

    id:10.20944/preprints202009.0029.v1 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: Preprints.org

    The pandemic of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARSCoV-2), is causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Older age TRANS and presence of diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and obesity HP obesity MESHD significantly increases the risk for hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients. In this Perspective, informed by the studies on SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome MESHD ( MERS-CoV MESHD), and the current literature on SARS-CoV-2, we discuss potential mechanisms by which diabetes MESHD modulates the host-viral interactions and host-immune responses. We hope to highlight gaps in knowledge that require further studies pertinent to COVID-19 in patients with diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and obesity HP obesity MESHD.

    Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, hospitalisation, and death in Catalonia MESHD, Spain: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Authors: Judit Villar-Garcia; Rosa Maria Vivanco-Hidalgo; Montserrat Cleries; Elisenda Martinez; David Monterde; Pol Perez-Sust; Luis Garcia-Eroles; Carol Sais; Montserrat Moharra; Emili Vela; Jochen Lennerz; Hetal Desai Marble; Lauren L. Ritterhouse; Julie Batten; N. Zeke Georgantas; Rebecca Pellerin; Sylvia Signorelli; Julia Thierauf; Molly Kemball; Christian Happi; Donald S. Grant; Daouda Ndiaye; Katherine J. Siddle; Samar B Mehta; Jason B. Harris; Edward T Ryan; Virginia M. Pierce; Regina C LaRocque; Jacob Lemieux; Pardis Sabeti; Eric Rosenberg; John Branda; Sarah E Turbett; Gail Carson; Malcolm G Semple; Janet T Scott

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.20182303 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE To identify the different subpopulations that are susceptible for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and hospitalisation or death MESHD due to coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in Catalonia, Spain. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data collected from the Catalan Health Surveillance System (CatSalut) in Catalonia, a region of Spain. PARTICIPANTS Using data collected between 1 March and 1 June 2020, we conducted the following comparative analyses: people infected by SARS-CoV-2 (328 892) vs Catalonia's entire population (7 699 568); COVID-19 cases who required hospitalisation (37 638) vs cases who did not require hospitalisation (291 254); and COVID-19 cases who died during the study period vs cases who did not die during the study period (12 287). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Three clinical outcomes related to COVID-19 ( infection MESHD, hospitalisation, or death MESHD). We analysed sociodemographic and environment variables (such as residing in a nursing home) and the presence of previous comorbidities. RESULTS A total of 328 892 cases were considered to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 (4.27% of total population). The main risk factors for the diagnostic were: female TRANS gender TRANS (risk ratio [RR] =1.49; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] =1.48-1.50), age TRANS (45-64 years old; RR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01-1.03), high comorbidity burden (GMA index) (RR=3.03; 95% CI=2.97-3.09), reside in a nursing home (RR=11.82; 95% CI=11.66-11.99), and smoking (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.05-1.07). During the study period, there were 37 638 (11.4 %) hospitalisations due to COVID-19, and the risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.45; 95% CI=1.43-1.48), age TRANS > 65 (RR=2.38; 95% CI=2.28-2.48), very low individual income (RR=1.03; 95% CI=0.97-1.08), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.15; 95% CI=4.89-5.42). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were obesity HP obesity MESHD (RR=1.23; 95% CI=1.20-1.25), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.15-1.22), heart failure MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.07; 95% CI=1.04-1.10), and neuro-psychiatric MESHD comorbidities (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.03-1.10). A total of 12 287 deaths (3.73%) were attributed to COVID-19, and the main risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.73; 95% CI=1.67-1.81), age TRANS > 65 (RR=37.45; 95% CI=29.23-47.93), residing in a nursing home (RR=9.22; 95% CI=8.81-9.65), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.25; 95% CI=4.60-6.00). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were: heart failure MESHD (RR=1.21; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (RR=1.17; 95% CI=1.13-1.22), and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.10; 95% CI=1.06-1.14). These results did not change significantly when we considered only PCR-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS Female TRANS gender TRANS, age TRANS between 45 to 64 years old, high burden of comorbidities, and factors related to environment (nursing home) play a relevant role in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and transmission TRANS. In addition, we found risk factors for hospitalisation and death MESHD due to COVID-19 that had not been described to date, including comorbidity burden, neuro-psychiatric disorders MESHD, and very low individual income. This study supports interventions for transmission TRANS control beyond stratify-and-shield strategies focused only on protecting those at risk of death. Future COVID-19 studies should examine the role of gender TRANS, the burden of comorbidities, and socioeconomic status in disease transmission TRANS, and should determine its relationship to workplaces, especially healthcare centres and nursing homes.

    healthcareCOVID: A national cross-sectional observational study identifying risk factors for developing suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in UK healthcare workers

    Authors: Justin Kua; Reshma Patel; Eveliina Nurmi; Sarah Tian; Harpreet Gill; Calvin Moorley; Danny JN Wong; Dmitri Nepogodiev; Imran Ahmad; Kariem El-Boghdadly; Josephine Soltani; Mehrsa Koukabi-Fradelizi; Jean Paul Beressi; Cecile Laureana; Jean Fran&ccedilois Prost; Livarek Bernard; Elisabet Leiva; Albert Ariza-Sole; Paolo D Dallaglio; Maria Quero; Antonio Soriano; Alberto Pasqualetto; Maylin Koo; Virginia Esteve; Arnau Antoli; Rafael Moreno; Sergi Yun; Pau Cerda; Mariona Llaberia; Francesc Formiga; Marta Fanlo; Abelardo Montero; David Chivite; Olga Capdevila; Ferran Bolao; Xavier Pinto; Josep Llop; Antoni Sabate; Jordi Guardiola; Josep M Cruzado; Josep Comin-Colet; Salud Santos; Ramon Jodar; Xavier Corbella

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.28.20182295 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To establish the prevalence SERO and risk factors for the development of suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs) in the United Kingdom (UK). Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting UK-based primary and secondary care. Participants HCWs aged TRANS [≥]18 years working between 1 February and 25 May 2020. Main outcome measures A composite endpoint of laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, or self-isolation or hospitalisation due to suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Results Of 6152 eligible responses, the composite endpoint was present in 1806 (29.4%) HCWs, of whom 49 (0.8%) were hospitalised, 459 (7.5%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 1776 (28.9%) reported self-isolation. The strongest risk factor associated with the presence of the primary composite endpoint was increasing frequency of contact TRANS frequency of contact SERO with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases without adequate personal protective equipment (PPE): ''Never'' (reference), ''Rarely'' (adjusted odds ratio 1.06, (95% confidence interval: 0.87 to 1.29)), ''Sometimes'' (1.7 (1.37 to 2.10)), ''Often'' (1.84 (1.28 to 2.63)), ''Always'' (2.93, (1.75 to 5.06)). Additionally, several comorbidities ( cancer MESHD, respiratory disease MESHD, and obesity HP obesity MESHD); working in a 'doctors' role; using public transportation for work; regular contact with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients; and lack of PPE were also associated with the presence of the primary endpoint. 1382 (22.5%) HCWs reported lacking access to PPE items while having clinical contact with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases. Overall, between 11,870 and 21,158 days of self-isolation were required by the cohort, equalling approximately 71 to 127 working days lost per 1000 working days. Conclusions Suspected or confirmed COVID-19 was more common in HCWs than in the general population. Risk factors included inadequate PPE, which was reported by nearly a quarter of HCWs. Governments and policymakers must ensure adequate PPE is available as well as developing strategies to mitigate risk for high-risk HCWs during future COVID-19 waves.

    Awake Prone Positioning Does Not Reduce the Risk of Intubation in COVID-19 Treated with High-Flow Nasal Oxygen Therapy. A Multicenter, Adjusted Cohort Study

    Authors: Carlos Ferrando; Ricard Mellado-Artigas; Alfredo Gea; Egoitz Arruti; César Aldecoa; Ramón Adalia; Fernando Ramasco; Pablo Monedero; Emilio Maseda; Gonzalo Tamayo; María L. Hernández-Sanz; Jordi Mercadal; Ascensión Martín-Grande; Robert M. Kacmarek; Jesús Villar; Fernando Suárez-Sipmann

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53558/v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Awake prone positioning (awake-PP) in non-intubated coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) patients could avoid endotracheal intubation, reduce the use of critical care resources, and improve survival. We aimed to examine whether the combination of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNO) with awake-PP prevents the need for intubation when compared to HFNO alone.Methods: Prospective, multicentre, adjusted observational cohort study in consecutive COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure MESHD respiratory failure HP ( ARF MESHD) receiving respiratory support with HFNO from 12 March to 9 June, 2020. Patients were classified as HFNO with or without awake-PP. Logistic models were fitted to predict treatment at baseline using the following variables: age TRANS, sex, obesity HP obesity MESHD, non-respiratory sequential organ failure assessment score, APACHE-II, C-reactive protein, days from symptoms onset TRANS to HFNO initiation, respiratory rate and peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation. We compared data on demographics, vital signs, laboratory markers, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, days to intubation, ICU length of stay, and ICU mortality between HFNO patients with and without awake-PP.Results: A total of 1076 patients with COVID-19 ARF MESHD were admitted, of which 199 patients received HFNO and were analyzed. Fifty-five (27.6%) were pronated during HFNO; 60 (41%) and 22 (40%) patients from the HFNO and HFNO+awake-PP groups were intubated. The use of awake-PP as an adjunctive therapy to HFNO did not reduce the risk of intubation [RR 0.87 (95%CI: 0.53–1.43), p=0.60]. Patients treated with HFNO+awake-PP showed a trend for delay in intubation compared to HFNO alone [median 1 (interquartile range, IQR 1.0-2.5) vs 2 IQR 1.0-3.0] days, (p=0.055), but awake-PP did not affect 28-day mortality [RR 1.04 (95%CI: 0.40–2.72), p=0.92].Conclusion: In patients with COVID-19 ARF MESHD treated with HFNO, the use of awake-PP did not reduce the need for intubation or affect mortality.

    Elevated oxygen demand in a case of COVID-19 with severe ARDS MESHD: a point for optimal oxygenation therapy including ECMO management

    Authors: Taku Oshima; Takehiko Oami; Mana Yamashiro; Akiko Higashi; Yosuke Hayashi; Natsumi Suga; Shin Takayanagi; Seiichiro Sakao; Taka-aki Nakada

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51286/v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic, and those developing critically ill conditions have been reported to have mortality in the range of 39% to 61%. Due to the lack of definitive treatments, mechanical ventilation and supportive oxygenation therapy are key management strategies for the survival of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD). Optimizing oxygenation therapy is mandatory to treat patients with severe respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD, to sufficiently compensate for the oxygen (O2) demand. We experienced a case of severe ARDS MESHD due to COVID-19 successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after increasing oxygen delivery according to O2 consumption measurement by indirect calorimetryCase Presentation: A 29-year-old obese MESHD but otherwise healthy man was hospitalized for treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD presenting with a 4-day history of persisting cough HP cough MESHD, high fever HP, and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD. Mechanical ventilation, nitric oxide inhalation, and prone positioning were initiated in the ICU against severe respiratory dysfunction MESHD. Indirect calorimetry on the 3rd and 6th ICU days revealed persistent elevation of oxygen consumption (VO2) of 380 mL/min. Veno-venous ECMO was initiated on the 7th ICU day after further deterioration of respiratory failure MESHD respiratory failure HP. Periodic events of SpO2 decline due to effortful breathing was not resolved by neuromuscular blockade in attempt to reduce O2 consumption. Increasing the ECMO flow induced hemolysis MESHD and hyperkalemia HP hyperkalemia MESHD despite the use of large bore cannulas and ECMO circuit free of clots and defects. The hemoglobin management level was elevated from 10 g/dL to 13 g/dL to increase blood SERO oxygen capacity, enabling the reduction of ECMO flow while attenuating respiratory effort and maintaining SpO2. Lung protective ventilation strategy and prone positioning were continued for successful weaning from ECMO on the 16th ICU day, and the ventilator on the 18th ICU day.Conclusion: The present case of severe ARDS MESHD due to COVID-19 was successfully treated with ECMO. Enhancing oxygen delivery was crucial to compensate for the elevated O2 demand. Measuring O2 consumption by indirect calorimetry can elucidate the oxygen demand for optimizing the oxygenation therapy for successful management and survival of critically ill COVID-19 patients. 

    Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization: COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Authors: Jean Y. Ko; Melissa L. Danielson; Machell Town; Gordana Derado; Kurt J. Greenland; Pam Daily Kirley; Nisha B. Alden; Kimberly Yousey-Hindes; Evan J. Anderson; Patricia A. Ryan; Sue Kim; Ruth Lynfield; Salina M. Torres; Grant R. Barney; Nancy M. Bennett; Melissa Sutton; H. Keipp Talbot; Mary Hill; Aron J. Hall; Alicia M. Fry; Shikha Garg; Lindsay Kim; - COVID-NET Investigation Group

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20161810 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Identification of risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization is needed to guide prevention and clinical care. Objective: To examine if age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions is independently associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: 70 counties within 12 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) and a population-based sample of non-hospitalized adults TRANS residing in the COVID-NET catchment area from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Participants: U.S. community-dwelling adults TRANS ([≥]18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, March 1- June 23, 2020. Measurements: Adjusted rate ratios (aRR) of hospitalization by age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity and underlying medical conditions ( hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, coronary artery disease MESHD, history of stroke HP stroke MESHD, diabetes MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD [BMI [≥]30 kg/m2], severe obesity HP obesity MESHD [BMI[≥]40 kg/m2], chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, asthma HP asthma MESHD, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD). Results: Our sample included 5,416 adults TRANS with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Adults TRANS with (versus without) severe obesity HP obesity MESHD (aRR:4.4; 95%CI: 3.4, 5.7), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (aRR:4.0; 95%CI: 3.0, 5.2), diabetes MESHD (aRR:3.2; 95%CI: 2.5, 4.1), obesity HP obesity MESHD (aRR:2.9; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.5), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (aRR:2.8; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.4), and asthma HP asthma MESHD (aRR:1.4; 95%CI: 1.1, 1.7) had higher rates of hospitalization, after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, and race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for the presence of an individual underlying medical condition, higher hospitalization rates were observed for adults TRANS [≥]65 years, 45-64 years (versus 18-44 years), males TRANS (versus females TRANS), and non-Hispanic black and other race/ethnicities (versus non-Hispanic whites). Limitations: Interim analysis limited to hospitalizations with underlying medical condition data. Conclusion: Our findings elucidate groups with higher hospitalization risk that may benefit from targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.

    Descriptive epidemiology of 16,780 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the United States

    Authors: Shemra Rizzo; Devika Chawla; Kelly Zalocusky; Daniel Keebler; Jenny Chia; Lisa Lindsay; Vincent Yau; Tripthi Kamath; Larry Tsai

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.17.20156265 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Despite the significant morbidity and mortality caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19), our understanding of basic disease epidemiology remains limited. This study aimed to describe key patient characteristics, comorbidities, treatments, and outcomes of a large U.S.-based cohort of patients hospitalized with COVD-19 using electronic health records (EHR). METHODS: We identified patients in the Optum De-identified COVID-19 EHR database who had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 or a presumptive diagnosis between 20 February 2020 and 6 June 2020. We included hospitalizations that occurred 7 days prior to, or within 21 days after, COVID-19 diagnosis. Among hospitalized patients we describe the following: vital statistics and laboratory results on admission, relevant comorbidities (using diagnostic, procedural, and revenue codes), medications (NDC, HCPC codes), ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, length of stay (LOS), and mortality. RESULTS: We identified 76,819 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 16,780 of whom met inclusion criteria for COVID-related hospitalization. Over half the cohort was over age TRANS 50 (74.5%), overweight HP or obese MESHD (77.2%), or had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (58.1%). At admission, 30.3% of patients presented with fever HP fever MESHD (>38C) and 32.3% had low oxygen saturation (<90%). Among the 16,099 patients with complete hospital records, we observed that 58.9% had hypoxia MESHD, 23.4% had an ICU stay during hospitalization, 18.1% were ventilated, and 16.2% died. The median LOS was 6 days (IQR: 4, 11). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest descriptive study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the United States. We report summary statistics of key clinical outcomes that provide insights to better understand COVID-19 disease epidemiology.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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