Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

There are no HP terms in the subcorpus


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Time is of the essence: containment of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Switzerland from February to May 2020

    Authors: Christian L Althaus; Daniel Probst; Anthony Hauser; Julien L Riou

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20158014 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    AIM: In late February and early March 2020, Switzerland experienced rapid growth of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections MESHD with 30,243 confirmed cases TRANS and 1,860 deaths as of 10 May 2020. The sequential introduction of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) resulted in successful containment of the epidemic. A better understanding of how the timing of implementing NPIs influences the dynamics and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 epidemics will be crucial for the management of a potential resurgence in Switzerland. METHODS: We developed a dynamic transmission TRANS model that describes infection MESHD, hospitalization, recovery and death MESHD due to SARS-CoV-2 in Switzerland. Using a maximum likelihood framework, we fitted the model to aggregated daily numbers of hospitalized patients, ICU occupancy MESHD and death MESHD from 25 February to 10 May 2020. We estimated critical parameters of SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS in Switzerland and explored counterfactual scenarios of an earlier and later implementation of NPIs. RESULTS: We estimated the basic reproduction number TRANS R0 TRANS = 2.61 (95% compatibility interval, CI: 2.51-2.71) during the early exponential phase of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic MESHD in Switzerland. After the implementation of NPIs, the effective reproduction number TRANS approached Re = 0.64 (95% CI: 0.61-0.66). Based on the observed doubling times of the epidemic before and after the implementation of NPIs, we estimated that one week of early exponential spread required 3.1 weeks (95% CI: 2.8-3.3 weeks) of 'lockdown' to reduce the number of infections to the same level. Introducing the same sequence of NPIs one week earlier or later would have resulted in substantially lower (399, 95% prediction interval, PI: 347-458) and higher (8,683, 95% PI: 8,038-9,453) numbers of deaths, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of NPIs in March 2020 prevented thousands of SARS-CoV-2-related deaths in Switzerland. Early implementation of NPIs during SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks can reduce the number of deaths MESHD and the necessary duration of strict control measures considerably.

    Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Chinese public with respect to coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19): An online cross-sectional survey

    Authors: Huiming Gao; Rujun Hu; Ling Yin; Xiaoli Yuan; Hao Tang; Lan Luo; Mei Chen; Di Huang; Ying Wang; Anyong Yu; Zhixia Jiang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40292/v1 Date: 2020-07-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become pandemic. The knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of the public play a major role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases MESHD. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the KAP of the Chinese public and to assess potential influencing factors related to practices.Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China in February 2020 via a self-designed questionnaire comprising 33 questions assessing knowledge, attitudes, and practices.Results: For the 2,136 respondents from 30 provinces or municipalities in China, the accurate response rate for the knowledge section was 72.7–99.5%, and the average was 91.2%. In the attitude section, the percentage of positive attitudes (“strongly agree” and “agree”) ranged from 94.7–99.7%, and the average value was 98.0%. The good practices (“always” and “often”) results ranged from 76.1–99.5%, and the average value was 96.8%. The independent samples t-test revealed that gender TRANS and ethnic differences had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behaviour (P > 0.05). However, knowledge was associated with age TRANS (t = 4.842, p < 0.001), marital status (t=-5.323, p < 0.001), education level (t = 8.441, p < 0.001), occupation MESHD (t=-10.858, p < 0.001), and place of residence (t = 7.929, p < 0.001). Similarly, attitude was associated with marital status (t=-2.383, p = 0.017), education level (t = 2.106, p = 0.035), occupation (t=-4.834, p < 0.001), and place of residence (t = 4.242, p < 0.001). The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that the factors influencing practices were knowledge (t=-3.281, p = 0.001), attitude (t = 18.756, p < 0.001), occupation MESHD (t=-3.860, p < 0.001), education level (t = 3.136, p = 0.002), and place of residence (t = 3.257, p = 0.001).Conclusions: The Chinese public exhibited a good level of knowledge of COVID-19, a positive attitude, and high adherence to good practices. COVID-19-related knowledge, attitudes and practices were affected by age TRANS, marital status, education level, occupation, and place of residence to varying degrees. In addition, practices were affected by knowledge and attitudes toward COVID-19.

    Serology surveillance of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO among asymptomatic TRANS healthcare workers in Malaysian healthcare facilities designated for COVID-19 care

    Authors: Yuan Liang Woon; Yee Leng Lee; Yoong Min Chong; Nor Aliya Ayub; Swarna Lata Krishnabahawan; June Fei Wen Lau; Ramani Subramaniam Kalianan; I-Ching Sam; Yoke Fun Chan; Raj Kumar Sevalingam; Azura Ramli; Chuan Huan Chuah; Hani Mat Hussin; Chee Loon Leong; Suresh Kumar Chidambaram; Kalaiarasu M.Peariasamy; Pik Pin Goh

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-37132/v1 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    IntroductionHealthcare workers (HCW) are presumed to be at increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD due to occupational exposure to infected MESHD patients. We aim to determine the prevalence SERO of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO among asymptomatic TRANS HCW.MethodsWe prospectively recruited HCW from the National Public Health Laboratory and two COVID-19 designated public hospitals in Klang Valley, Malaysia between April 13th and May 12th, 2020. Quota sampling was applied to ensure adequate representation of the HCW involved in provision of care for patients directly and indirectly. All participants had worked in the respective healthcare facility for at least 30 days prior study enrollment. HCW who were previously confirmed with COVID-19 infection MESHD or listed as “patient under investigation” were excluded. A self-administered questionnaire was used to capture sociodemographic information, history of contact with COVID-19 cases within the past month, clinical signs and symptoms and adherence to universal precautions. Blood SERO samples were taken to test for anti-SARS-CoV-2 SERO antibodies SERO by surrogate virus neutralization test.ResultsA total of 400 HCW were recruited, comprising 154 (38.5%) nurses, 103 (25.8%) medical doctors, 47 (11.8%) laboratory technologists and others (23.9%). The mean age TRANS was 35±7.8 years, with females TRANS predominant (74%). A majority (68.9%) reported direct contact with COVID-19 patients, body fluids of COVID-19 patients and/or contaminated objects and surfaces in the past month within their respective workplaces. Nearly all claimed to adhere to personal protection equipment (PPE) guidelines (97%-100% adherence) and hand hygiene practice (91%-96% adherence). None (95% CI: 0, 0.0095) of the participants had anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO detected, despite 135 (33.8%) reporting respiratory symptoms one month prior to study recruitment. One hundred and fifteen (29%) participants claimed to have contact with known COVID-19 persons outside of the workplace.ConclusionOur finding of zero seroprevalence SERO among asymptomatic TRANS HCW suggests a low risk of asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 infection MESHD in our healthcare setting; which is at expected levels for a country with an incidence of 26 per 100,000. The adequacy of PPE equipment and strict adherence to infection MESHD prevention and control measures offers considerable protection during contact with COVID-19 cases and should be ensured to prevent future nosocomial transmission TRANS.

    Psychological Distress among Iranian Health-Care Providers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19): A Qualitative Study

    Authors: Azizeh Alizadeh; Hamid Reza Khankeh; Mohammad Barati; Yazdan Ahmadi; Arash Hadian; Maryam Azizi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-29738/v2 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Novel corona virus, named COVID-19, has spread rapidly to other countries like Italy, Iran and South Korea and affected all people, especially health-care providers. Therefore, due to the rapid spread of the disease TRANS in Iran, the aim of the present study was to explore psychological distress experienced by Iranian health-care providers in the first few weeks of the corona virus outbreak.Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted on 18 Iranian health-care providers exposed to COVID -19 using a content analysis method. Purposeful sampling was used to select the participants and continued until data saturation was reached. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and then the qualitative data were analyzed through direct content analysis.Results: By analyzing 236 primary codes, two main categories were extracted from the experiences of health-care providers during corona virus outbreak. The first category included Occupational demands MESHD with three sub-categories: nature of illness, Organizational demands and social demands. The second category was Supportive resources included personal support and social support.Conclusions: The results of this study found that there were some barriers and challenges to medical personnel exposed to COVID-19 that caused psychological distress. Some of these problems related to the nature of illness, others related to social and organizational demands and some of supportive resources buffer the relationship between occupational demands and psychological distress.

    Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in previously undiagnosed health care workers at the onset of the U.S. COVID-19 epidemic

    Authors: Emily S Barrett; Daniel B. Horton; Jason Roy; Maria Laura Gennaro; Andrew Brooks; Jay Tischfield; Patricia Greenberg; Tracy Andrews; Sugeet Jagpal; Nancy Reilly; Martin J. Blaser; Jeffrey Carson; Reynold A. Panettieri Jr.

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.20.20072470 Date: 2020-04-24 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Healthcare workers are presumed to be at increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD due to occupational exposure to infected MESHD patients. However, no epidemiological study has examined the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in a cohort of healthcare workers during the early phase of community transmission TRANS. Objective: To determine the baseline prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in a cohort of previously undiagnosed healthcare workers and a comparison group of non-healthcare workers. Design: Prospective cohort study Setting: A large U.S. university and two affiliated university hospitals Participants: 546 health care workers and 283 non-health care workers with no known prior SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD Exposure: Healthcare worker status and role Main outcome(s) and measure(s): SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD status as determined by presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in oropharyngeal swabs. Results: At baseline, 41 (5.0%) of participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, of whom 14 (34.2%) reported symptoms. The prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was higher among healthcare workers (7.3%) than in non-healthcare workers (0.4%), representing a 7.0% greater absolute risk (95% confidence interval for risk difference 4.7%, 9.3%). The majority of infected healthcare workers (62.5%) worked as nurses. Positive tests increased across the two weeks of cohort recruitment in line with rising confirmed cases TRANS in the hospitals and surrounding counties. Conclusions and relevance: In a prospective cohort conducted in the early phases of community transmission TRANS, healthcare workers had a higher prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD than non-healthcare workers, attesting to the occupational hazards of caring for patients in this crisis. Baseline data reported here will enable us to monitor the spread of infection MESHD and examine risk factors for transmission TRANS among healthcare workers. These results will inform optimal strategies for protecting the healthcare workforce, their families, and their patients.

    The psychological impact of COVID-19 outbreak on medical staff and the general public

    Authors: Biao Chen; Qing-xian Li; Heng Zhang; Jia-yong Zhu; Yu-hang Wu; Jie Xiong; Fu Li; Hua Wang; Zhi-tao Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-21213/v1 Date: 2020-04-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: To assess the psychological effects of the novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) on medical staff and the general public.Methods: During the outbreak of COVID-19, an internet-based questionnaire included The Self-rating Depression MESHD Scale (SDS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to assess the impact of the epidemic situation on the mental health of medical staff and general population in Wuhan and its surrounding areas.Results: The results suggest that the outbreak of COVID-19 has affected individuals significantly, the degree of which is related to age TRANS, sex, occupation and mental illness MESHD. There was a significant difference in PSS-10 and IES-R scores between the medical staff and the general population. The medical staff showed higher PSS-10 scores (16.813 ± 4.87) and IES-R scores (22.40 ± 12.12) compared to members of the general population PSS-10 (14.80 ± 5.60) and IES-R scores (17.89 ± 13.08). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the SDS scores of medical staff (44.52 ± 12.36) and the general public (43.08 ± 11.42). In terms of the need for psychological assistance, 50.97% of interviewees responded that they needed psychological counseling, of which medical staff accounted for 65.87% and non-medical staff accounted for 45.10%.Conclusion: During the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, great attention should be paid to the mental health of the population, especially medical staff, and measures such as psychological intervention should be actively carried out for reducing the psychosocial effects.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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