Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Nonstructural protein 1 of SARS-CoV-2 is a potent pathogenicity factor redirecting host protein synthesis machinery toward viral RNA.

    Authors: Shuai Yuan; Lei Peng; Jonathan J. Park; Yingxia Hu; Swapnil C. Devarkar; Matthew B. Dong; Shenping Wu; Sidi Chen; Ivan Lomakin; Yong Xiong

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.09.243451 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: bioRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic affects millions of people worldwide with a rising death toll. The causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), uses its nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) to redirect host translation machinery to the viral RNA by binding to the ribosome and suppressing cellular, but not viral, protein synthesis through yet unknown mechanisms. We show here that among all viral proteins, Nsp1 has the largest impact on host viability in the cells of human lung origin. Differential expression analysis of mRNA-seq data revealed that Nsp1 broadly alters the transcriptome in human cells. The changes include repression of major gene clusters in ribosomal RNA processing, translation, mitochondria function, cell cycle and antigen presentation; and induction of factors in transcriptional regulation. We further gained a mechanistic understanding of the Nsp1 function by determining the cryo-EM structure of the Nsp1-40S ribosomal subunit complex, which shows that Nsp1 inhibits translation by plugging the mRNA entry channel of the 40S. We also determined the cryo-EM structure of the 48S preinitiation complex (PIC) formed by Nsp1, 40S, and the cricket paralysis HP paralysis MESHD virus (CrPV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNA, which shows that this 48S PIC is nonfunctional due to the incorrect position of the 3 region of the mRNA. Results presented here elucidate the mechanism of host translation inhibition by SARS-CoV-2, provide insight into viral protein synthesis, and furnish a comprehensive understanding of the impacts from one of the most potent pathogenicity factors of SARS-CoV-2. HighlightsORF screen identified Nsp1 as a major cellular pathogenicity factor of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1 broadly alters the gene expression programs in human cells Nsp1 inhibits translation by blocking mRNA entry channel Nsp1 prevents physiological conformation of the 48S PIC

    Clinical characteristics of 106 patients with neurological diseases MESHD and co-morbid coronavirus disease MESHD 2019: a retrospective study

    Authors: Rong Yin; Zhiqi Yang; Yaxuan Wei; Yuanming Li; Hui Chen; Zhao Liu; Bo Zhao; Dandan Ma; Meiling Dan; Yingjie Zhang; Xuan Liu; Huiceng Leng; Dawei Xiang

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.29.20085415 Date: 2020-05-05 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives:To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) with co-morbid neurological symptoms. Design:Retrospective case series. Setting:Huoshenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China. Participants:From 4 February to 14 April 2020, 106 patients with neurological diseases MESHD were enrolled from all patients in the hospital with confirmed COVID-19 and divided into a severe group and a nonsevere group according to their COVID-19 diagnosis. Main outcome measures:Clinical characteristics, laboratory results, imaging findings, and treatment methods were all retrieved through an electronic medical records system and recorded in spreadsheets. Results:The mean (standard deviation, SD MESHD) age TRANS of patients was 72.7 (11.8) years, and 64 patients were male TRANS (60.4%). Among patients with co-morbid neurological diseases MESHD, 81 had a previous cerebral infarction MESHD (76.4%), 20 had dementia HP dementia MESHD (18.9%), 10 had acute cerebral infarction MESHD (9.4%), 5 had sequelae of cerebral haemorrhage MESHD (4.7%), 4 had intracranial mass lesions (3.8%), 3 had epilepsy MESHD (2.8%), 2 had Parkinsons disease MESHD (1.9%), and 1 had myelopathy HP myelopathy MESHD (0.9%). Fever HP Fever MESHD (n = 62, 58.5%) was the most common symptom. The most common neurological symptoms were myalgia HP myalgia MESHD (n = 26, 24.5%), followed by extremity paralysis MESHD paralysis HP (n = 20, 18.9%), impaired consciousness MESHD (n = 17, 16%), and positive focal neurological signs (n = 42, 39.6%). Eight patients (7.5%) died. There were more patients with altered mental status in the severe group than in the non-severe group (6 [10.2%] vs. 0, P = 0.033). The inflammatory response in the severe group was more significant than that in the non-severe group. There were more patients taking anticoagulant drugs (25 [42.4%] vs. 4 [8.5%], P < 0.001) and sedative drugs (22 [37.3%] vs. 9 [19.1%], P = 0.041) in the severe group than in the non-severe group. Amid all 93 patients with cerebrovascular diseases MESHD, only 32 (34.4%) were taking aspirin, 13 (14%) taking clopidogrel, and 33 (35.5%) taking statins. Conclusions:Patients with COVID-19 with co-morbid neurological diseases had an advanced age TRANS, a high rate of severe illness MESHD, and a high mortality rate. Among the neurological symptoms, altered mental status was more common in patients with severe COVID-19 with co-morbid neurological diseases MESHD.

    Early Guillain-Barré syndrome in COronaVIrus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19): a case report from an Italian COVID-Hospital

    Authors: Donatella Ottaviani; Federica Boso; Enzo Tranquillini; Ilaria Gapeni; Giovanni Pedrotti; Susanna Cozzio; Giovanni M. Guarrera; Bruno Giometto

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-24886/v1 Date: 2020-04-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Guillain Barré syndrome ( GBS MESHD) is an acute polyradiculoneuropathy MESHD associated with dysimmune processes, often related to a previous infectious exposure. During Italian Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 MESHD outbreak, a woman presented with a rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis MESHD paralysis HP with unilateral facial neuropathy MESHD after a few days of mild respiratory symptoms. Coronavirus was detected by nasopharyngeal swab, but there was no evidence of its presence in her cerebrospinal fluid, which confirmed the typical albumin-cytological dissociation of GBS MESHD, along with consistent neurophysiological data. Despite immunoglobulin infusions and intensive supportive care, her clinical picture worsened simultaneously both from respiratory and neurological point of view, as if reflecting different aspects of the same systemic inflammatory response. Similar early complications have already been observed in patients with para-infectious GBS MESHD related to Zika virus, but pathological mechanisms have yet to be established.

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 complicated with Bell’s palsy MESHD: a case report

    Authors: Yue Wan; Shugang Cao; Qi Fang; Mingfu Wang; Yi Huang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-23216/v1 Date: 2020-04-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease MESHD, mainly causing respiratory symptoms. However, a few patients may also have neurological symptoms MESHD. Herein, we report a case of COVID-19 infection MESHD complicated with Bell’s palsy.Case presentation: A 65-year-old woman was admitted due to left facial drooping. Physical examination showed left peripheral facial paralysis HP paralysis MESHD. Brain MRI showed no abnormality. However, the chest CT revealed the ground-glass shadows in the right lower lung. The real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) RNA were positive through throat swabs, while the common influenza virus antigens were tested negative. The symptoms of left facial paralysis HP paralysis MESHD relieved after antiviral treatment. She patient was discharged in the context of 3 consecutively negative RT-PCR test results for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and complete absorption of the right lung lesions MESHD. Conclusion: This case suggests that COVID-19 may be presented with Bell’s palsy MESHD and may be a potential cause of facial paralysis HP facial paralysis MESHD.

    Acute myelitis HP myelitis MESHD after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD: a case report.

    Authors: Kang Zhao; Jucun Huang; Dan Dai; Yuwei Feng; Liming Liu; Shuke Nie

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.16.20035105 Date: 2020-03-18 Source: medRxiv

    We report a case of acute myelitis MESHD myelitis HP in a patient infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). A 66-year-old man with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 was admitted with acute flaccid paralysis MESHD paralysis HP of the bilateral lower limbs and urinary and bowel incontinence HP bowel incontinence MESHD. All serum SERO microbiological test results were negative, except for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing. Clinical findings indicated post-infectious acute myelitis HP myelitis MESHD. He received treatment containing ganciclovir, lopinavir/ritonavir, moxifloxacin, dexamethasone, human immunoglobulin, and mecobalamin. With a diagnosis of post-infectious acute myelitis HP myelitis MESHD and comprehensive treatment, paralysis HP paralysis MESHD of the bilateral lower extremities ameliorated. After two negative novel coronavirus RNA nasopharyngeal swab tests, he was discharged and transferred to a designated hospital for isolation and rehabilitation therapy.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).
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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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