Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 62
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    Prophylactic intranasal administration of a TLR2 agonist reduces upper respiratory tract viral shedding in a SARS-CoV-2 challenge ferret model

    Authors: Pamela C Proud; Daphne Tsitoura; Robert J Watson; Brendon Y. Chua; Marilyn J Aram; Kevin R Bewley; Breeze E Cavell; Rebecca Cobb; Stuart Dowall; Susan A Fotheringham; Catherine MK Ho; Vanessa Lucas; Didier Ngabo; Emma Rayner; Kathryn A Ryan; Gillian S Slack; Stephen Thomas; Nadina I Wand; Paul Yeates; Christophe Demaison; David C. Jackson; Nathan W Bartlett; Francesca Mercuri; Miles W Carroll; Sonam T. Nyatsatsang; Alexander L. Greninger; Ansuman T. Satpathy; John S Pauk; Scott D. Boyd; James R. Heath

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.25.309914 Date: 2020-09-25 Source: bioRxiv

    Respiratory viruses such as coronaviruses represent major ongoing global threats, causing epidemics and pandemics with huge economic burden. Rapid spread of virus through populations poses an enormous challenge for outbreak control. Like all respiratory viruses, the most recent novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, initiates infection MESHD in the upper respiratory tract (URT). Infected individuals are often asymptomatic TRANS, yet highly infectious and readily transmit virus. A therapy that restricts initial replication in the URT has the potential to prevent progression of severe lower respiratory tract disease MESHD as well as limiting person-to-person transmission TRANS. We show that prophylactic intra-nasal administration of the TLR2/6 agonist INNA-051 in a SARS-CoV-2 ferret infection MESHD model effectively reduces levels of viral RNA in the nose and throat. The results of our study support clinical development of a therapy based on prophylactic TLR2/6 innate immune activation in the URT to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS and provide protection against COVID-19.

    Genetically proxied inhibition of interleukin-6 signaling: opposing associations with susceptibility to COVID-19 and pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD

    Authors: Susanna C Larsson; Stephen Burgess; Dipender C Gill; Micael Widerström; Ursula Werneke; Adolfo García-Sastre; Florian Krammer

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.15.20165886 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is pivotal for orchestrating the immune response. Inhibitors of IL-6 signaling are being investigated as treatments for severe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a Mendelian randomization study investigating the effect of IL-6 signaling on susceptibility to COVID-19 and pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Our results showed that genetically proxied inhibition of IL-6 signaling was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19, but also with increased risk of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Respiratory disease MESHD is a main feature of severe COVID-19, and the potential of IL-6 signaling inhibitors to increase risk of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD warrants vigilance and caution in their application to treat COVID-19.

    Management of COVID-19 in a nursing home: the role of a mobile multidisciplinary medicine team.

    Authors: Pierre Poupin; Diama N'Diaye; François Chaumier; Adrien Lemaignen; Louis Bernard; Bertrand Fougère

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-73220/v1 Date: 2020-09-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Long-term residential care facilities and nursing homes are known to be particularly vulnerable to viral respiratory diseases MESHD and have expressed the need for collaboration to help manage outbreaks when they occur. Method: In April 2020, Tours University Hospital created a mobile multidisciplinary medicine team to help local nursing homes deal with outbreaks of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). The team included a geriatrician, infectious diseases experts, and palliative care specialists. Results: Here, we provide initial feedback on the mobile support team’s first intervention. The nursing home staff’s main requests were collaborative working, consensus decision-making, and the dissemination of information on disease management.Conclusion: Three lessons emerged from this collaboration: (i) break the nursing home’s isolation, (ii) limit transmission TRANS through the use of appropriate hygiene measures, broad screening, and the isolation of sick residents and sick employees, and (iii) provide sufficient human resources.

    Association Between Inhaled Corticosteroid Use and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection MESHD: A Nationwide Population-based Study in South Korea

    Authors: Sang Chul Lee; Kang Ju Son; Chang Hoon Han; Ji Ye Jung; Seon Cheol Park

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-72221/v1 Date: 2020-09-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use may increase the risk of respiratory infection MESHD, but its influence on the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD is not known. This study aimed to investigate the association between ICS use and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among the patients with chronic respiratory diseases MESHD.Methods The Ministry of Health and Welfare and Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea provided nationwide data of 44,968 individuals with chronic respiratory diseases MESHD tested for SARS-CoV-2 until May 15. The risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were retrospectively analysed according to the prescription, type, and dose of ICS taken one year before SARS-CoV-2 test.Results Among 44,968 individuals tested, 931 (2.1%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. A total of 7,019 patients (15.6%) were prescribed ICS one year prior to being tested for SARS-CoV-2. Low, medium, and high doses of ICS were prescribed in 7.5%, 1.6%, and 6.5% of total cases, respectively. Among the types of ICS, budesonide, fluticasone, beclomethasone, and ciclesonide were prescribed in 3.7%, 8.9%, 2.3%, and 0.6% of total cases, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed no significant increase in infection MESHD with ICS use (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.66–1.03). Moreover, there were no associations between the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD, and doses or types of ICS prescribed.Conclusion Prior ICS use did not increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Moreover, different doses or types of ICS did not affect the risk. This study supports the current guidelines to manage patients taking ICS during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

    healthcareCOVID: A national cross-sectional observational study identifying risk factors for developing suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in UK healthcare workers

    Authors: Justin Kua; Reshma Patel; Eveliina Nurmi; Sarah Tian; Harpreet Gill; Calvin Moorley; Danny JN Wong; Dmitri Nepogodiev; Imran Ahmad; Kariem El-Boghdadly; Josephine Soltani; Mehrsa Koukabi-Fradelizi; Jean Paul Beressi; Cecile Laureana; Jean Fran&ccedilois Prost; Livarek Bernard; Elisabet Leiva; Albert Ariza-Sole; Paolo D Dallaglio; Maria Quero; Antonio Soriano; Alberto Pasqualetto; Maylin Koo; Virginia Esteve; Arnau Antoli; Rafael Moreno; Sergi Yun; Pau Cerda; Mariona Llaberia; Francesc Formiga; Marta Fanlo; Abelardo Montero; David Chivite; Olga Capdevila; Ferran Bolao; Xavier Pinto; Josep Llop; Antoni Sabate; Jordi Guardiola; Josep M Cruzado; Josep Comin-Colet; Salud Santos; Ramon Jodar; Xavier Corbella

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.28.20182295 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To establish the prevalence SERO and risk factors for the development of suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs) in the United Kingdom (UK). Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting UK-based primary and secondary care. Participants HCWs aged TRANS [≥]18 years working between 1 February and 25 May 2020. Main outcome measures A composite endpoint of laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, or self-isolation or hospitalisation due to suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Results Of 6152 eligible responses, the composite endpoint was present in 1806 (29.4%) HCWs, of whom 49 (0.8%) were hospitalised, 459 (7.5%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 1776 (28.9%) reported self-isolation. The strongest risk factor associated with the presence of the primary composite endpoint was increasing frequency of contact TRANS frequency of contact SERO with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases without adequate personal protective equipment (PPE): ''Never'' (reference), ''Rarely'' (adjusted odds ratio 1.06, (95% confidence interval: 0.87 to 1.29)), ''Sometimes'' (1.7 (1.37 to 2.10)), ''Often'' (1.84 (1.28 to 2.63)), ''Always'' (2.93, (1.75 to 5.06)). Additionally, several comorbidities ( cancer MESHD, respiratory disease MESHD, and obesity HP obesity MESHD); working in a 'doctors' role; using public transportation for work; regular contact with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients; and lack of PPE were also associated with the presence of the primary endpoint. 1382 (22.5%) HCWs reported lacking access to PPE items while having clinical contact with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases. Overall, between 11,870 and 21,158 days of self-isolation were required by the cohort, equalling approximately 71 to 127 working days lost per 1000 working days. Conclusions Suspected or confirmed COVID-19 was more common in HCWs than in the general population. Risk factors included inadequate PPE, which was reported by nearly a quarter of HCWs. Governments and policymakers must ensure adequate PPE is available as well as developing strategies to mitigate risk for high-risk HCWs during future COVID-19 waves.

    Clinical characteristics study of elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in China

    Authors: Chao Zhang; Hua Fu; Long Zhang; Yuxiong Yin; Jing Lin; Hu Liu; Qing Mao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-67737/v1 Date: 2020-08-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a newly emerged respiratory disease MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), has recently become pandemic. Clinical observation indicated that elderly TRANS patients had high incidence of severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and poor treatment efficacy. Therefore, this study was to clarify the characteristics of elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in order to guide rational treatment for elderly TRANS patients. Methods: we enrolled 331 elderly TRANS patients aged TRANS 75 or older with confirmed COVID-19 in Huoshenshan hospital of Wuhan from February 3rd to March 31st. The cases were divided into general, serious and critical groups according to severity after hospitalization, and the difference among groups were compared by R package statistics software. Results: Compared with general group, serious and critical groups had more underlying comorbidities and higher incidence of cough HP cough MESHD, breath shortness MESHD and anorexia HP anorexia MESHD. Moreover, there existed obviously differences in many of laboratory indexes and CT images among them. serious and critical elderly TRANS patients were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, corticosteroid, abidor, cephaloprin, imipenem, human serum SERO albumin (HSA), nutrition support, anti SARS-CoV-2 positive plasma SERO and actemra. Multivariate analysis of factors showed that male TRANS sex, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, renal diseases MESHD, breath shortness MESHD, neutrophil, platelet, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase were the risk factor for serious and critical illness. While blood SERO cell (WBC) was the protective factor. Conclusion: elderly TRANS patients have high incidence of severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and poor treatment efficacy. The reasons might be that many of the elderly TRANS patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD have certain chronic disease MESHD, poor immune function and a meager response to the virus. the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 might be involved in the cell-mediated immunity and cytokine storms by acting on lymphocytes.

    Antiviral activity of lambda-carrageenan against influenza viruses in mice and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD in vitro

    Authors: Ye Jin Jang; Heegwon Shin; Myoung Kyu Lee; Oh Seung Kwon; Jin Soo Shin; Yongil Kim; Meehyein Kim; Andreas Limmer; Jia Liu; Xin Zheng; Thorsten Brenner; Marc M. Berger; Oliver Witzke; Mirko Trilling; Mengji Lu; Dongliang Yang; Nina Babel; Timm Westhoff; Ulf Dittmer; Gennadiy Zelinskyy; Kelly M Schiabor Barrett; Stephen Riffle; Alexandre Bolze; Simon White; Francisco Tanudjaja; Xueqing Wang; Jimmy M Ramirez III; Yan Wei Lim; James T Lu; Nicole L Washington; Eco JC de Geus; Patrick Deelen; H Marike Boezen; Lude H Franke

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.23.255364 Date: 2020-08-24 Source: bioRxiv

    Influenza virus and coronavirus, belonging to enveloped RNA viruses, are major causes of human respiratory diseases MESHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the broad spectrum antiviral activity of a naturally existing sulfated polysaccharide, lambda-carrageenan ({lambda}-CGN), purified from marine red algae. Cell culture-based assays revealed that the macromolecule efficiently inhibited both influenza A and B viruses, as well as currently circulating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), with EC50 values ranging from 0.3-1.4 g/ml. No toxicity MESHD to host cells was observed at concentrations up to 300 g/ml. Plaque titration and western blot analysis verified that {lambda}-CGN reduced expression of viral proteins in cell lysates and suppressed progeny virus production in culture supernatants in a dose-dependent manner. This polyanionic compound exerts antiviral activity by targeting viral attachment to cell surface receptors and preventing entry. Moreover, intranasal administration to mice during influenza A viral challenge not only alleviated infection-mediated reductions in body weight but also protected 60% of mice from virus-induced mortality. Thus, {lambda}-CGN could be a promising antiviral agent for preventing infection MESHD by several respiratory viruses.

    Machine learning based clinical decision supportsystem for early COVID-19 mortality prediction

    Authors: Akshaya Karthikeyan; Akshit Garg; P K Vinod; U. Deva Priyakumar; Jay Nachtigal; Yazhou He; Maria Timofeeva; Harry Campbell; Malcolm G Dunlop; Lina Zgaga; Evropi Theodoratou; Yuanjia Wang; Lily Wang; Robert L Walraven; Vishal Tomar; Katherine Sherratt; Daniel Sheldon; Robert C Reiner; B. Aditya Prakash; Dave Osthus; Michael Lingzhi Li; Elizabeth C Lee; Ugur Koyluoglu; Pinar Keskinocak; Youyang Gu; Quanquan Gu; Glover E George; Guido España; Sabrina Corsetti; Jagpreet Chhatwal; Sean Cavany; Hannah Biegel; Michal Ben-Nun; Jo Walker; Rachel Slayton; Velma Lopez; Matthew Biggerstaff; Michael A Johansson; Nicholas G Reich; - COVID-19 Forecast Hub Consortium

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.19.20177477 Date: 2020-08-22 Source: medRxiv

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory disease MESHD that has been classified as a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO). The sudden spike in the number of infections MESHD and high mortality rates have put immense pressure on the public medical systems. Hence, it is crucial to identify the key factors of mortality that yield high accuracy and consistency to optimize patient treatment strategy. This study uses machine learning methods to identify a powerful combination of five features that help predict mortality with 96% accuracy: neutrophils, lymphocytes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), high- sensitivity SERO C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and age TRANS. Various machine learning algorithms have been compared to achieve a consistent high accuracy across the days that span the disease. Robust testing with three cases confirm TRANS the strong predictive performance SERO of the proposed model. The model predicts with an accuracy of 90% as early as 16 days before the outcome. This study would help accelerate the decision making process in healthcare systems for focused medical treatments early and accurately.

    Neuropathology and Virus in Brain of SARS-CoV-2 Infected Non-Human Primates

    Authors: Tracy Fischer; Ibolya Rutkai; Meredith Mayer; Linh Hellmers; Bo Ning; Zhen Huang; Christopher Monjure; Carol Coyne; Rachel Silvestri; Nadia Golden; Krystle Hensley; Kristin Chandler; Gabrielle Lehmicke; Geregory Bix; Nicholas Maness; Kasi Russell-Lodrigue; Tony Hu; Chad Roy; Robert Blair; Rudolf Bohm; Lara Doyle-Meyers; Jay Rappaport

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-59871/v1 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Neurological manifestations are a significant complication of coronavirus infection disease MESHD-19 (COVID-19). Understanding how COVID-19 contributes to neurological disease MESHD is needed for appropriate treatment of infected MESHD patients, as well as in initiating relevant follow-up care after recovery. Investigation of autopsied brain tissue has been key to advancing our understanding of the neuropathogenesis of a large number of infectious and non-infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Due to the highly infectious nature of the etiologic agent of COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), there is a paucity of tissues available for comprehensive investigation. Here, we show for the first time, microhemorrhages and neuropathology that is consistent with hypoxic injury in SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD non-human primates (NHPs). Importantly, this was seen among infected animals that did not develop severe respiratory disease MESHD. This finding underscores the importance of vaccinating against SARS-CoV-2, even among populations that have a reduced risk for developing of severe disease, to prevent long-term or permanent neurological sequelae. Sparse virus was detected in brain endothelial cells but did not associate with the severity of CNS injury MESHD. We anticipate our findings will advance our current understanding of the neuropathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 infected NHPs MESHD are a highly relevant animal model for investigating COVID-19 neuropathogenesis among human subjects.

    IP-10 and MCP-1 as biomarkers predicting disease severity of COVID-19

    Authors: Yu Chen; Jinglan Wang; Chenxi Liu; Longxiang Su; Dong Zhang; Junping Fan; Yanli Yang; Meng Xiao; Jing Xie; Yingchun Xu; Yongzhe Li; Shuyang Zhang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57499/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 is a viral respiratory disease MESHD caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus type 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). Patients with this disease may be more prone to venous or arterial thrombosis MESHD arterial thrombosis HP because of the activation of many factors involved in it, including inflammation MESHD, platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, this study focused on coagulation and thrombosis MESHD-related indicators (IP-10, MCP-1 and MIP1a) in COVID-19, with the hope to find biomarkers that can predict patients’ outcome.Methods: This is a retrospective single-center study involving 74 severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients recruited from the ICU department of the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. The patients were divided into two groups: severe patients and critically ill MESHD patients. The serum SERO IP-10, MCP-1 and MIP1a level in both groups was detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) kit. The clinical symptoms, laboratory test results and the outcome of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed.Results: The serum SERO IP-10 and MCP-1 level in critically ill patients was significantly higher than that in severe patients (P < 0.001). However, no statistical difference in MIP1a between the two groups was found. The analysis of dynamic changes showed that these indicators remarkably increased in patients with poor prognosis. Since the selected patients were severe or critically ill, no significant difference was observed between survival and death MESHD.Conclusions: IP-10 and MCP-1 are biomarkers predicting the severity of COVID-19 disease and could be related to the risk of death in COVID-19 patients. In addition, anti-IP-10 antibody SERO treatment may represent a new approach in COVID-19 patients, especially the ones with thrombotic MESHD events.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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