Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Antibody SERO Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Coronavirus Diseases MESHD 2019 Patients with Different Severity

    Authors: Ekasit Kowitdamrong; Thanyawee Puthanakit; Watsamon Jantarabenjakul; Eakachai Prompetchara; Pintip Suchartlikitwong; Opass Putcharoen; Nattiya Hirankarn; Ke Lan; Yu Chen; Huabin Zhao

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.06.20189480 Date: 2020-09-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: More understanding of antibody SERO responses in the SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD population is useful for vaccine development. Aim: To investigate SARS-CoV-2 IgA MESHD and IgG among COVID-19 Thai patients with different severity. Methods: We used plasma SERO from 118 adult TRANS patients who have confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and 49 patients under investigation without infection MESHD, 20 patients with other respiratory infections MESHD, and 102 healthy controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO from Euroimmun. The optical density ratio cut off for positive test was 1.1 for IgA and 0.8 for IgG. The association of antibody SERO response with the severity of diseases and the day of symptoms was performed. Results: From Mar 10 to May 31, 2020, 289 participants were enrolled, and 384 samples were analyzed. Patients were categorized by clinical manifestations to mild (n=59), moderate (n=27) and severe (n=32). The overall sensitivity SERO of IgA and IgG from samples collected after day 7 is 87.9% (95% CI 79.8-93.6) and 84.8% (95% CI 76.2-91.3), respectively. The severe group had a significantly higher level of specific IgA and IgG to S1 antigen compared to the mild group. All moderate to severe patients have specific IgG while 20% of the mild group did not have any IgG detected after two weeks. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 IgG level was significantly higher in males TRANS compared to females TRANS among the severe group (p=0.003). Conclusion: The serologic test SERO for SARS-CoV-2 has high sensitivity SERO after the second week after onset of illness. Serological response differs among patients with different severity and different sex.

    Association Between Inhaled Corticosteroid Use and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection MESHD: A Nationwide Population-based Study in South Korea

    Authors: Sang Chul Lee; Kang Ju Son; Chang Hoon Han; Ji Ye Jung; Seon Cheol Park

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-72221/v1 Date: 2020-09-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use may increase the risk of respiratory infection MESHD, but its influence on the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD is not known. This study aimed to investigate the association between ICS use and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among the patients with chronic respiratory diseases MESHD.Methods The Ministry of Health and Welfare and Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea provided nationwide data of 44,968 individuals with chronic respiratory diseases MESHD tested for SARS-CoV-2 until May 15. The risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were retrospectively analysed according to the prescription, type, and dose of ICS taken one year before SARS-CoV-2 test.Results Among 44,968 individuals tested, 931 (2.1%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. A total of 7,019 patients (15.6%) were prescribed ICS one year prior to being tested for SARS-CoV-2. Low, medium, and high doses of ICS were prescribed in 7.5%, 1.6%, and 6.5% of total cases, respectively. Among the types of ICS, budesonide, fluticasone, beclomethasone, and ciclesonide were prescribed in 3.7%, 8.9%, 2.3%, and 0.6% of total cases, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed no significant increase in infection MESHD with ICS use (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.66–1.03). Moreover, there were no associations between the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD, and doses or types of ICS prescribed.Conclusion Prior ICS use did not increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Moreover, different doses or types of ICS did not affect the risk. This study supports the current guidelines to manage patients taking ICS during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

    Impact of hematologic malignancy MESHD and type of cancer MESHD therapy on COVID-19 severity and mortality: lessons from a large population-based registry study

    Authors: Julio García-Suárez*; Javier de la Cruz*; Ángel Cedillo; Pilar Llamas; Rafael Duarte; Víctor Jiménez-Yuste; José Ángel Hernández-Rivas; Rodrigo Gil-Manso; Mi Kwon; Pedro Sánchez-Godoy; Pilar Martínez-Barranco; Blanca Colás-Lahuerta; Pilar Herrera; Laurentino Benito-Parra; Adrián Alegre; Alberto Velasco; Arturo Matilla; María Concepción Aláez-Usón; Rafael Martos-Martínez; Carmen Martínez-Chamorro; Keina Susana-Quiroz; Juan Francisco Del Campo; Adolfo de la Fuente; Regina Herráez; Adriana Pascual; Elvira Gómez; Jaime Pérez-Oteyza; Elena Ruiz; Arancha Alonso; José González-Medina; Lucía Núñez Martín-Buitrago; Miguel Canales; Isabel González-Gascón; María Carmen Vicente-Ayuso; Susana Valenciano; María García Roa; Pablo Estival Monteliu; Javier López-Jiménez; Cristián Escolano Escobar; Javier Ortiz-Martín; José Luis Diez-Martin†; Joaquín Martínez-López†

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-69133/v1 Date: 2020-08-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Patients with cancer MESHD have been shown to have a higher risk of clinical severity and mortality compared to non-cancer MESHD patients with COVID-19. Patients with hematologic malignancies MESHD typically are known to have higher levels of immunosuppression and may develop more severe respiratory viral infections MESHD than patients with solid tumours MESHD. Data on COVID-19 in patients with hematologic malignancies MESHD are limited. Here we characterise disease severity and mortality, and evaluate potential prognostic factors for mortality.Methods In this population-based registry study, we collected de-identified data on clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes in adult TRANS patients with hematologic malignancies MESHD and confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD within the Madrid region of Spain. Our case series included all patients admitted to 22 regional health service hospitals and 5 private healthcare centres between February 28 and May 25, 2020. The primary study outcome was all-cause mortality. We assessed the association between mortality and potential prognostic factors using Cox regression analyses adjusted for age TRANS, sex, comorbidities, hematologic malignancy MESHD and recent active cancer MESHD therapy.Results Of 833 patients reported, 697 were included in the analyses. Median age TRANS was 72 years (IQR 60–79), 413 (60%) patients were male TRANS, and 479 (69%) and 218 (31%) had lymphoid MESHD and myeloid malignancies, respectively. Clinical severity of COVID-19 was severe/critical in 429 (62%) patients. At data cutoff, 230 (33%) patients had died. Age TRANS ≥60 years (hazard ratios 3·17–10·1 vs <50 years), >2 comorbidities (1·41 vs ≤2), acute myeloid leukemia HP acute myeloid leukemia MESHD (2·22 vs non-Hodgkin lymphoma HP lymphoma MESHD) and active antineoplastic treatment with monoclonal antibodies SERO (2·02) or conventional chemotherapy (1·50 vs no active therapy) were associated with increased mortality. Conversely, Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms MESHD neoplasms HP (0·33) and active treatment with hypomethylating agents (0·47) were associated with lower mortality. Overall, 574 (82%) patients received antiviral therapy. Mortality with severe/critical COVID-19 was higher with no therapy vs any antiviral combination therapy (2.20).Conclusions In this series of patients with hematologic malignancies MESHD and COVID-19, mortality was associated with higher age TRANS, more comorbidities, type of hematological malignancy MESHD and type of antineoplastic therapy. Further studies and long-term follow-up are required to validate these criteria for risk-stratification.

    Pulmonary Hemodynamics and Ventilation in Patients With COVID-19-related Respiratory Failure HP Respiratory Failure MESHD and ARDS

    Authors: André Becker; Frederik Seiler; Ralf M. Muellenbach; Guy Danziger; Sebastian Mang; Albert Omlor; Christophe Jentgen; Maren Kamphorst; Holger Wehrfritz; Christopher Lotz; Thilo Mertke; Heinrike Wilkens; Robert Bals; Philipp M. Lepper

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-66763/v1 Date: 2020-08-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: It has been suggested that COVID-19-associated severe respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD (CARDS) might differ from usual acute respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) due to failing auto-regulation of pulmonary vessels and higher shunt. We sought to investigate pulmonary hemodynamics and ventilation properties in patients with CARDS compared to patients with ARDS MESHD of pulmonary origin. Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of consecutive adults TRANS with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD patients treated on our ICU in 04/2020 and comparison of the data to matched controls with ARDS MESHD due to respiratory infections MESHD treated on our ICU from 01/2014 to 08/2019 and for whom pulmonary artery catheter data were available. Results: CARDS patients (n = 10) had similar ventilation characteristics as compared to ARDS (n = 10) patients. Still, mechanical power applied by ventilation was significantly higher in CARDS patients (23.4 ± 8.9 J/min) than in ARDS (15.9 ± 4.3 J/min; p<0.05). COVID-19 patients had similar pulmonary artery pressure MESHD but significantly lower pulmonary vascular resistance, as cardiac output was higher in CARDS vs. ARDS MESHD patients (p<0.05). Shunt fraction and dead space were similar in CARDS compared to ARDS (p>0.05) and was in both groups correlated with hypoxemia HP hypoxemia MESHD. The arterio-venous pCO2 difference (DpCO2) was elevated (CARDS 5.5±2.8 mmHg vs. ARDS 4.7±1.1 mmHg; p>0.05) as was P(v-a)CO2/C(a-v)O2 ratio (CARDS mean 2.2±1.5 vs. ARDS MESHD 1.7±0.8; p>0.05). Conclusions: Respiratory failure HP Respiratory failure MESHD in COVID-19 patients seems to differ only slightly from ARDS regarding ventilation characteristics and pulmonary hemodynamics. Differences are mainly due to increased CO2 production in CARDS patients. Our data indicate microcirculatory dysfunction. More data needs to be collected to assure these findings and gain more pathophysiological insights in COVID-19 and respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD.

    A Systematic Review on Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19)

    Authors: Hira Karim; Muhammad Shahzeb Khan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0516.v1 Date: 2020-08-24 Source: Preprints.org

    Emerging and reemerging pathogens is a global challenge for public health. Recently, a novel coronavirus disease MESHD emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province of China, in December 2019. It is named COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO). It is known to be caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) that affects the lower respiratory tract and manifests as pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in humans. Coronaviruses (CoVs) are structurally more complicated as compared to other RNA viruses. This viral epidemic has led to the deaths of many, including the elderly TRANS or those with chronic disease MESHD or compromised immunity. Viruses cause infection MESHD and diseases in humans of varying degrees, upper respiratory tract infections MESHD respiratory tract infections HP ( URTIs MESHD) cause common cold while lower respiratory tract infections HP induce pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, bronchitis HP bronchitis MESHD, and even severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS). The costs of COVID-19 are not limited. It equally affects all the medical, sociological, psychological, and economic aspects globally. This is regarded as the third deadly outbreak in the last two decades after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS MESHD (2002–2003) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome MERS MESHD (2012). Based on the sequence homology of SARS-CoV-2, different animal sources including bats, snakes, and pangolins have been reported as potential carriers TRANS of this viral strain. Real-time RT-PCR represents the primary method for the diagnosis of new emerging viral strain SARS-CoV-2. The transmission TRANS dynamics suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted from person-to-person through direct contact or coughing HP, sneezing HP, and by respiratory droplets. Several anti-viral treatments including lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, chloroquine phosphate, and abidor are also suggested with different recommendations and prescriptions. Protective and preventive strategies as suggested by various health organization i.e. WHO and US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) must be adopted by everyone. This review covers the important aspects of novel COVID-19 including characteristics, virology, symptoms, diagnostics, clinical aspects, transmission TRANS dynamics, and protective measures of COVID-19.

    Dynamic characteristics of Influenza A epidemic in children TRANS during the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak

    Authors: Xia Wang; Pin Liu; Shuwen Feng; Junwen Zhen; Yan Wu; Zhenyu Pan; Dongchi Zhao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-60623/v1 Date: 2020-08-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: At the beginning of the outbreak of coronavirus infected disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), children TRANS in Wuhan were experiencing an extremely strong influenza A epidemic. This study is aimed to explore the epidemic dynamics characteristics of children TRANS with influenza A and its correlation with the early stage spread of COVID-19 in Wuhan.Methods: This is a retrospective single-center clinical study.From November 28, 2019 to January 23, 2020, a total of 7904 outpatient children TRANS with signs of respiratory tract infection HP respiratory tract infection MESHD were admitted, and a total of 10102 throat swabs were collected. All the detection were performed to the throat swabs of patients, which include the epidemic statues, detection rate, duration of Flu A and B persistence in airway, and the positive rate of COVID-19 nucleic acid.Results: A total of 10102 throat swabs were obtained from children TRANS with respiratory symptoms, including 5450 (53.9%) male TRANS and 4652 (46.1%) female TRANS. 2899 (28.7%) cases were positive for Influenza A. There were 617 (6.1% ) cases of Influenza B . In group of Influenza A , the lowest positive rate was in the infants less than 1 year old (18.4%), and the highest in the group 12 year old (32.1%). During the period of high prevalence SERO of influenza A, there was a low level of infection of influenza B. The detection rate of each age group TRANS fluctuated from 3% to 10%. 73.7% of children TRANS's influenza A and B virus turned negative within 7 days, and very few children TRANS's respiratory influenza virus can last even more than 1 month. Among 35 throat swabs detected with qRT-PCR, 11 (31.4%) were positive for Flu A, and all children TRANS were negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2).Conclusions: In the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, children TRANS in Wuhan were experiencing a high intensity of influenza A pandemic, and there was no the mixed infection of SARS-CoV-2 MESHD with influenza A. COVID-19 spread caught up the tail of influenza A pandemic. 

    Face masks prevent transmission TRANS of respiratory diseases MESHD: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Authors: Hanna M Ollila; Markku Partinen; Jukka Koskela; Riikka Savolainen; Anna Rotkirch; Liisa T Laine

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166116 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) and spreads through droplet-mediated transmission TRANS on contaminated surfaces and in air. Mounting scientific evidence from observational studies suggests that face masks for the general public may reduce the spread of infections. However, results from randomized control trials (RCT) have been presented as inconclusive, and concerns related to the safety and efficacy of non-surgical face masks in non-clinical settings remain. This controversy calls for a meta-analysis which considers non-compliance in RCTs, the time-lag in benefits of universal masking, and possible adverse effects. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs of non-surgical face masks in preventing viral respiratory infections MESHD in non-hospital and non-household settings at cumulative and maximum follow-up as primary endpoints. The search for RCTs yielded five studies published before May 29th, 2020. We pooled estimates from the studies and performed random-effects meta-analysis and mixed-effects meta-regression across studies, accounting for covariates in compliance vs. non-compliance in treatment. Results: Face masks decreased infections MESHD across all studies at maximum follow-up (p=0.0318$, RR=0.608 [0.387 - 0.956]), and particularly in studies without non-compliance bias. We found significant between-study heterogeneity in studies with bias (I^2=71.2%, p=0.0077). We also used adjusted meta-regression to account for heterogeneity. The results support a significant protective effect of masking (p=0.0006, beta=0.0214, SE= 0.0062). No severe adverse effects were detected. Interpretation: The meta-analysis of existing randomized control studies found support for the efficacy of face masks among the general public. Our results show that face masks protect populations from infections MESHD and do not pose a significant risk to users. Recommendations and clear communication concerning the benefits of face masks should be provided to limit the number of COVID-19 and other respiratory infections MESHD.

    Coagulopathy and Thrombosis MESHD as a Result of Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Microvascular Focus

    Authors: Upendra K. Katneni; Aikaterini Alexaki; Ryan C. Hunt; Tal Schiller; Michael DiCuccio; Paul W. Buehler; Juan C. Ibla; Chava Kimchi-Sarfaty

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0385.v2 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: Preprints.org

    Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is the clinical manifestation of the respiratory infection MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). While primarily recognized as a respiratory disease MESHD, it is clear that COVID-19 is systemic illness impacting multiple organ systems. One defining clinical feature of COVID-19 has been the high incidence of thrombotic MESHD events. The underlying processes and risk factors for the occurrence of thrombotic MESHD events in COVID-19 remain inadequately understood. While severe bacterial, viral or fungal infections MESHD are well recognized to activate the coagulation system, COVID-19 associated coagulopathy MESHD is likely to have unique mechanistic features. Inflammatory-driven processes are likely primary drivers of coagulopathy MESHD in COVID-19, but the exact mechanisms linking inflammation to dysregulated hemostasis MESHD and thrombosis MESHD are yet to be delineated. Cumulative findings of microvascular thrombosis MESHD has raised question if the endothelium and microvasculature should be a point of investigative focus. Von Willebrand MESHD Factor (VWF) and its protease, ADAMTS13 play important role in the maintenance of microvascular hemostasis MESHD. In inflammatory conditions, imbalanced VWF-ADAMTS13 characterized by elevated VWF levels and inhibited and/or reduced activity of ADAMTS13 has been reported. Also, an imbalance between ADAMTS13 activity and VWF antigen is associated with organ dysfunction MESHD and death MESHD in patients with systemic inflammation MESHD. A thorough understanding of VWF-ADAMTS13 interactions during early and advanced phases of COVID-19 could help better define the pathophysiology, guide thromboprophylaxis and treatment and improve clinical prognosis.

    Vitamin D deficiency MESHD as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure MESHD respiratory failure HP due to COVID-19 

    Authors: Giovanna Elisiana Carpagnano; Valentina Di Lecce; Vitaliano Nicola Quaranta; Annapaola Zito; Enrico Buonamico; Elena Capozza; Alessandro Palumbo; Giuseppe Di Gioia; Vincenzo Nicola Valerio; Onofrio Resta

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-41173/v1 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: H ypovitaminosis D MESHDis a highly spread condition correlated with increased risk of respiratory tract infections HP espiratory tract infections. MESHD Nowadays, the world is in the grip of the C oronavirus disease MESHD19 (COVID 19) pandemic. In these patients, cytokine storm is associated with disease severity. In consideration of the role of vitamin D in the immune system, aim of this study was to analyse vitamin D levels in patients with a cute respiratory failure MESHD respiratory failure HP due to COVID-19 and to assess any correlations with disease severity and prognosis. Methods: In this retrospective, observational study, we analysed demographic, clinical and laboratory data of 42 patients with a cute respiratory failure MESHD respiratory failure HP due to COVID-19, treated in Respiratory Intermediate Care Unit (RICU) of the Policlinic of Bari from March, 11 to April 30, 2020. Results: Eighty one percent of patients had hypovitaminosis D. Based on vitamin D levels, the population was stratified into four groups: no h ypovitaminosis D, MESHD i nsufficiency, MESHD moderate d eficiency, and severe deficiency. MESHD No differences regarding demographic and clinical characteristics were found. A survival analysis highlighted that, after 10 days of hospitalization, severe vitamin D deficiency MESHDpatients had a 50% mortality probability, while those with vitamin D ≥10 had a 5% mortality risk (p=0.019). Conclusions: High prevalence SERO of h ypovitaminosis D MESHDwas found in COVID-19 patients with a cute respiratory failure, MESHD respiratory failure HP, treated in a RICU. Patients with severe vitamin D deficiency MESHDhad a significantly higher mortality risk. Severe vitamin D deficiency MESHDmay be a marker of poor prognosis in these patients, suggesting that adjunctive treatment might improve disease outcomes.

    Retrospective Clinical Evaluation of Four Lateral Flow Assays for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies MESHD

    Authors: Kathrine McAulay; Andrew Bryan; Alexander L. Greninger; Francisca Grill; Douglas F. Lake; Erin J. Kaleta; Thomas E Grys

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.01.20129882 Date: 2020-07-03 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a potentially life-threatening respiratory infection MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2), for which numerous serologic assays are available. In a CLIA laboratory setting, we used a retrospective sample set (n = 457) to evaluate two lateral flow immunoassays SERO (LFIAs; two iterations of Rapid Response COVID-19 Test Cassette SERO, BTNX Inc.) and a subset of to evaluate SARS-COV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test SERO, ACON Laboratories (n = 200); and Standard Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Duo, SD BIOSENSOR (n = 155) for their capacity to detect of SARS-CoV-2 IgG. In a cohort of primarily hospitalized patients with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19, the BTNX assays demonstrated 95% and 92% agreement with the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 MESHD IgG assay and sensitivity SERO was highest at [≥] 14 days from symptom onset TRANS [BTNX kit 1, 95%; BTNX kit 2, 91%]. ACON and SD assays demonstrated 99% and 100% agreement with the Abbott assay at [≥] 14 days from symptom onset TRANS. Specificity was measured using 74 specimens collected prior to SARS-CoV-2 circulation in the United States and 31 cross-reactivity challenge specimens, including those from patients with a history of seasonal coronavirus infection MESHD and was 98% for BTNX kit 1 and ACON and 100% for BTNX kit 2 and SD. Taken with data from EUA assays, these results suggest that LFIAs may provide adequate results for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2. Replicating these results in fingerstick blood SERO in outpatient populations, would further support the possibility that LFIAs may be useful to increase access to serologic testing SERO.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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