Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Anosmia (5)

Headache (3)

Fever (2)

Cough (2)

Fatigue (2)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Otorhinolaryngological manifestations of COVID-19-A systematic review

    Authors: Priyadarshini Govindarajalu; Rahulkumar Shah; Monil Parsana

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-83423/v1 Date: 2020-09-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In early December 2019, an outbreak of COVID-19, caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), occurred in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China causing havoc all over the world. As clinicians, recognition of this disease is necessary to isolate these patients to prevent further human to human transmission TRANS. Due to its affinity to the respiratory tract and increased viral load in the nose and throat, we as practising otorhinolaryngologists are at increased risk of exposure to this life-threatening virus and warrants an in-depth knowledge on the symptomatology of this disease. This systematic review is intended to highlight the otorhinolaryngological manifestations of COVID-19.Methodology: The literature search was performed on PubMed database using Boolean operators ‘and ‘, ‘or’ as “otorhinolaryngological manifestations” or “rhinology” or “otology” or “larynx” or “hearing” or “olfaction” and “covid19” or “novel corona virus” or “ SARS-CoV MESHD” with filters as ‘2020’ year of study on 7/08/2020 at 11.30 Am.Review Results: Total of 357 articles were obtained on search and the final 12 articles extracted based on our selection criteria were reviewed. The studies included 6825 laboratory confirmed COVID -19 patients with varying severity of disease. Olfactory dysfunction MESHD and taste dysfunction MESHD were noted in 2355 and 2224 patients respectively. Nasal obstruction HP was reported in 323 patients and sore throat in 261 patients. Rhinorrhoea was reported in 209 patients .158 patients complained of post nasal drip and 152 patients presented with facial pain MESHD pain HP.Conclusion: As a practising otorhinolaryngologist, a good insight into the otorhinolaryngological manifestations of COVID-19 is essential to differentiate between the prodromal symptoms of COVID-19 and non-COVID viral upper respiratory tract infection HP respiratory tract infection MESHD.

    Reversible Lesion of the Corpus Callosum MESHD Associated With COVID-19: A Case Report and Review of Literature MESHD

    Authors: Yagmur Inalkac Gemici; Irem Tasci

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-81684/v1 Date: 2020-09-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may affect the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Major CNS manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 include seizures HP seizures MESHD, meningitis HP meningitis MESHD, meningoencephalitis MESHD, ischemic stroke HP ischemic stroke MESHD, hemorrhagic stroke MESHD stroke HP, anosmia HP anosmia MESHD, hypogeusia MESHD, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis MESHD, hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy MESHD necrotizing encephalopathy HP, and nonfocal phenomena including lethargy HP, agitation HP agitation MESHD, confusion HP confusion MESHD, headache HP headache MESHD, and ataxia HP ataxia MESHD. The reversible splenial lesion syndrome MESHD ( MERS MESHD) was first described in 2004. Although MERS was initially recognized as a benign phenomenon, a second type of MERS was identified in later years, which has a poor prognosis and potentially serious sequela. MERS can be caused by numerous etiologies including viruses. In this report, we present a patient with SARS-CoV-2 who presented with ataxia HP ataxia MESHD and dizziness MESHD as the clinical symptoms of MERS, which is a rare clinical phenomenon and can be caused by numerous etiologies.

    Regional and chronological differences in prevalences SERO of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19): a systemic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Jeong-Whun Kim; Seung Cheol Han; Hyung Dong Jo; Sung-Woo Cho; Jin Youp Kim

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-58460/v1 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction MESHD are frequently reported in patients with coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19). However, the reported prevalence SERO of olfactory and/or gustatory dysfunction varies widely, and the reason for the inter-study differences is unclear. Hence, in this meta-analysis, we performed subgroup analyses to investigate the factors that contribute to the inter-study variability in the prevalence SERO of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction MESHD. Out of 943 citations, we included 55 eligible studies with 13,527 patients with COVID-19 for a systematic review. The overall pooled prevalences SERO of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction MESHD were 51.4% and 47.5%, respectively, in the random-effect model. In subgroup analyses, the prevalences SERO of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction MESHD were significantly different among four geographical regions (both P < 0.001, respectively). Although the prevalences SERO of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction MESHD did not significantly differ according to the time of enrollment, the subgroup analyses including only studies from the same geographical region (Europe) revealed a significant difference in olfactory dysfunction MESHD according to the time of enrollment. The regional and chronological differences in the prevalences SERO of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions MESHD partly explain the wide inter-study variability. 

    Clinical characteristics of neonates with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review

    Authors: Yuan Hu; Jing Xiong; Yuan Shi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50795/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    This study aimed to summarize the existing literature on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in newborns to clarify the clinical features and outcomes of neonates with COVID-19. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and VIP databases from January 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020. The references of relevant studies were also searched. A descriptive summary was organized by aspects of clinical presentations (symptoms, laboratory examinations, and imaging) and outcomes. We identified 14 studies reporting 18 newborns with COVID-19. The most common clinical manifestations were fever HP fever MESHD (62.5%), shortness of breath MESHD (50.0%), diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD/ vomiting HP vomiting MESHD/feeding intolerance(43.8%), cough HP (37.5%), dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD (25.0%), and nasal congestion/runny nose/ sneeze HP(25.0%). Atypical symptoms included jaundice HP jaundice MESHD and convulsion MESHD. Lymphocyte numbers decreased in 5 cases, and radiographic findings were likely to show pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. All newborns recovered and discharged from the hospital, and there was no death.Conclusion: Clinical symptoms of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are atypical, most of them are mild. Up to now, the prognosis of newborns is good, and there is no death. Intrauterine vertical transmission TRANS is possible, but confirmed evidence is still lacking. The Long-term follow-up of potential influences of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on neonates need further exploration.

    A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol examining the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of olfactory dysfunction MESHD ( OD MESHD) in coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19)

    Authors: Rosemond Qian-Xiu Tan; Wai Tak Victor Li; Wing-Zi Shum; Sheung Chit Chu; Hang-Long Li; Yat-Fung Shea; Tom Wai-Hin Chung

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-46723/v2 Date: 2020-07-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused recurring and major outbreaks in multiple human populations around the world. The plethora HP of clinical presentations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has been described extensively, of which olfactory dysfunction MESHD ( OD MESHD) was established as an important and common extrapulmonary manifestation of COVID-19 infection MESHD. The aim of this protocol is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on peer-reviewed articles which described clinical data of OD MESHD in COVID-19 patients. Methods This research protocol has been prospectively registered with the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; CRD42020196202). CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PubMed, as well as Chinese medical databases: China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP and WANFANG will be searched using keywords including “COVID-19”, “ coronavirus disease MESHD”, “2019-nCoV”, “SARS-CoV-2”, “novel coronavirus”, “ anosmia MESHD”, “hyposmia”, “loss of smell”, and “ olfactory dysfunction MESHD”. Systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and the Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Articles will be screened according to pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included articles will be reviewed in full; data including patient demographics, clinical characteristics of COVID-19-related OD MESHD, methods of olfactory assessment, and relevant clinical outcomes will be extracted. Statistical analyses will be performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 3. Discussion This systematic review and meta-analysis protocol will aim to collate and synthesise all available clinical evidence regarding COVID-19-related OD MESHD as an important neurosensory dysfunction of COVID-19 infection MESHD. A comprehensive search strategy and screening process will be conducted to incorporate comprehensive clinical data for robust statistical analyses and representation. The outcome of this study will aim to improve our understanding of the symptomatology and clinical characteristics of COVID-19-related OD MESHD and identify knowledge gaps in its disease process, which will guide future research in this specific neurosensory defect.Systematic Review registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020196202

    A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocol Examining the Clinical Characteristics and Epidemiological Features of Olfactory Dysfunction in Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19)

    Authors: Rosemond Qian-Xiu Tan; Wai Tak Victor Li; Wing-Zi Shum; Sheung Chit Chu; Hang-Long Li; Yat-Fung Shea; Tom Wai-Hin Chung

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-46723/v1 Date: 2020-07-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundThe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused recurring and major outbreaks in multiple human populations around the world. The plethora HP of clinical manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has been described extensively, of which COVID-19-related olfactory dysfunction MESHD ( OD MESHD) has been recognised as an important and common symptom of COVID-19 infection MESHD. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed articles, which described clinical data of smell disturbances and OD MESHD in COVID-19 patients.MethodsThis research protocol has been prospectively registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; CRD42020196202). Accordingly, PubMed (MEDLINE) articles published from 1st January 2020 to 10th June 2020 will be searched using the following keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCoV, or novel coronavirus. Systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and the Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Articles will be screened according to the pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included articles will be reviewed in full; data including patient demographics, clinical characteristics of COVID-19-related OD MESHD, methods of olfactory assessment, and relevant clinical outcomes will be extracted. Statistical analyses will be performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 3.DiscussionThis systematic review and meta-analysis will exclusively evaluate OD MESHD as a symptom of COVID-19 infection MESHD. We aim to collate and synthesise all available clinical evidence regarding COVID-19-related OD MESHD. A comprehensive search strategy and screening process will be used to ensure that all relevant clinical data are included for statistical analysis and representation. The outcome of this study will improve our understanding of the symptomatology and clinical characteristics of COVID-19-related OD MESHD and serves to identify knowledge gaps in its disease process, which will guide future research regarding this specific neurosensory impairment.Systematic Review registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020196202

    Clinical Electroencephalography Findings and Considerations in Hospitalized Patients with Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 MESHD

    Authors: Neishay Ayub; Joseph Cohen; Jin Jing; Aayushee Jain; Ryan Tesh; Shibani S. Mukerji; Sahar F. Zafar; M. Brandon Westover; Eyal Y Kimchi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.13.20152207 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: medRxiv

    Background and Purpose Reports have suggested that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) causes neurologic manifestations including encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD and seizures HP seizures MESHD. However, there has been relatively limited electrophysiology data to contextualize these specific concerns and to understand their associated clinical factors. Our objective was to identify EEG abnormalities HP present in patients with SARS-CoV-2, and to determine whether they reflect new or preexisting brain pathology. Methods We studied a consecutive series of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 who received an EEG, obtained using tailored safety protocols. Data from EEG reports and clinical records were analyzed to identify EEG abnormalities HP and possible clinical associations, including neurologic symptoms, new or preexisting brain pathology, and sedation practices. Results We identified 37 patients with SARS-CoV-2 who underwent EEG, of whom 14 had epileptiform MESHD findings (38%). Patients with epileptiform MESHD findings were more likely to have preexisting brain pathology (6/14, 43%) than patients without epileptiform MESHD findings (2/23, 9%; p=0.042). There were no clear differences in rates of acute brain pathology. One case of nonconvulsive status epilepticus HP nonconvulsive status epilepticus MESHD was captured, but was not clearly a direct consequence of SARS-CoV-2. Abnormalities of background rhythms were common, and patients recently sedated were more likely to lack a posterior dominant rhythm (p=0.022). Conclusions Epileptiform abnormalities MESHD were common in patients with SARS-CoV-2 referred for EEG, but particularly in the context of preexisting brain pathology and sedation. These findings suggest that neurologic manifestations during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD may not solely relate to the infection itself, but rather may also reflect patients' broader, preexisting neurologic vulnerabilities.

    Objective sensory testing methods reveal a higher prevalence SERO of olfactory loss MESHD in COVID-19 positive patients compared to subjective methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Mackenzie E Hannum; Vicente A Ramirez; Sarah J Lipson; Riley D Herriman; Aurora K Toskala; Cailu Lin; Paule V Joseph; Danielle R Reed

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.04.20145870 Date: 2020-07-06 Source: medRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), has currently infected over 6.5 million people worldwide. In response to the pandemic, numerous studies have tried to identify the causes and symptoms of the disease. Emerging evidence supports recently acquired anosmia HP anosmia MESHD (complete loss of smell) and hyposmia (partial HP loss of smell) as symptoms of COVID-19, but studies of olfactory dysfunction MESHD show a wide range of prevalence SERO, from 5% to 98%. We undertook a search of Pubmed/Medline and Google Scholar with the keywords 'COVID-19', 'smell', and/or 'olfaction'. We included any study that quantified olfactory loss as a symptom of COVID%[minus]19. Studies were grouped and compared based on the type of method used to measure smell loss - subjective measures such as self-reported smell loss versus objective measures using rated stimuli - to determine if prevalence SERO rate differed by method type. For each study, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from point estimates of olfactory disturbance rates. We identified 34 articles quantifying anosmia HP anosmia MESHD as a symptom of COVID-19, collected from cases identified from January 16 to April 30, 2020. The pooled prevalence SERO estimate of smell loss was 77% when assessed through objective measurements (95% CI of 61.4-89.2%) and 45% with subjective measurements (95% CI of 31.1-58.5%). Objective measures are a more sensitive method to identify smell loss as a result of infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2. The use of subjective measures, while expedient during the early stages of the pandemic, underestimates the true prevalence SERO of smell loss.

    Prevalence SERO and Recovery of Olfactory Dysfunction in 1,363 patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019: A Multicenter Longitudinal Study.

    Authors: Jerome Lechien; Carlos Chiesa-Estomba; Eline Beckers; Vincent Mustin; Morgane Ducarme; Fabrice Journe; Arnaud Marchant; Lionel Jouffe; Maria Barillari; Stephane Hans; Sven Saussez

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-38504/v1 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Olfactory dysfunction MESHD ( OD MESHD) is a key symptom of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, a few data are available about the recovery of OD MESHD after the infection resolution. In this study, we investigated both prevalence SERO and recovery rate of OD MESHD with subjective and objective clinical tools in 2,581 patients. First, our data showed that the prevalence SERO of OD MESHD was significantly higher in mild form (85.9%) compared with moderate-to-critical forms (4.5-9.7%; p=0.001). Second, focusing on patients with OD MESHD who completed the 2-month follow-up period (N=1,363), we observed that 328 patients (24.1%) did not subjectively recover olfaction 60 days after the onset of the dysfunction. The mean duration of self-reported OD MESHD was 21.6±17.9 days. Third, the objective olfactory evaluations performed on a subset of patients (N=233) reported hyposmia HP or anosmia HP anosmia MESHD in 54.7% and 36.6% of mild and moderate-to-critical forms, respectively (p=0.001). At the end of follow-up, 15.3% of anosmic/hyposmic patients did not objectively recover olfaction. The higher baseline severity of objective olfactory evaluations was strongly predictive of persistent OD MESHD (p<0.001). OD MESHD disappeared in 75% to 85% of patients regarding self-reported or objective olfactory evaluations.

    Background mechanisms of olfactory dysfunction MESHD in COVID-19: expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin in the nose and olfactory bulb in human and mice

    Authors: Rumi Ueha; Kenji Kondo; Ryoji Kagoya; Shigeyuki Shichino; Satoshi Ueha; Tatsuya Yamasoba

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.097352 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: bioRxiv

    Background Anosmia HP is a frequent symptom in patients with the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) driven by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) and mostly recovers within weeks. This clinical figure is significantly different from that of anosmia HP anosmia MESHD after upper respiratory infection MESHD, which occurs in only a small proportion of patients and does not recover or requires months to recover. The background mechanisms of COVID-19 induced olfactory dysfunction MESHD have not been elucidated.Methods To address the unique pathophysiology of olfactory dysfunction MESHD associated with COVID-19, we examined the existence and distribution of ACE2 (virus binding receptor), TMPRSS2 and Furin (proteases to facilitate virus entry) in the nasal mucosa, composed of the respiratory mucosa (RM) and olfactory mucosa (OM), and the olfactory bulb ( OB MESHD) in mouse and human tissues by immunohistochemistry and gene analyses.Results Ace2, Tmprss2, and Furin gene expressions were confirmed in the nasal mucosa and OB MESHD. ACE2 was widely expressed all in the RM, OM and OB MESHD. Co-expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin was observed in the RM including the RE and subepithelial glands and in the OM, especially in the supporting cells on the olfactory epithelium and the Bowman’s glands. Notably, the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the OM were positive for ACE2 but almost negative for TMPRSS2 and Furin. The cells in the OB expressed ACE2 strongly and Furin weakly and did not express TMPRSS2.Conclusions ACE2 was widely expressed in the RM, OM and OB MESHD, but TMPRSS2 and Furin were expressed in certain types of cells and were absent in the ORNs. These findings, together with clinically reported ones, suggest that COVID-19 related anosmia HP anosmia MESHD can occur due to mainly sensorineural and central dysfunction MESHD and, to some extent, conductive olfactory dysfunction MESHD. That the ORNs express ACE2 but not TMPRSS2 or Furin may explain the early recovery of anosmia HP anosmia MESHD.Short Summary Protein expression patterns of ACE2, TMPRSS, and Furin suggest that COVID-19 related anosmia HP anosmia MESHD can occur due to mainly sensorineural dysfunction MESHD without olfactory neuronal damage MESHD.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.View Full Text

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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