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MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Privacy-Preserving Multi-Operator Contact Tracing TRANS for Early Detection of Covid19 Contagions

    Authors: Davide Andreoletti; Omran Ayoub; Silvia Giordano; Massimo Tornatore; Giacomo Verticale

    id:2007.10168v1 Date: 2020-07-20 Source: arXiv

    The outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (covid-19) is imposing a severe worldwide lock-down. Contact tracing TRANS based on smartphones' applications (apps) has emerged as a possible solution to trace TRANS contagions and enforce a more sustainable selective quarantine. However, a massive adoption of these apps is required to reach the critical mass needed for effective contact tracing TRANS. As an alternative, geo-location technologies in next generation networks (e.g., 5G) can enable Mobile Operators (MOs) to perform passive tracing TRANS of users' mobility and contacts with a promised accuracy of down to one meter. To effectively detect contagions, the identities of positive individuals, which are known only by a Governmental Authority (GA), are also required. Note that, besides being extremely sensitive, these data might also be critical from a business perspective. Hence, MOs and the GA need to exchange and process users' geo-locations and infection status data in a privacy-preserving manner. In this work, we propose a privacy-preserving protocol that enables multiple MOs and the GA to share and process users' data to make only the final users discover the number of their contacts with positive individuals. The protocol is based on existing privacy-enhancing strategies that guarantee that users' mobility and infection status MESHD are only known to their MOs and to the GA, respectively. From extensive simulations, we observe that the cost to guarantee total privacy (evaluated in terms of data overhead introduced by the protocol) is acceptable, and can also be significantly reduced if we accept a negligible compromise in users' privacy.

    Clinical Electroencephalography Findings and Considerations in Hospitalized Patients with Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 MESHD

    Authors: Neishay Ayub; Joseph Cohen; Jin Jing; Aayushee Jain; Ryan Tesh; Shibani S. Mukerji; Sahar F. Zafar; M. Brandon Westover; Eyal Y Kimchi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.13.20152207 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: medRxiv

    Background and Purpose Reports have suggested that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) causes neurologic manifestations including encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD and seizures HP seizures MESHD. However, there has been relatively limited electrophysiology data to contextualize these specific concerns and to understand their associated clinical factors. Our objective was to identify EEG abnormalities HP present in patients with SARS-CoV-2, and to determine whether they reflect new or preexisting brain pathology. Methods We studied a consecutive series of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 who received an EEG, obtained using tailored safety protocols. Data from EEG reports and clinical records were analyzed to identify EEG abnormalities HP and possible clinical associations, including neurologic symptoms, new or preexisting brain pathology, and sedation practices. Results We identified 37 patients with SARS-CoV-2 who underwent EEG, of whom 14 had epileptiform MESHD findings (38%). Patients with epileptiform MESHD findings were more likely to have preexisting brain pathology (6/14, 43%) than patients without epileptiform MESHD findings (2/23, 9%; p=0.042). There were no clear differences in rates of acute brain pathology. One case of nonconvulsive status epilepticus HP nonconvulsive status epilepticus MESHD was captured, but was not clearly a direct consequence of SARS-CoV-2. Abnormalities of background rhythms were common, and patients recently sedated were more likely to lack a posterior dominant rhythm (p=0.022). Conclusions Epileptiform abnormalities MESHD were common in patients with SARS-CoV-2 referred for EEG, but particularly in the context of preexisting brain pathology and sedation. These findings suggest that neurologic manifestations during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD may not solely relate to the infection itself, but rather may also reflect patients' broader, preexisting neurologic vulnerabilities.

    Central Nervous System Disorders MESHD in Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD: detailed clinical work-up of eight cases

    Authors: Emanuela Keller; Giovanna Brandi; Sebastian Winklhofer; Lukas Imbach; Daniel Kirschenbaum; Karl Joachim Frontzek; Peter Steiger; Sabeth Aurelia Dietler; Marcellina Isabelle Haeberlin; Jan Folkard Willms; Francesca Porta; Adrian Waeckerlin; Irene Alma Abela; Andreas Lutterotti; Christoph Stippich; Ilijas Jelcic

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-32488/v1 Date: 2020-05-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective Case series with different clinical presentations indicating central nervous system (CNS) involvement in coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) have been published. Comprehensive work-ups including clinical characteristics, laboratory, electroencephalography (EEG), neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings are needed to understand the mechanisms.DesignWe evaluated 32 consecutive patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD treated at a tertiary care centre from March 09 to April 03, 2020 for concomitant severe central nervous system (CNS) symptoms occurring during their critical disease state. Those with CNS disorders MESHD were examined in detail regarding clinical characteristics and undergoing additional examinations, e.g. computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (EEG), (CSF) analysis and autopsy if they had died.ResultsOf 32 critically ill patients with COVID-19 eight (18%) had severe CNS involvement (mean [SD] age TRANS, 67.6 [6.8] years; seven men; two patients died). All eight patients had cardiovascular risk factors, most frequently arterial hypertension HP hypertension MESHD. Two patients presented with lacunar ischemic stroke HP ischemic stroke MESHD and one with status epilepticus HP status epilepticus MESHD in the early phase. As most common presentation, six patients presented with prolonged impaired consciousness MESHD after termination of analgosedation. In all but one with delayed wake-up, neuroimaging or autopsy showed multiple cerebral microbleeds, in three of them with additional subarachnoid haemorrhage MESHD and in another two with additional small ischemic lesions MESHD. In three patients intracranial vessel wall sequence MRI was performed, for the first time to our knowledge. All cases showed contrast-enhancement of vessel walls in large and middle-sized cerebral arteries, suggesting vascular wall pathologies with an inflammatory component. CSF analysis showed normal cells counts and chemistry. RT-PCRs for SARS-CoV-2 in CSF were all negative, and no intrathecal SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG synthesis was detectable. ConclusionsCNS disorders MESHD are common in patients with severe COVID-19. Different mechanisms might be involved. Besides unspecific encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD and encephalitic syndromes MESHD, large vessel strokes HP strokes MESHD might occur early after disease onset. In a later phase, microbleeds and microinfarctions indicate potential CNS small vessel disease. MRI vessel wall contrast enhancement suggests cerebral vascular wall pathologies with an inflammatory component. CNS disorders MESHD associated with COVID-19 may lead to long-term disabilities aggravating socio-economic damage. The mechanisms have to be investigated urgently in order to develop preventive and therapeutic neuroprotective strategies.

    Neurological Involvement of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019: A Systematic Review

    Authors: Malik Ghannam; Qasem Alshaer; Mustafa Al-Chalabi; Lara Zakarna; Jetter Robertson; Georgios Manousakis

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-31183/v1 Date: 2020-05-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In December 2019, unexplained cases of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD emerged in Wuhan, China, which were found to be secondary to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-2019) outbreak, a pandemic. Although the most common presentations of COVID-19 are fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD and shortness of breath MESHD, several clinical observations indicate that COVID-19 does affect the central and peripheral nervous system.  Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search from December 01, 2019 to May 14, 2020 using multiple combinations of keywords from PubMed and Ovid Medline databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We included articles with cases of COVID-19 that were evident for neurological involvement.  Results: We were able to identify 82 cases of COVID-19 with neurological complications. The mean age TRANS was 62.28 years. 37.8% of the patients were women (n = 31). 48.8% of the patients (n=40) had cerebrovascular insults, 28% (n=23) had neuromuscular disorders MESHD, 18.3% of the patients (n=15) had encephalitis HP encephalitis MESHD or encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD, and 2.4% (n=2) presented with status epilepticus HP status epilepticus MESHD. Conclusions: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 infection MESHD are not rare, especially large vessel stroke HP stroke MESHD, Guillain barre syndrome MESHD and meningoencephalitis MESHD. Moving forward, further studies are needed to clarify the prevalence SERO of the neurological complications of COVID-19, investigate their biological backgrounds, and test treatment options. Physicians should be cautious not to overlook other neurological diagnoses that can mimic COVID-19 during the pandemic.

    Facemasks prevent influenza-like illness: implications for COVID-19

    Authors: Jie Wei; Michael Doherty; Monica S.M. Persson; Subhashisa Swain; Changfu Kuo; CHAO ZENG; guanghua Lei; Weiya Zhang

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.07.20094912 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: medRxiv

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is causing a huge toll on individuals, families, communities and societies across the world. Currently, whether wearing facemasks in public should be a measure to prevent transmission TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) remains contraversial.1 This is largely because there have been no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for coronavirus to directly support this. However, lessons may be taken from published RCTs examining influenza-like illness (ILI).2,3 Recent studies suggested that SARS-CoV-2 shares similar transmission TRANS route with influenza virus,4 and the incidence of community transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in individuals with ILI is high.5 Therefore, we undertook this meta-analysis of RCTs examining the efficacy of wearing facemasks to prevent ILI in community settings, irrespective of confirmatory testing for the causative virus. We undertook a systematic literature search for RCTs related to facemasks and ILI between 1966 and April 2020 using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. RCTs undertaken in community (not hospital) settings comparing wearing and not wearing facemasks for ILI were included. Incidence of ILI (e.g., fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, headache HP headache MESHD, sore throat, aches MESHD or pains HP pains MESHD in muscles or joints MESHD) was estimated per group. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. We screened 899 related abstracts and eventually included 8 RCTs (Figure S1). Basic characteristics and quality of included RCTs are listed in Supplement. Participants wearing facemasks had a significantly lower risk of developing ILI than those not wearing facemasks (pooled RR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.95) and there was no heterogeneity (Figure 1). The decreased risk of ILI was more pronounced if everyone wore facemask irrespective of whether they were infected MESHD or not (RR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.65-0.91), compared to those wearing facemasks when infected (RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.58-1.56) or uninfected (RR=1.26, 95% CI: 0.69-2.31). This study shows that wearing facemasks, irrespective of infection status MESHD, is effective in preventing ILI spread in the community. This situation mirrors what is happening now in public settings where we do not know who has been infected MESHD and who has not. Although there are no RCTs of facemasks for SARS-CoV-2, as with other simple measures such as social distancing and handwashing, these data support the recommendation to wear facemasks in public to further reduce transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 and flatten the curve of this pandemic, especially when social distancing is impractical, such as shopping, or travelling TRANS with public transport for work that cannot be done from home.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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