Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

There are no HP terms in the subcorpus


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    Which animals are at risk? Predicting species susceptibility to Covid-19

    Authors: Matthew R Alexander; Clara T. Schoeder; Jacquelyn A. Brown; Charles D. Smart; Christopher W. Moth; John P. Wikswo; John Anthony Capra; Jens Meiler; Wenbiao Chen; Meena S. Madhur

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.194563 Date: 2020-07-10 Source: bioRxiv

    In only a few months, the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic, leaving physicians, scientists, and public health officials racing to understand, treat, and contain this zoonotic disease MESHD. SARS-CoV-2 has made the leap from animals to humans, but little is known about variations in species susceptibility that could identify potential reservoir species, animal models, and the risk to pets, wildlife, and livestock. While there is evidence that certain species, such as cats, are susceptible, the vast majority of animal species, including those in close contact TRANS with humans, have unknown susceptibility. Hence, methods to predict their infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS are urgently needed. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is critical for viral cell entry and infection MESHD. Here we identified key ACE2 residues that distinguish susceptible from resistant species using in-depth sequence and structural analyses of ACE2 and its binding to SARS-CoV-2. Our findings have important implications for identification of ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 residues for therapeutic targeting and identification of animal species with increased susceptibility for infection MESHD on which to focus research and protection measures for environmental and public health.

    Synthetic Antibodies neutralize SARS-CoV-2 SERO SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of mammalian cells

    Authors: Shane Miersch; Mart Ustav; Zhijie Li; James B. Case; Safder Ganaie; Giulia Matusali; Francesca Colavita; Daniele Lapa; Maria R. Capobianchi; Giuseppe Novelli; Jang B. Gupta; Suresh Jain; Pier Paolo Pandolfi; Michael S. Diamond; Gaya Amarasinghe; James M. Rini; Sachdev S. Sidhu

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.05.137349 Date: 2020-06-06 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of enveloped, RNA viruses that circulate in mammals and birds. Three highly pathogenic strains have caused zoonotic infections MESHD in humans that result in severe respiratory syndromes including the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV (MERS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV (SARS) MESHD, and the ongoing Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we describe a panel of synthetic monoclonal antibodies SERO, built on a human IgG framework, that bind to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (the causative agent of COVID-19), compete for ACE2 binding, and potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2. All antibodies SERO that exhibited neutralization potencies at sub-nanomolar concentrations against SARS-CoV-2/USA/WA1 in Vero E6 cells, also bound to the receptor binding domain (RBD), suggesting competition for the host receptor ACE2. These antibodies SERO represent strong immunotherapeutic candidates for treatment of COVID-19.

    An Overview of SARS‐CoV‐2 and Animal Infection

    Authors: Mohamed Mahdy

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0192.v2 Date: 2020-05-16 Source:

    A novel coronavirus has been reported as the causative pathogen of the Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak Wuhan city, China in December 2019. Due to the rapid spreading of COVID-19 worldwide, it has been announced as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Hospitalized patients in Wuhan are associated with the Huanan seafood wholesale market where live animals, such as poultry, bats, snakes, frogs, rabbits, marmots, and hedgehogs are sold in that market which suggests a possible zoonotic infection MESHD. Therefore, it is essential to identify the potential animal reservoir, and the possibility of infection MESHD for other animal species. This short review aims to provide an overview on the relation between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) infection MESHD and animals.

    Pre-existing and de novo humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in humans

    Authors: Kevin W Ng; Nikhil Faulkner; Georgina Cornish; Annachiara Rosa; Ruth Harvey; Saira Hussain; Rachel Ulferts; Christopher Earl; Antoni Wrobel; Donald Benton; Chloe Roustan; William Bolland; Rachael Thompson; Ana Agua-Doce; Philip Hobson; Judith Heaney; Hannah Rickman; Stavroula Paraskevopoulou; Catherine F Houlihan; Kirsty Thomson; Emilie Sanchez; David Brealey; Gee Yen Shin; Moira J Spyer; Dhira Joshi; Philip A Walker; Svend Kjaer; Andrew Riddell; Catherine Moore; Bethany R Jebson; Lucy R Marshall; Meredyth G Wilkinson; Elizabeth C Rosser; Anna Radziszewska; Hannah Peckham; Coziana Ciurtin; Lucy R Wedderburn; Rupert Beale; Charles Swanton; Sonia Gandhi; Brigitta Stockinger; John McCauley; Steve Gamblin; Laura E McCoy; Peter Cherepanov; Eleni Nastouli; George Kassiotis

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.095414 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: bioRxiv

    Several related human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are endemic in the human population, causing mild respiratory infections1. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), is a recent zoonotic infection MESHD that has quickly reached pandemic proportions2,3. Zoonotic introduction of novel coronaviruses is thought to occur in the absence of pre-existing immunity in the target human population. Using diverse assays for detection of antibodies reactive with the SARS-CoV-2 SERO SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD (S) glycoprotein, we demonstrate the presence of pre-existing humoral immunity in uninfected and unexposed humans to the new coronavirus. SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive antibodies SERO were readily detectable by a sensitive flow cytometry-based method in SARS-CoV-2-uninfected individuals and were particularly prevalent in children TRANS and adolescents. These were predominantly of the IgG class and targeted the S2 subunit. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD induced higher titres of SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive IgG antibodies SERO, targeting both the S1 and S2 subunits, as well as concomitant IgM and IgA antibodies SERO, lasting throughout the observation period of 6 weeks since symptoms onset TRANS. SARS-CoV-2-uninfected donor sera also variably reacted with SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD and nucleoprotein (N), but not with the S1 subunit or the receptor binding domain (RBD) of S on standard enzyme immunoassays SERO. Notably, SARS-CoV-2-uninfected donor sera exhibited specific neutralising activity against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 S pseudotypes, according to levels of SARS-CoV-2 S-binding IgG and with efficiencies comparable to those of COVID-19 patient sera. Distinguishing pre-existing and de novo antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2 will be critical for our understanding of susceptibility to and the natural course of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    LY6E impairs coronavirus fusion and confers immune control of viral disease MESHD

    Authors: Stephanie Pfaender; Katrina B Mar; Eleftherios Michailidis; Annika Kratzel; Dagny Hirt; Wenchun Fan; Nadine Ebert; Hanspeter Stalder; Hannah Kleine-Weber; Markus Hoffmann; H. Heinrich Hoffmann; Mohsan Saeed; Ronald Dijkman; Eike Steinmann; Mary Wight-Carter; Natasha W Hanners; Stefan Pohlmann; Tom Gallagher; Daniel Todt; Gert Zimmer; Charles M Rice; John W Schoggins; Volker Thiel

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.05.979260 Date: 2020-03-07 Source: bioRxiv

    Zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs) are significant threats to global health, as exemplified by the recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2)1. Host immune responses to CoV are complex and regulated in part through antiviral interferons. However, the interferon-stimulated gene products that inhibit CoV are not well characterized2. Here, we show that interferon-inducible lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus E (LY6E) potently restricts cellular infection by multiple CoVs, including SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 MESHD, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) MESHD. Mechanistic studies revealed that LY6E inhibits CoV entry into cells by interfering with spike protein-mediated membrane fusion. Importantly, mice lacking Ly6e in hematopoietic cells were highly susceptible to murine CoV infection MESHD. Exacerbated viral pathogenesis in Ly6e knockout mice was accompanied by loss of hepatic and splenic immune cells and reduction in global antiviral gene pathways. Accordingly, we found that Ly6e directly protects primary B cells and dendritic cells from murine CoV infection MESHD. Our results demonstrate that LY6E is a critical antiviral immune effector that controls CoV infection MESHD and pathogenesis. These findings advance our understanding of immune-mediated control of CoV in vitro and in vivo, knowledge that could help inform strategies to combat infection MESHD by emerging CoV.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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