Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (293)

Fever (222)

Cough (182)

Hypertension (136)

Respiratory distress (82)


Transmission

age categories (670)

Transmission (431)

gender (350)

fomite (281)

asymptotic cases (143)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 2376
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    Clinical Utility of a Highly Sensitive Lateral Flow Immunoassay SERO as determined by Titer Analysis for the Detection of anti- SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO at the Point-of-Care

    Authors: Amanda Haymond; Claudius Mueller; Hannah Steinberg; K. Alex Hodge; Caitlin W Lehman; Shih-Chao Lin; Lucia Collini; Heather Branscome; Tuong Vi Nguyen; Sally Rucker; Lauren Panny; Rafaela Flor; Raouf Guirguis; Richard Hoefer; Giovanni Lorenzin; Emanuel Petricoin; Fatah Kashanchi; Kylene Kehn-Hall; Paolo Lanzafame; Lance Liotta; Alessandra Luchini

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20163824 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), became a pandemic in early 2020. Lateral flow immunoassays SERO for antibody testing SERO have been viewed as a cheap and rapidly deployable method for determining previous infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2; however, these assays have shown unacceptably low sensitivity SERO. We report on nine lateral flow immunoassays SERO currently available and compare their titer sensitivity SERO in serum SERO to a best-practice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) and viral neutralization assay. For a small group of PCR-positive, we found two lateral flow immunoassay SERO devices with titer sensitivity SERO roughly equal to the ELISA SERO; these devices were positive for all PCR-positive patients harboring SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies SERO. One of these devices was deployed in Northern Italy to test its sensitivity SERO and specificity in a real-world clinical setting. Using the device with fingerstick blood SERO on a cohort of 27 hospitalized PCR-positive patients and seven hospitalized controls, ROC curve analysis gave AUC values of 0.7646 for IgG. For comparison, this assay was also tested with saliva from the same patient population and showed reduced discrimination between cases and controls with AUC values of 0.6841 for IgG. Furthermore, during viral neutralization testing, one patient was discovered to harbor autoantibodies to ACE2, with implications for how immune responses are profiled. We show here through a proof-of-concept study that these lateral flow devices can be as analytically sensitive as ELISAs SERO and adopted into hospital protocols; however, additional improvements to these devices remain necessary before their clinical deployment.

    COVID-19: Role of the Interferons

    Authors: Claudio G. Gallo; Sirio Fiorino; Giovanni Posabella; Donato Antonacci; Antonio Tropeano; Emanuele Pausini; Carlotta Pausini; Tommaso Guarniero; Marco Zancanaro

    id:202008.0018/v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: Preprints.org

    COVID-19 disease MESHD, caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus, is a potentially fatal disease MESHD that represents a serious public health and economic problem worldwide. The SARS-CoV2 virus infects the lower respiratory tract and can cause pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in humans. ARDS is the leading cause of death MESHD in COVID-19 disease MESHD. One of the main characteristics of ARDS is the cytokine storm, an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response resulting from the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and growth factors, by immune cells. The other important aspect of the disease MESHD is represented by the involvement of the vascular organ that undergoes endothelitis. Hyperinflammation and endothelitis contribute in various ways to trigger coagulation disorders with diffuse micro thrombotic and thromboembolic phenomena. Lastly, multiple organ failure MESHD may occur (MOF). Since so far there is no approved treatment, there is an urgent need to reposition known treatments, considered safe, to be included in trials. Naturally produced interferons represent the body's first line of defense against viruses. Pharmacological forms, obtained by means of genetic recombination techniques, have long been approved and used to treat numerous pathologies. Interferons are divided into three families, within which some subfamilies are distinguishable. Only IFN-II comprises a single isoform which has completely different aspects and functions. The IFN I and III, however, each comprise different subfamilies (17 subfamilies the IFN-I and 4 subfamilies the IFN-III), share many aspects, representing the body's first antiviral response, but play different roles. The use of IFNs has been studied in two severe hCoV (Human Coronavirus) diseases MESHD, closely related to COVID-19 disease MESHD, such as SARS and MERS. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have been conducted, often in combination with other antivirals. The results have been controversial. The positive results in vitro and in experimental animals were often not replicable in humans. The possible positioning of these molecules in the right window of therapeutic opportunity requires that the complex dialogue between IFN, inflammasome, cytokines, pro-inflammatory chemokines, growth factors and barrier function be shed light.

    Rapid Inactivation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by Tungsten Trioxide-Based (WO3) Photocatalysis

    Authors: Silvia Ghezzi; Isabel Pagani; Guido Poli; Stefano Perboni; Elisa Vicenzi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.232199 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), is transmitted person-to-person via respiratory droplets and, likely, via smaller droplet nuclei light enough to remain suspended in the air for hours and contaminate surfaces particularly in indoor conditions. Thus, effective measures are needed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS in indoor environments. In this regard, we have investigated whether a system based on a filter combining Tungsten Trioxide-Based (WO3) photocatalysis and an antiviral fabric treated-copper nanocluster could inactivate SARS-CoV-2. To this purpose, an infectious SARS-CoV-2 suspension was introduced in the upper opening of a closed cylinder containing a WO3 filter and a light-based system that activates WO3 and the antiviral fabric. From the bottom exit, aliquots of fluid were collected every 10 min (up to 60 min) and tested for their infectivity by means of a viral plaque assay in Vero cells whereas, in parallel, the viral RNA content was measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR). As we have previously shown for SARS-CoV, a 1:1,000 ratio of plaque forming units (PFU) vs. viral RNA copies was observed also for SARS-CoV-2. After 10 min, the infectious viral content was already decreased by 98.2% reaching 100% inactivation after 30 min whereas the SARS-CoV-2 RNA load was decreased of 1.5 log10 after 30 min. Thus, in spite of only a partial decrease of viral RNA, SARS-CoV-2 infectivity was completely abolished by the WO3 photocatalysis system by 30 min. These results support the hypothesis that this system could be exploited to achieve SARS-CoV-2 inactivation in indoor environments.

    SARS-CoV-2 and Covid-19 Immunopathogenesis

    Authors: Antonio Luiz Boechat; Beatriz Pessoa; Carlos Soares; Cecília Barroso; David Vila; Emanuelly Barbosa; Isabela Seffair; João Victor Melo; Julia Becil; Maria Polyanna Rebouças; Natascha Rodrigues; Pedro Henrique Freitas; Rebeka Rocha; Thaise Rodrigues; Vanessa Ferreira; Rosmery Ubiera; Maria Cristina Dos-Santos

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0020.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: Preprints.org

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is now a global pandemic caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Unlike other known coronaviruses, such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2 reveals new clinical, immunological, and pathologic features. The lymphocyte depletion, macrophage and neutrophil hyperactivation, cytokine dysregulation, thrombophilia MESHD, delayed antiviral response, and immune exhaustion are key immunological findings linked to the clinical progression of this disease MESHD. Understanding and identifying the underlying immunological basis of COVID-19 is crucial to designing effective therapies. Here, we provide an overview of immunopathogenesis driven by SARS-CoV-2 after its interactions with the immune system.

    90 Days of COVID-19 Social Distancing and Its Impacts on Air Quality and Health in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Authors: Daniela Debone; Mariana da Costa; Simone Miraglia

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0022.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: Preprints.org

    The coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic caused by spreading rapidly a severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has imposed a unique situation for the humanity. Sao Paulo has reported 124,105 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 and 5,623 deaths MESHD up to June 14th, being considered the epicenter of the pandemic in Brazil and in South America. Due to the measures for social distancing, there was a drop in the air pollution concentration in Sao Paulo. Starting on March 16th, 2020, we broke 90 days of social distancing into 13 weeks and compared to an equivalent period in 2019. We investigated the air quality improvement during the quarantine period and compared the associated avoided deaths MESHD to COVID-19 burden deaths MESHD. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was the best indicator of air quality in the analyzed weeks, since its reduction reached 58 %. Our study showed that the 5,623 deaths MESHD occurred during the analyzed weeks of quarantine represents an economic health loss of US$ 10.5 billion. In opposite, we observed a significant air quality improvement due to pollutants concentrations’ reductions during the analyzed weeks. Considering PM10, PM2.5 and NO2, the decrease of concentration levels respectively avoided 78, 337 and 387 premature deaths MESHD and prevented up to US$ 1.5 billion on health costs. These results highlight the importance of continuing to enforce existing air pollution regulations and measures to protect human health both during and after COVID-19 pandemic.

    Impact of tocilizumab administration on mortality in severe COVID-19

    Authors: Andrew Tsai; Oumou Diawara; Ronald G Nahass; Luigi Brunetti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20114959 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic has placed a significant burden on hospitals and healthcare providers. The immune response to this disease MESHD is thought to lead to a cytokine storm, which contributes to the severity of illness. There is an urgent need to confirm whether the use of tocilizumab provides a benefit in individuals with COVID-19. Methods A single-center propensity-score matched cohort study, including all consecutive COVID-19 patients, admitted to the medical center who were either discharged from the medical center or expired between March 1, 2020, and May 5, 2020, was performed. Patients were stratified according to the receipt of tocilizumab for cytokine storm and matched to controls using propensity scores. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 132 patients were included in the matched dataset (tocilizumab=66; standard of care=66). Approximately 73% of the patients were male TRANS. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP (55%), diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (31%), and chronic pulmonary disease MESHD (15%) were the most common comorbidities present. There were 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the tocilizumab group and 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the standard of care group (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.465 - 2.151; p=1.00). Advanced age TRANS, history of myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP, dementia MESHD dementia HP, chronic pulmonary disease, heart MESHD failure, and malignancy were significantly more common in patients who died. Interpretation The current analysis does not support the use of tocilizumab for the management of cytokine storm in patients with COVID-19. Use of this therapeutic agent should be limited to the context of a clinical trial until more evidence is available.

    Repurposing of Approved Drugs with Potential to Interact with SARS-CoV-2 Receptor

    Authors: Abu Sajib

    id:202004.0369/v2 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: Preprints.org

    Respiratory transmission TRANS is the primary route of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD. Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the known receptor of SARS-CoV-2 surface spike glycoprotein for entry into human cells. A recent study reported absent to low expression of ACE2 in a variety of human lung epithelial cell samples. Three bioprojects (PRJEB4337, PRJNA270632 and PRJNA280600) invariably found abundant expression of ACE1 (a homolog of ACE2 and also known as ACE) in human lungs compared to very low expression of ACE2. In fact, ACE1 has a wider and more abundant tissue distribution compared to ACE2. Although it is not obvious from the primary sequence alignment of ACE1 and ACE2, comparison of X-ray crystallographic structures show striking similarities in the regions of the peptidase domains (PD) of these proteins, which is known (for ACE2) to interact with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Critical amino acids in ACE2 that mediate interaction with the viral spike protein are present and organized in the same order in the PD of ACE1. In silico analysis predicts comparable interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with ACE1 and ACE2. In addition, this study predicts from a list of 1263 already approved drugs that may interact with ACE2 and/or ACE1, potentially interfere with the entry of SARS-CoV-2 inside the host cells and alleviate the symptoms of Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19).

    Mathematical modeling of the transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 '' Evaluating the impact of isolation in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) and lockdown in Spain associated with protective measures on the epidemic of covid-19

    Authors: Hyun Mo Yang; Luis Pedro Lombardi Jr.; Fabio Fernandes Morato Castro; Ariana Campos Yang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165191 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (covid-19), with the fatality rate in elder (60 years old or more) being much higher than young (60 years old or less) patients, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Taking into account this age TRANS-dependent fatality rate, a mathematical model considering young and elder subpopulations was formulated based on the natural history of covid-19 to study the transmission TRANS of the SARS-CoV-2. This model can be applied to study the epidemiological scenario resulting from the adoption of isolation or lockdown in many countries to control the rapid propagation of covid-19. We chose as examples the isolation adopted in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in the early phase but not at the beginning of the epidemic, and the lockdown implemented in Spain when the number of severe covid-19 cases was increasing rapidly. Based on the data collected from Sa o Paulo State and Spain, the model parameters were evaluated and we obtained higher estimation for the basic reproduction number TRANS R0 TRANS (9.24 for Sao Paulo State, and 8 for Spain) compared to the currently accepted estimation of R0 TRANS around 3. The model allowed to explain the flattening of the epidemic curves by isolation in Sao Paulo State and lockdown in Spain when associated with the protective measures (face mask and social distancing) adopted by the population. However, a simplified mathematical model providing lower estimation for R0 TRANS did not explain the flattening of the epidemic curves. The implementation of the isolation in Sa o Paulo State before the rapidly increasing phase of the epidemic enlarged the period of the first wave of the epidemic and delayed its peak, which are the desirable results of isolation to avoid the overloading in the health care system.

    High rate of major drug-drug interactions of lopinavir-ritonavir for COVID-19 treatment

    Authors: Juan Macias; Ana Pinilla; Francisco A Lao-Dominguez; Anais Corma; Enrique Contreras-Macias; Alejandro Gonzalez-Serna; Antonio Gutierrez-Pizarraya; Marta Fernandez-Fuertes; Ramon Morillo-Verdugo; Marta Trigo; Luis M Real; Juan A Pineda

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165027 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    The impact of drug-drug interactions (DDI) between ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV-r) to treat patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and commonly used drugs in clinical practice is not well-known. Thus, we evaluated the rate and severity of DDI between LPV-r for COVID-19 treatment and concomitant medications. This was a cross-sectional study including all individuals diagnosed of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD treated with LPV-r and attended at a single center in Southern Spain (March 1st to April 30th, 2020). The frequency [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] of potential and major DDI were calculated. Overall, 469 patients were diagnosed of COVID-19, 125 (27%) of them were prescribed LPV-r. LPV-r had potential DDI with concomitant medications in 97 (78%, 95% CI: 69%-85%) patients, and in 33 (26%, 95% CI: 19%-35%) individuals showed major DDI. Twelve (36%) patients with major DDI and 14 (15%) individuals without major DDI died (p=0.010). After adjustment, only the Charlson index was independently associated with death MESHD [adjusted OR (95% CI) for Charlson index [≥]5: 85 (10-731), p <0.001]. LPV-r was discontinued due to side effects in 31 (25%) patients. Management by the Infectious Diseases MESHD Unit was associated with a lower likelihood of major DDI [adjusted odds ratio (95% CI): 0.14 (0.04-0.53), p=0.003). In conclusion, a high frequency of DDI between LPV-r for treating COVID-19 and concomitant medications was found, including major DDI. Patients with major DDI showed worse outcomes, but this association was explained by the older age TRANS and comorbidities. Patients managed by the Infectious Diseases MESHD Unit had lower risk of major DDI.

    Persistence of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in non-hospitalized COVID-19 convalescent health care workers

    Authors: Margherita Bruni; Valentina Cecatiello; Angelica Diaz-Basabe; Georgia Lattanzi; Erika Mileti; Silvia Monzani; Laura Pirovano; Francesca Rizzelli; Clara Visintin; Giuseppina Bonizzi; Marco Giani; Marialuisa Lavitrano; Silvia Faravelli; Federico Forneris; Flavio Caprioli; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci; Gioacchino Natoli; Sebastiano Pasqualato; Marina Mapelli; Federica Facciotti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164368 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Coronavirus disease MESHD-19 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel beta-coronavirus. Although antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 can be detected early during the infection MESHD, several outstanding questions remain to be addressed regarding magnitude and persistence of antibody SERO titer against different viral proteins and their correlation with the strength of the immune response, as measured by serum SERO levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Methods. An ELISA assay SERO has been developed by expressing and purifying the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD), Soluble Ectodomain (Spike), and full length nucleocapsid protein (N protein). Sera from healthcare workers affected by non-severe COVID-19 were longitudinally collected over four weeks, and compared to sera from patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICU) and SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects for the presence of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies SERO as well as soluble pro-inflammatory mediators in the sera. Results. Specificity and sensitivity SERO of the ELISA assays SERO were high for anti-RBD IgG and IgA (92-97%) and slightly lower for IgM and the Spike and N proteins (70-85%). The ELISA SERO allowed quantification of IgM, IgG and IgA antibody SERO responses against all the viral antigens tested and showed a correlation between magnitude of the antibody SERO response and disease MESHD severity. Non-hospitalized subjects showed lower antibody SERO titers and blood SERO pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles as compared to patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU), irrespective of the antibodies tested SERO. Noteworthy, in non-severe COVID-19 infections MESHD, antibody SERO titers against RBD and Spike, but not against the N protein, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased within a month after viral clearance. Conclusions. Rapid decline in antibody SERO titers and in pro-inflammatory cytokines may be a common feature of non-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, suggesting that antibody SERO-mediated protection against re- infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 is of short duration. These results suggest caution in use serological testing SERO to estimate the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the general population.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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