Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (118)

Pneumonia (112)

Hypertension (94)

Cough (90)

Fatigue (43)


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    General public Knowledge of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) at early stages of the pandemic: results of a random online survey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Authors: Ali Alqahtani; V Krishnaraju; Mona Alqarni; Mohammed Al-Sheikh Hassan

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    AbstractBackground: A novel coronavirus was identified at the end of 2019 in Wuhan City, China. Later, the World Health Organization (WHO) named the disease MESHD caused by the virus coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and declared a pandemic in March 2020. Saudi and global health agencies have provided various COVID-19 knowledge tools and facts to the general public. Therefore, this study aims to assess COVID-19 knowledge among the general public in Saudi Arabia at the early stages of the pandemic, including knowledge of prevention practices, home quarantine measures, and compliance with governmental restrictions.Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. The study included 1006 participants who responded to a random online COVID-19 public knowledge questionnaire that included five sections: demographic characteristics, general knowledge, prevention practices, home quarantine measures, and knowledge of governmental restrictions. Data were collected from a random sample recruited through the circulation of the questionnaire on social media platforms and were then analysed by descriptive statistical methods. Three levels of knowledge were established: excellent, intermediate, and poor. Differences in the percentages of participants with different knowledge levels by the demographic variables were analysed using the chi-square test.Results: Regarding overall general knowledge of COVID-19, 75%, 24%, and 1% of the participants had excellent, intermediate, and poor knowledge levels, respectively. Knowledge levels were significantly different by nationality and age TRANS (P=0.027 and 0.008, respectively). The majority of participants (98.4%) reported excellent knowledge of prevention practices, with no statistically significant differences among groups (P>0.005). Older age groups TRANS reported higher knowledge of home quarantine measures (86.6% and 86.4% of the 51-60 and older than 60 age groups TRANS, respectively, P=0.001). Approximately 50% of Saudis reported excellent knowledge of the restrictions imposed by the Saudi government to control the spread of COVID-19, while approximately 45% of non-Saudis had an excellent level of knowledge (P= 0.009).Conclusion and recommendations: High levels of knowledge about the virus, including prevention practices, are essential. The provision of COVID-19 facts and knowledge tools should be focused on younger generations to enhance compliance with the governmental restrictions required to stop the spread of COVID-19.

    An improved methodology for estimating the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Virag Patel; Catherine McCarthy; Rachel A Taylor; Ruth Moir; Louise A Kelly; Emma L Snary

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168187 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Since the identification of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China in December 2019, there have been more than 17 million cases of the disease MESHD in 216 countries worldwide. Comparisons of prevalence SERO estimates between different communities can inform policy decisions regarding safe travel TRANS between countries, help to assess when to implement (or remove) disease MESHD control measures and identify the risk of over-burdening healthcare providers. Estimating the true prevalence SERO can, however, be challenging because officially reported figures are likely to be significant underestimates of the true burden of COVID-19 within a community. Previous methods for estimating the prevalence SERO fail to incorporate differences between populations (such as younger populations having higher rates of asymptomatic TRANS cases) and so comparisons between, for example, countries, can be misleading. Here, we present an improved methodology for estimating COVID-19 prevalence SERO. We take the reported number of cases and deaths MESHD (together with population size) as raw prevalence SERO for the population. We then apply an age TRANS-adjustment to this which allows the age TRANS-distribution of that population to influence the case-fatality rate and the proportion of asymptomatic TRANS cases. Finally, we calculate the likely underreporting factor for the population and use this to adjust our prevalence SERO estimate further. We use our method to estimate the prevalence SERO for 166 countries (or the states of the United States of America, hereafter referred to as US state) where sufficient data were available. Our estimates show that as of the 30th July 2020, the top three countries with the highest estimated prevalence SERO are Brazil (1.26%, 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.37), Kyrgyzstan (1.10%, 95% CI: 0.82 - 1.19) and Suriname (0.58%, 95% CI: 0.44 - 0.63). Brazil is predicted to have the largest proportion of all the current global cases (30.41%, 95%CI: 27.52 - 30.84), followed by the USA (14.52%, 95%CI: 14.26 - 16.34) and India (11.23%, 95%CI: 11.11 - 11.24). Amongst the US states, the highest prevalence SERO is predicted to be in Louisiana (1.07%, 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.12), Florida (0.90%, 95% CI: 0.86 - 0.94) and Mississippi (0.77%, 95% CI: 0.74 - 0.81) whereas amongst European countries, the highest prevalence SERO is predicted to be in Montenegro (0.47%, 95% CI: 0.42 - 0.50), Kosovo (0.35%, 95% CI: 0.29 - 0.37) and Moldova (0.28%, 95% CI: 0.23 - 0.30). Our results suggest that Kyrgyzstan (0.04 tests per predicted case), Brazil (0.04 tests per predicted case) and Suriname (0.29 tests per predicted case) have the highest underreporting out of the countries in the top 25 prevalence SERO. In comparison, Israel (34.19 tests per predicted case), Bahrain (19.82 per predicted case) and Palestine (9.81 tests per predicted case) have the least underreporting. The results of this study may be used to understand the risk between different geographical areas and highlight regions where the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 is increasing most rapidly. The method described is quick and easy to implement. Prevalence SERO estimates should be updated on a regular basis to allow for rapid fluctuations in disease MESHD patterns.

    IFN signaling and neutrophil degranulation transcriptional signatures are induced during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Bruce A. Rosa; Mushtaq Ahmed; Dhiraj K. Singh; Jose Alberto Choreno-Parra; Journey Cole; Luis Armando Jimenez-Alvarez; Tatiana Sofia Rodriguez-Reyna; Bindu Singh; Olga Golzalez; Ricardo Carrion; Larry S. Schlesinger; John Martin; Joaquin Zuniga; Makedonka Mitreva; Shabaana A Khader; Deepak Kaushal

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.239798 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: bioRxiv

    The novel virus SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 14 million people worldwide resulting in the Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Limited information on the underlying immune mechanisms that drive disease MESHD or protection during COVID-19 severely hamper development of therapeutics and vaccines. Thus, the establishment of relevant animal models that mimic the pathobiology of the disease MESHD is urgent. Rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibit disease MESHD pathobiology similar to human COVID-19, thus serving as a relevant animal model. In the current study, we have characterized the transcriptional signatures induced in the lungs of juvenile and old rhesus macaques following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. We show that genes associated with Interferon (IFN) signaling, neutrophil degranulation and innate immune pathways are significantly induced in macaque infected lungs, while pathways associated with collagen formation are downregulated. In COVID-19, increasing age TRANS is a significant risk factor for poor prognosis and increased mortality. We demonstrate that Type I IFN and Notch signaling pathways are significantly upregulated in lungs of juvenile infected macaques when compared with old infected macaques. These results are corroborated with increased peripheral neutrophil counts and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio in older individuals with COVID-19 disease MESHD. In contrast, pathways involving VEGF are downregulated in lungs of old infected macaques. Using samples from humans with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and COVID-19, we validate a subset of our findings. Finally, neutrophil degranulation, innate immune system and IFN gamma signaling pathways are upregulated in both tuberculosis MESHD and COVID-19, two pulmonary diseases MESHD where neutrophils are associated with increased severity. Together, our transcriptomic studies have delineated disease MESHD pathways to improve our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 to facilitate the design of new therapeutics for COVID-19.

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

    Early clinical characteristics of Covid-19: scoping review

    Authors: Lakshmi Manoharan; Jonathan W S Cattrall; Carlyn Harris; Katherine Newell; Blake Thomson; Mark G Pritchard; Peter G Bannister; Louise Sigfrid; Tom Solomon; Peter W Horby; Gail Carson; Piero L Olliaro

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165738 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT Background: The Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (covid-19) pandemic has spread rapidly across the globe. Accurate clinical characterisation studies are essential to informing research, diagnosis and clinical management efforts, particularly early in a pandemic. In this scoping review we identify the clinical characteristics of patients admitted to hospital in the early months of the pandemic, focusing on symptoms, laboratory and imaging findings, and clinical outcomes. Methods: A scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Global Health databases were searched studies published from January 1st 2020 to April 28th 2020. Studies which reported on at least 100 hospitalised patients with covid-19 of any age TRANS were included. Results: Of 1,249 studies identified through the search 78 studies were eligible for inclusion; one randomized control trial and 77 observational studies presenting data on 77,443 patients admitted with covid-19. Most studies were conducted in China (82%), 9% in the US and 10% in Europe and two studies were set in more than one country. No studies included patients from low and middle income countries. Coagulopathy was underrecognised as a complication in the early months of the pandemic. Use of corticosteroids varied widely, and the use of anticoagulants was reported in only one study. Fever MESHD Fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP and dyspnoea are less common in older adults TRANS; gastrointestinal symptoms, as the only presenting feature may be underrecognised. The most common laboratory finding was lymphocytopenia. Inflammatory biomarkers were commonly elevated, including C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. Typical computed tomography findings include bilateral infiltrates however imaging may be normal in early disease MESHD. Data on clinical characteristics in children TRANS and vulnerable populations were limited. Conclusions: Clinical characterisation studies from early in the pandemic indicated that covid-19 is a multisystem disease MESHD, with biomarkers indicating inflammation MESHD and coagulopathy. However, early data collection on symptoms and clinical outcomes did not consistently reflect this wide spectrum. Corticosteroid use varied widely, and anticoagulants were rarely used. Clinicians should remain vigilant to the possibility of covid-19 in patients presenting without fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP and dyspnoea, particularly in older adults TRANS. Further characterisation studies in different at-risk populations is needed. Review registration: Available at Keywords: Covid-19, clinical characteristics, symptoms, biochemical parameters, imaging, outcomes, pandemic research

    Risk of hospitalisation with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 in healthcare workers and their households:a nationwide linkage cohort study

    Authors: Anoop SV Shah; Rachael Wood; Ciara Gribben; David Caldwell; Jennifer Bishop; Amanda Weir; Sharon Kennedy; Martin Reid; Alison Smith-Palmer; David Goldberg; Jim McMenamin; Colin Fischbacher; Chris Robertson; Sharon Hutchinson; Paul M McKeigue; Helen M Colhoun; David McAllister

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20164897 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Many healthcare staff work in high-risk settings for contracting and transmitting Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2. Their risk of hospitalisation for coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), and that of their households, is poorly understood. Design and settings and participants: During the peak period for COVID-19 infection MESHD in Scotland (1st March 2020 to 6th June 2020) we conducted a national record linkage study to compare the risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation among healthcare workers ( age TRANS: 18-65 years), their households and other members of the general population. Main outcome: Hospitalisation with COVID-19 Results: The cohort comprised 158,445 healthcare workers, the majority being patient facing (90,733 / 158,445; 57.3%), and 229,905 household members. Of all COVID-19 hospitalisations in the working age TRANS population (18-65-year-old), 17.2% (360 / 2,097) were in healthcare workers or their households. Adjusting for age TRANS, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic deprivation and comorbidity, the risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation in non-patient facing healthcare workers and their households was similar to the risk in the general population (hazards ratio [HR] 0.81; 95%CI 0.52-1.26 and 0.86; 95%CI 0.49-1.51 respectively). In models adjusting for the same covariates however, patient facing healthcare workers, compared to non-patient facing healthcare workers, were at higher risk (HR 3.30; 95%CI 2.13-5.13); so too were household members of patient facing healthcare workers (HR 1.79; 95%CI 1.10-2.91). On sub-dividing patient-facing healthcare workers into those who worked in front-door, intensive care and non-intensive care aerosol generating settings and other, those in front door roles were at higher risk (HR 2.09; 95%CI 1.49-2.94). For most patient facing healthcare workers and their households, the estimated absolute risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation was less than 0.5% but was 1% and above in older men with comorbidity. Conclusions: Healthcare workers and their households contribute a sixth of hospitalised COVID-19 cases. Whilst the absolute risk of hospitalisation was low overall, patient facing healthcare workers and their households had 3- and 2-fold increased risks of COVID-19 hospitalisation.

    Characteristics of COVID-19 fatality cases in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Authors: Swandari Paramita; Ronny Isnuwardana; Krispinus Duma; Rahmat Bakhtiar; Muhammad Khairul Nuryanto; Riries Choiru Pramulia Yudia; Evi Fitriany; Meiliati Aminyoto

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166470 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction. Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. On March 2, 2020, Indonesia announced the first confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 infection MESHD. East Kalimantan will play an important role as the new capital of Indonesia. There is attention to the preparedness of East Kalimantan to respond to COVID-19. We report the characteristics of COVID-19 fatality cases in here. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the fatality cases of COVID-19 patients from the East Kalimantan Health Office information system. All patients were confirmed COVID-19 by RT-PCR examination. Results. By July 31, 2020, 31 fatality cases of patients had been identified as having confirmed COVID-19 in East Kalimantan. The mean age TRANS of the patients was 55.1 + 9.2 years. Most of the patients were men (22 [71.0%]) with age TRANS more than 60 years old (14 [45.2%]). Balikpapan has the highest number of COVID-19 fatality cases from all regencies. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP was the most comorbidities in the fatality cases of COVID-19 patients in East Kalimantan. Discussion. Older age TRANS and comorbidities still contributed to the fatality cases of COVID-19 patients in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP, diabetes, cardiovascular disease MESHD, and cerebrovascular disease MESHD were underlying conditions for increasing the risk of COVID-19 getting into a serious condition. Conclusion. Active surveillance for people older than 60 years old and having underlying diseases MESHD is needed for reducing the case fatality rate of COVID-19 in East Kalimantan. Keywords. Comorbidity, fatality cases, COVID-19, Indonesia.

    Ethnic minority groups in England and Wales - factors affecting the size and timing of elevated COVID-19 mortality: a retrospective cohort study linking Census and death MESHD records

    Authors: Daniel Ayoubkhani; Vahe Nafilyan; Chris White; Peter Goldblatt; Charlotte Gaughan; Louisa Blackwell; Nicky Rogers; Amitava Banerjee; Kamlesh Khunti; Myer Glickman; Ben Humberstone; Ian Diamond

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20167122 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To estimate population-level associations between ethnicity and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, and to investigate how ethnicity-specific mortality risk evolved over the course of the pandemic. Design: Retrospective cohort study using linked administrative data. Setting: England and Wales, deaths MESHD occurring 2 March to 15 May 2020. Participants: Respondents to the 2011 Census of England and Wales aged TRANS [≤]100 years and enumerated in private households, linked to death MESHD registrations and adjusted to account for emigration before the outcome period, who were alive on 1 March 2020 (n=47,872,412). Main outcome measure: Death MESHD related to COVID-19, registered by 29 May 2020. Statistical methods: We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for ethnic minority groups compared with the White population using Cox regression models, controlling for geographical, demographic, socio-economic, occupational, and self-reported health factors. HRs were estimated on the full outcome period and separately for pre- and post-lockdown periods in the UK. Results: In the age TRANS-adjusted models, people from all ethnic minority groups were at elevated risk of COVID-19 mortality; the HRs for Black males TRANS and females TRANS were 3.13 [95% confidence interval: 2.93 to 3.34] and 2.40 [2.20 to 2.61] respectively. However, in the fully adjusted model for females TRANS, the HRs were close to unity for all ethnic groups except Black (1.29 [1.18 to 1.42]). For males TRANS, COVID-19 mortality risk remained elevated for the Black (1.76 [1.63 to 1.90]), Bangladeshi/Pakistani (1.35 [1.21 to 1.49]) and Indian (1.30 [1.19 to 1.43]) groups. The HRs decreased after lockdown for all ethnic groups, particularly Black and Bangladeshi/Pakistani females TRANS. Conclusions: Differences in COVID-19 mortality between ethnic groups were largely attenuated by geographical and socio-economic factors, although some residual differences remained. Lockdown was associated with reductions in excess mortality risk in ethnic minority populations, which has major implications for a second wave of infection MESHD or local spikes. Further research is needed to understand the causal mechanisms underpinning observed differences in COVID-19 mortality between ethnic groups.

    Malawi at the crossroads: Does the fear of contracting COVID-19 affect the propensity to vote?

    Authors: Gowokani Chijere Chirwa; Boniface Dulani; Lonjezo Sithole; Joseph J. Chunga; Witness Alfonso; John Tengatenga

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    The new coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) has disrupted ways of life, including political processes. In this paper, we assess the effect of own perceived risk of catching COVID-19 on willingness to vote. The paper draws from a nationally representative survey of adult TRANS Malawians (n=1155). Our main method used instrumental variables to account for potential endogeneity. Findings show that 63% of Malawians thought that they are likely to catch COVID-19. Notwithstanding the COVID19 risk, 86% were willing to vote. The regression analysis suggests that an individual’s perceived risk of catching COVID-19 is associated with lower likelihood of voting (β=-0.096; p<0.05). The results suggest that voter turnout in Malawi’s fresh presidential election may have been highly affected by the perceived risk of catching COVID-19. The policy implication is that instituting and enforcing primary preventive measures may help reduce the perceived risk of catching COVID19 and mitigate voter apathy HP.

    Assessment of a Laboratory-Based SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO Test Among Hemodialysis Patients: A Quality Improvement Initiative

    Authors: Dena E Cohen; Gilbert Marlowe; Gabriel Contreras; Marie Ann Sosa; Jair Munoz Mendoza; Oliver Lenz; Zain Mithani; Pura Margarita Teixeiro; Nery Queija; Araceli Moneda; Jean S Jeanty; Katherine Swanzy; Misha Palecek; Mahesh Krishnan; Jeffery Giullian; Steven M Brunelli

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20163642 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Introduction: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID -19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS -CoV -2) infection MESHD. Although tests to detect anti - SARS -CoV-2 antibodies SERO have been developed, their sensitivity SERO and specificity in hemodialysis patients have not been previously assessed. Methods: As part of a quality improvement (QI) initiative, nasopharyngeal swabs and predialysis blood SERO samples were collected on the same day from adult TRANS patients receiving routine hemodialysis care at clinics managed by a large dialysis organization in the greater Miami, Florida region (23 - 30 Apr 2020). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for SARS -CoV -2 and chemiluminescence immunoassays SERO for anti -SARS -CoV2 antibodies SERO were performed according to manufacturer-specified protocols. Results: Of 715 participants in the QI initiative, 38 had symptomatology consistent with COVID -19 prior to or during the initiative. Among these, COVID -19 was PCR -confirmed in 14 and ruled out in 20, with the remaining 4 being inconclusive. Among the 34 patients with known COVID -19 status, the sensitivity SERO and specificity of the antibody test SERO were 57.1% and 85.0% when either antibody SERO was considered. The remaining 677 patients had no record of symptoms consistent with COVID -19, nor any known exposure. Of these, 38 patients (5.6%) tested positive for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Conclusions: The operational characteristics of the laboratory-based antibody test SERO make it sufficient to rule in, but not rule out, SARS -CoV -2 infection MESHD in the appropriate clinical circumstance. A substantial proportion of dialysis patients may have had asymptomatic TRANS SARS -CoV -2 infection MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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