Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Serology assessment of antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19 by rapid IgM/IgG antibody test SERO

    Authors: Yang De Marinis; Torgny Sunnerhagen; Pradeep Bompada; Anna Blackberg; Runtao Yang; Joel Svensson; Ola Ekstrom; Karl-Fredrik Eriksson; Ola Hansson; Leif Groop; Isabel Goncalves; Magnus Rasmussen

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168815 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a global health- and economic crisis. Lifting confinement restriction and resuming to normality depends greatly on COVID-19 immunity screening. Detection of antibodies SERO to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes COVID-19 by serological methods is important to diagnose a current or resolved infection MESHD. In this study, we applied a rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG antibody test SERO and performed serology assessment of antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2. In PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients (n=45), the total antibody SERO detection rate is 92% in hospitalized patients and 79% in non-hospitalized patients. We also studied antibody SERO response in relation to time after symptom onset TRANS and disease MESHD severity, and observed an increase in antibody SERO reactivity and distinct distribution patterns of IgM and IgG following disease progression MESHD. The total IgM and IgG detection is 63% in patients with < 2 weeks from disease MESHD onset; 85% in non-hospitalized patients with > 2 weeks disease MESHD duration; and 91% in hospitalized patients with > 2 weeks disease MESHD duration. We also compared different blood SERO sample types and suggest a potentially higher sensitivity SERO by serum SERO/ plasma SERO comparing with whole blood SERO measurement. To study the specificity of the test, we used 69 sera/ plasma SERO samples collected between 2016-2018 prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and obtained a test specificity of 97%. In summary, our study provides a comprehensive validation of the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG serology test, and mapped antibody SERO detection patterns in association with disease MESHD progress and hospitalization. Our study supports that the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG test may be applied to assess the COVID-19 status both at the individual and at a population level.

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

    Assessment of a Laboratory-Based SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO Test Among Hemodialysis Patients: A Quality Improvement Initiative

    Authors: Dena E Cohen; Gilbert Marlowe; Gabriel Contreras; Marie Ann Sosa; Jair Munoz Mendoza; Oliver Lenz; Zain Mithani; Pura Margarita Teixeiro; Nery Queija; Araceli Moneda; Jean S Jeanty; Katherine Swanzy; Misha Palecek; Mahesh Krishnan; Jeffery Giullian; Steven M Brunelli

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20163642 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Introduction: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID -19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS -CoV -2) infection MESHD. Although tests to detect anti - SARS -CoV-2 antibodies SERO have been developed, their sensitivity SERO and specificity in hemodialysis patients have not been previously assessed. Methods: As part of a quality improvement (QI) initiative, nasopharyngeal swabs and predialysis blood SERO samples were collected on the same day from adult TRANS patients receiving routine hemodialysis care at clinics managed by a large dialysis organization in the greater Miami, Florida region (23 - 30 Apr 2020). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for SARS -CoV -2 and chemiluminescence immunoassays SERO for anti -SARS -CoV2 antibodies SERO were performed according to manufacturer-specified protocols. Results: Of 715 participants in the QI initiative, 38 had symptomatology consistent with COVID -19 prior to or during the initiative. Among these, COVID -19 was PCR -confirmed in 14 and ruled out in 20, with the remaining 4 being inconclusive. Among the 34 patients with known COVID -19 status, the sensitivity SERO and specificity of the antibody test SERO were 57.1% and 85.0% when either antibody SERO was considered. The remaining 677 patients had no record of symptoms consistent with COVID -19, nor any known exposure. Of these, 38 patients (5.6%) tested positive for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Conclusions: The operational characteristics of the laboratory-based antibody test SERO make it sufficient to rule in, but not rule out, SARS -CoV -2 infection MESHD in the appropriate clinical circumstance. A substantial proportion of dialysis patients may have had asymptomatic TRANS SARS -CoV -2 infection MESHD.

    Clinical Utility of a Highly Sensitive Lateral Flow Immunoassay SERO as determined by Titer Analysis for the Detection of anti- SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO at the Point-of-Care

    Authors: Amanda Haymond; Claudius Mueller; Hannah Steinberg; K. Alex Hodge; Caitlin W Lehman; Shih-Chao Lin; Lucia Collini; Heather Branscome; Tuong Vi Nguyen; Sally Rucker; Lauren Panny; Rafaela Flor; Raouf Guirguis; Richard Hoefer; Giovanni Lorenzin; Emanuel Petricoin; Fatah Kashanchi; Kylene Kehn-Hall; Paolo Lanzafame; Lance Liotta; Alessandra Luchini

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20163824 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), became a pandemic in early 2020. Lateral flow immunoassays SERO for antibody testing SERO have been viewed as a cheap and rapidly deployable method for determining previous infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2; however, these assays have shown unacceptably low sensitivity SERO. We report on nine lateral flow immunoassays SERO currently available and compare their titer sensitivity SERO in serum SERO to a best-practice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) and viral neutralization assay. For a small group of PCR-positive, we found two lateral flow immunoassay SERO devices with titer sensitivity SERO roughly equal to the ELISA SERO; these devices were positive for all PCR-positive patients harboring SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies SERO. One of these devices was deployed in Northern Italy to test its sensitivity SERO and specificity in a real-world clinical setting. Using the device with fingerstick blood SERO on a cohort of 27 hospitalized PCR-positive patients and seven hospitalized controls, ROC curve analysis gave AUC values of 0.7646 for IgG. For comparison, this assay was also tested with saliva from the same patient population and showed reduced discrimination between cases and controls with AUC values of 0.6841 for IgG. Furthermore, during viral neutralization testing, one patient was discovered to harbor autoantibodies to ACE2, with implications for how immune responses are profiled. We show here through a proof-of-concept study that these lateral flow devices can be as analytically sensitive as ELISAs SERO and adopted into hospital protocols; however, additional improvements to these devices remain necessary before their clinical deployment.

    Persistence of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in non-hospitalized COVID-19 convalescent health care workers

    Authors: Margherita Bruni; Valentina Cecatiello; Angelica Diaz-Basabe; Georgia Lattanzi; Erika Mileti; Silvia Monzani; Laura Pirovano; Francesca Rizzelli; Clara Visintin; Giuseppina Bonizzi; Marco Giani; Marialuisa Lavitrano; Silvia Faravelli; Federico Forneris; Flavio Caprioli; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci; Gioacchino Natoli; Sebastiano Pasqualato; Marina Mapelli; Federica Facciotti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164368 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Coronavirus disease MESHD-19 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel beta-coronavirus. Although antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 can be detected early during the infection MESHD, several outstanding questions remain to be addressed regarding magnitude and persistence of antibody SERO titer against different viral proteins and their correlation with the strength of the immune response, as measured by serum SERO levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Methods. An ELISA assay SERO has been developed by expressing and purifying the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD), Soluble Ectodomain (Spike), and full length nucleocapsid protein (N protein). Sera from healthcare workers affected by non-severe COVID-19 were longitudinally collected over four weeks, and compared to sera from patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICU) and SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects for the presence of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies SERO as well as soluble pro-inflammatory mediators in the sera. Results. Specificity and sensitivity SERO of the ELISA assays SERO were high for anti-RBD IgG and IgA (92-97%) and slightly lower for IgM and the Spike and N proteins (70-85%). The ELISA SERO allowed quantification of IgM, IgG and IgA antibody SERO responses against all the viral antigens tested and showed a correlation between magnitude of the antibody SERO response and disease MESHD severity. Non-hospitalized subjects showed lower antibody SERO titers and blood SERO pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles as compared to patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU), irrespective of the antibodies tested SERO. Noteworthy, in non-severe COVID-19 infections MESHD, antibody SERO titers against RBD and Spike, but not against the N protein, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased within a month after viral clearance. Conclusions. Rapid decline in antibody SERO titers and in pro-inflammatory cytokines may be a common feature of non-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, suggesting that antibody SERO-mediated protection against re- infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 is of short duration. These results suggest caution in use serological testing SERO to estimate the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the general population.

    Longitudinal COVID-19 Surveillance and Characterization in the Workplace with Public Health and Diagnostic Endpoints

    Authors: Manjula Gunawardana; Jessica Breslin; John M Cortez; Sofia Rivera; Simon Webster; F Javier Ibarrondo; Otto O Yang; Richard B Pyles; Christina M Ramirez; Amy P Adler; Peter A Anton; Marc M Baum

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.20160812 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the associated coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) have precipitated a global pandemic heavily challenging our social behavior, economy, and healthcare infrastructure. Public health practices currently represent the primary interventions for managing the spread of the pandemic. We hypothesized that frequent, longitudinal workplace disease MESHD surveillance would represent an effective approach to controlling SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS among employees and their household members, reducing potential economic consequences and loss of productivity of standard isolation methods, while providing new insights into viral-host dynamics. Methodology and Findings On March 23, 2020 a clinical study (OCIS-05) was initiated at a small Southern California organization. Results from the first 3 months of the ongoing study are presented here. Study participants (27 employees and 27 household members) consented to provide frequent nasal or oral swab samples that were analyzed by RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using CDC protocols. Only participants testing negative were allowed to enter the "safe zone" workplace facility. Optional blood SERO samples were collected at baseline and throughout the 3-month study. Serum SERO virus-specific antibody SERO concentrations (IgG, IgM, and IgA) were measured using a selective, sensitive, and quantitative ELISA assay SERO developed in house. A COVID-19 infection MESHD model, based on traditional SEIR compartmental models combined with Bayesian non-linear mixed models and modern machine learning, was used to predict the number of employees and household members who would have become infected in the absence of workplace surveillance. Two study participants were found to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the study. One subject, a household member, tested positive clinically by RT-qPCR prior to enrollment and experienced typical COVID-19 symptoms that did not require hospitalization. While on study, the participant was SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive for at least 71 days and had elevated virus-specific antibody SERO concentrations (medians: IgM, 9.83 ug mL-1; IgG, 11.5 ug mL-1; IgA, 1.29 ug mL-1) in serum samples SERO collected at three timepoints. A single, unrelated employee became positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA over the course of the study, but remained asymptomatic TRANS with low associated viral RNA copy numbers. The participant did not have detectable serum SERO IgM and IgG concentrations, and IgA concentrations decayed rapidly (half-life: 1.3 d). The employee was not allowed entry to the safe zone workplace until testing negative three consecutive times over 7 d. No other employees or household members contracted COVID-19 over the course of the study. Our model predicted that under the current prevalence SERO in Los Angeles County without surveillance intervention, up to 7 employees (95% CI = 3-10) would have become infected with at most 1 of them requiring hospitalizations and 0 deaths MESHD. Conclusions Our clinical study met its primary objectives by using intense longitudinal testing to provide a safe work environment during the COVID-19 pandemic, and elucidating SARS-CoV-2 dynamics in recovering and asymptomatic TRANS participants. The surveillance plan outlined here is scalable and transferrable. The study represents a powerful example on how an innovative public health initiative can be dovetailed with scientific discovery.

    Low Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in Rhode Island Blood SERO Donors Determined using Multiple Serological Assay SERO Formats

    Authors: Daniel J Nesbitt; Daniel Jin; Joseph W Hogan; Philip A Chan; Melissa J Simon; Matthew Vargas; Ewa King; Richard C Huard; Utpala Bandy; Christopher D Hillyer; Larry L Luchsinger

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20157743 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Epidemic projections and public health policies addressing Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID)-19 have been implemented without data reporting on the seroconversion of the population since scalable antibody testing SERO has only recently become available. We measured the percentage of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD- Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) seropositive individuals from 2,008 blood SERO donors drawn in the state of Rhode Island (RI). We utilized multiple antibody testing SERO platforms, including lateral flow immunoassays SERO (LFAs), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays SERO ( ELISAs SERO) and high throughput serological assays SERO (HTSAs). We report than an estimated seropositive rate of RI blood SERO donors of approximately 0.6% existed in April-May of 2020. These data imply that seroconversion, and thus infection MESHD, is likely not widespread within this population. Daily new case rates peaked in RI in late April 2020. We conclude that IgG LFAs and HTSAs are suitable to conduct seroprevalence SERO assays in random populations. More studies will be needed using validated serological tests SERO to improve the precision and report the kinetic progression of seroprevalence SERO estimates.

    Serial Profiling of SARS-CoV-2 Antigens and Antibodies SERO in COVID-19 Patient Plasma SERO

    Authors: Alana F Ogata; Adam M Maley; Connie Wu; Tal Gilboa; Maia Norman; Roey Lazarovits; Chih-Ping Mao; Gail Newton; Matthew Chang; Katrina Nguyen; Maliwan Kamkaew; Quan Zhu; Travis E Gibson; Edward Ryan; Richelle Charles; Wayne A Marasco; David R Walt

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20156372 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people worldwide. PCR tests are currently the gold standard for diagnosis of the current coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) and serology tests are used to detect seroconversion in infected patients. However, there is a lack of quantitative and ultra-sensitive viral antigen tests for COVID-19. Here we show that Single Molecule Array (Simoa) assays can quantitatively detect SARS-CoV-2 spike, S1 subunit, and nucleocapsid antigens in the plasma SERO of COVID-19 patients. Combined with Simoa anti-SARS-CoV-2 serological assays SERO, we show correlation between production of antibodies SERO and clearance of viral antigens from serial plasma SERO samples from COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we demonstrate the presence of viral antigens in blood SERO correlates with disease MESHD severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. These data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens in the blood SERO could be a marker for severe COVID-19 cases.

    Development of a quantum-dot lateral flow immunoassay SERO strip based portable fluorescence smart-phone system for ultrasensitive detection of IgM/IgG to SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Bochao Liu; Jinfeng Li; Xi Tang; Ze Wu; Jinhui Lu; Chaolan Liang; Shuiping Hou; Ling Zhang; Tingting Li; Wei Zhao; Yongshui Fu; Yuebin Ke; Chengyao Li

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20159392 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Since December 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) has been occurred by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The rapid and sensitive immunoassays SERO are urgently demanded for detecting specific antibodies SERO as assistant diagnosis for primary screening of asymptomatic TRANS individuals, close contacts TRANS,suspected or recovered patients of COIVD-19 during the pandemic period. Methods: The recombinant receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-RBD) was used as the antigen to detect specific IgM and the mixture of recombinant nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (NP) and S-RBD were used to detect specific IgG by the newly designed quantum-dot lateral flow immunoassay SERO strip (QD-LFIA), respectively. Results: A rapid and sensitive QD-LFIA based portable fluorescence smart-phone system was developed for detecting specific IgM/IgG to SARS-CoV-2 from 100 serum samples SERO of COVID-19 patients and 450 plasma SERO samples from healthy blood SERO donors. Among 100 COVID-19 patients diagnosed with NAT previously, 3 were severe, 35 mild and 62 recovered cases. By using QD-LFIA, 78 (78%) and 99 (99%) samples from 100 COVID-19 patients serum SERO were detected positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM or IgG, respectively, but only one sample (0.22%) was cross-reactive with S-RBD from 450 healthy blood SERO donor plasmas SERO that were collected from different areas of China. Conclusion: An ultrasensitive and specific QD-LFIA based portable fluorescence smart-phone system was developed fo r detection of specific IgM and IgG to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, which could be used for investigating the prevalence SERO or assistant diagnosis of COVID-19 in humans.

    SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey in Health Care Workers of the Veneto Region

    Authors: Mario Plebani; Andrea Padoan; Ugo Fedeli; Elena Schievano; Elena Vecchiato; Giuseppe Lippi; Giuliana Lo Cascio; Stefano Porru; Giorgio Palu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20160457 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses formidable challenges to all health care systems. Serological assays SERO may improve disease MESHD management when appropriately used, for better understanding the antibody SERO responses mounted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and for assessing its real prevalence SERO. Although testing the whole population is impratical, well-designed serosurveys in selected subpopulations in specific risk groups may provide valuable information. Aim: we evaluated the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in health care workers who underwent molecular testing with reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in the main hospitals of the Veneto Region by measuring specific antibodies SERO (Abs). Methods: both IgM and IgG antibodies SERO against SARS-Cov-2 S-antigen and N-protein were measured using a validated chemiluminescent analytical system (CLIA) called Maglumi 2000 Plus (New Industries Biomedical EngineeringCo., Ltd [Snibe], Shenzhen, China) Results: A total of 8285 health care workers were tested. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies SERO (IgM, IgG or both) were detectable in 378 cases (4.6%, 95% CI 4.1-5.0%). Seroconversion was observed in 4.4% women and 5% men, but the difference was not significant. Although detectable antibodies SERO were found in all severe COVID-19 patients (100%), lower seropositivity was found in mild disease MESHD (83%) and the lowest prevalence SERO (58%) was observed in asymptomatic TRANS subjects. Conclusion: Seroprevalence SERO surveys are of utmost importance for understanding the rate of population that has already developed antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. The present study has the statistical power to define precisely the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of health workers in our region, with its prevalence SERO (4.6%) reflecting a relatively low circulation. Symptomatic individuals or those hospitalized for medical care were 100% antibody SERO positive, whilst Abs were only detectable in 58% of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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